# All Questions

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363 views

### Did the Phantom F-4 contain "polychron" or other synthetic materials as a replacement for rubber circa 1969?

update: In order to make it easier to answer this question, use of "synthetic materials as a replacement for rubber circa 1969" in any aircraft might be good enough. Michael Crichton's 1969 ...
258 views

### Who is this flyer seen in Oakland c. 1929?

Looking for identification of the man on the left. Second from left is W.A. "Sandy" Sanders, third is Denny Wright, and fourth is Clyde Sunderland. Oakland, around 1929.
302 views

### How are "charter" and "passenger" flights defined in the AIDX standard?

I'd like to know the difference between these flight types in the IATA AIDX standard; specifically, for use in fuel order notifications.
362 views

### Why does the flare mode of the A321neo engage 50 feet higher than the A321ceo?

Following is taken from the operating manual of A321neo: When passing 100 ft RA, the THS is frozen and the normal flight mode changes to flare mode as the aircraft descends to land. The flare mode is ...
279 views

### What equations and constants did they use to build the E6B flight computer?

E6B Flight computer: During my practice test, I tried to use the wikipedia provided equations to calculate Density Altitude and ended up with different results than the E6B. In this case, it looks ...
597 views

### How can I convert a frozen ATPL from South Africa to an Iranian one?

I have got a frozen ATPL license from South Africa and I'm from Iran. I came back home last year and I have converted my CPL/IR license to the Iranian piloting license by doing Air Law and Human ...
411 views

### Which US airport has the lowest circling MDH?

As I recently contemplated 14 CFR 135.223 and its implications, I began wondering about airports with exceptionally low circling minima. For a little context and background, the part of §135.223 that ...
199 views

### Engine Bearings Damage in Radial Engines

Studying the P47's dive performance in DCS, I noticed how it's easy to damage the engine bearings if you windmill the prop at high speed. Doing some research, I discovered that all radial engines are ...
110 views

### How to interpret flight schedule data from before 1987

I'm trying to interpret schedule data from before 1987 (see example). Example line: ...
153 views

### Boeing 737-800 Source Off Light and Flight Director Bias Out Of View Function

I have seen the following occur during simulator events. With a left Source Off light illuminated and the captain's autopilot and autothrottles engaged (or re-engaged): Captain's flight director ...
222 views

### Are airport emergency vehicles' sirens louder than normal?

So there I was this afternoon, sitting in my car waiting on my wife's flight to get in to Dulles Airport (IAD), in the cell phone parking lot. I was listening to some music on the radio when the ...
4k views

### What makes someone a 'Senior First Officer'?

Some airlines have a Senior First Officer rank. Apart from the title and (presumably) the pay, what makes them different from a regular First Officer? Do they have any differing duties or ...
119 views

### Why was the minimum turbulence intensity that commercial airliners have to withstand increased?

From 50 fps turbulence intensity at VC to 90-100 fps turbulence intensity at VC. The amended FAR design criteria was introduced in 1980 or 1981 for commercial airliners. What prompted this change?
249 views

### How did Soapy get to fly Hornets?

Allegedly, in early June 1983, while flying a Sea Harrier during a NATO exercise off the coast of Portugal, Royal Navy's Sub-Lieutenant Ian "Soapy" Watson found himself in a rather ...
137 views

### Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
776 views

### How does an aircraft's weight affect the V-n diagram?

I have a reasonable understanding of what a V-n diagram shows and what the envelope and the boundaries mean. However, the question I have is how does the weight of the aircraft specifically affect the ...
843 views

### Which photo more accurately represents Flaps 1 in a 737-800?

or A recent update in a sim craft changed the visuals from what I'm used to, but from my research it looks to be more realistic. This post clearly reflects the more extended option being more ...
127 views

### What rules exist that state what a competent authority do with a runaway drone?

In this AAIB accident investigation, published in 2021, a rather terrifying event is described in which a 3m long, 95 kg remote-control nearly-home-built drone is flown at speeds of up to 25 m/s below ...
382 views

### Aircraft with large, double orange lights at night

Question: I saw an aircraft flying over, about two hours after sunset with a pair of bright, large, constantly on, orange lights. I'm wondering what kind of aircraft this could have been. More details:...
299 views

### What is the "Dying Whale" sound of F-35C during pattern/terminal area operations?

I live near an airbase that just recently started operating F-35s. The variant is the F-35C Lightning II of the Marine Corps. During operations near the base there is a distinct sound that - for lack ...
170 views

### How often do talk-down landings go wrong?

There are some well documented stories of non-pilots successfully landing airplanes after the pilot was incapacitated. Usually this involves radio assistance by ATC and/or flight instructors. My ...
636 views

### In aircraft where the thrust reversers are not locked out when airborne, is it permissible to go around after reverser deployment?

In general, a go-around, in a jetliner, must either be performed before thrust reverser deployment, or not at all. This is because attempting a go-around after reverser deployment may result in loss ...
239 views

### What does the A340's underwing bulge (plastron) look like?

From Wikipedia: From the start, engineers noticed that the wings were not stiff enough to carry the outboard engines at cruising speed without warping and fluttering. To alleviate this, an ...
277 views

### Do constant maximum lift to drag ratio variable pitch propeller exist?

Are there variable pitch propellers, where pitch is set so that the blades constantly are at their maximum lift to drag ratio AoA, whatever the incoming relative wind speed & direction? Such a ...
364 views

### What is the difference in performance between variable pitch prop and two fixed propellers for take-off and cruise speeds?

Push-pull configuration aircrafts usually feature identical engines and propellers working only in tandem for multiple reasons like higher speed, better climb rate, reliability, cost, ease of ...
833 views

### Can a Greek EASA Part 66 License be converted to a German EASA Part 66 License?

I want to convert my Greece Part 66 license to a German Part 66 license. What procedure do I have to follow?
603 views

### What is this plane, based on its inside shape?

I'm not sure my question is valid here but would be very helpful to me. Here is the picture of the inside of a plane (don't mind the ostrich). Does anyone know which plane it is? The flight number ...
246 views

### How is the required motor power calculated for a quadcopter?

I've been trying to find the required motor power for a quadcopter. I first calculated drag power and then I made a linear trend line for motor power against motor weight. I made the motor power 1.5 ...
214 views

### Why is this G-AIRMET's valid time earlier than its issued time?

For this G-AIRMET map, why is the valid time earlier than the time it was issued?
675 views

### What job opportunities are there for low time pilots in Malaysia?

Does a new pilot who has just obtained ATPL license has job opportunities? When I search at pilot job offered on Internet, they mostly required more than 3,500+ flying hours. What I knew about those ...
242 views

### Was there more than one incident or accident where an Airbus FBW aircraft reverted to mechanical backup?

There was an accident Smartlynx A320 training flights MYX-9001 at Tallinn on Feb 28th 2018, where ELAC pitch control failed due to fault in the stabilizer actuator, and then both SECs failed due to ...
331 views

### Can pilots take multitools on board in Canada?

Can pilots in other countries or Canada carry Swiss army knives onboard on commercial flights? Passengers are not allowed to do that in Canada.
360 views

### Do Red Bull Air Race aircraft make use of nitrous oxide injection?

Microsoft Flight Simulator X contains Red Bull Air Race missions where the player flies an Extra 300S through a race course and makes use of Nitrous Oxide injection for the engine. While I have heard ...
185 views

### Who was the first person to break the sound barrier?

While watching this video on Wikipedia of Chuck Yeager breaking the sound barrier in the Bell X-1 in level flight, I noticed the narrator say: "For the first time, except in dive, a man has flown ...
133 views

### Anybody recognise the model of ADI on the XB-70?

Is this a model that was used on other aircrafts of the era, too? Looking for technical information about it and knowing the manufacturer and model number would make that easier. The Interim Flight ...
293 views

### Why hasn't there been a case of an airliner breaking apart and crashing due to turbulence in the past 40-50 years?

Most of the breakups involved clear air turbulence as well, the type that still can't be detected today. Examples like: Boeing 707 (BOAC Flight 911) - which crashed near Mt Fuji BAC One-Eleven ...
99 views

### Does a B777 have a control priority button?

There have been accidents where one pilot gets confused, panics, inappropriately pulls or pushes the control column, and the other pilot does not manage to get control from them and the aircraft ...
59 views

### Is there specific verbiage required to close out an engine logbook and start a new one?

The plane's engine logbook is now full, victim of decades of individual printed stickers, each one occupying a full page. As a result, we need to get an additional logbook. Is there specific phrasing ...
118 views

### Can we bring a rotorcraft like Ingenuity to an altitude of the same pressure as the one on Mars?

At Perseverance's and Ingenuity's location the atmospheric pressure is about 750 Pa (0.11 psi). On Earth, we find that pressure about 110,000 ft high. If we built a copy of Ingenuity, could we bring ...
57 views

### Can I revalidate my EASA PPL outside the EU in a non-EASA aircraft?

I'm trying to re-validate my EASA PPL licence, registered with the Hungarian CAA. I asked the CAA but I did not get a clear answer. I meet the criteria for re-validation based on experience, but it ...
148 views

### How do you control a 500mph model plane?

This video was posted as an answer to another question: The plane is quite hard to even see due to traveling at a high speed in a tight loop. Is it actually being ...
78 views

### How can a touchdown zone RVR report for one runway be different than the rollout report for the runway going the opposite direction?

I saw an RVR report in KSEA where 16C was 800 1200 1800 (touchdown zone, midpoint, rollout), and 34C was 1800 1200 300. I always thought the same scatterometers used for the rollout side on runway as ...
212 views

### Are instrument lights required for night VFR flight in an SLSA?

Our flying club is operating an SLSA that has all the exterior lights as required by FAR 91.205(c). But don't the instruments that are also required by 91.205(b) need lights as well?
74 views

### How can the 3M22 Zircon receive commands at high speeds?

According to its Wikipedia article, the scramjet-powered 3M22 Zircon missile is capable of achieving speeds of up to Mach 9, at which a plasma may be created around the missile. The article further ...
82 views

### Is it possible to create Interference Drag without physical surfaces conjoining?

Interference Drag is when boundary layers mix/combine, usually it's caused by pieces of metal conjoining (wing struts/gear retracting). Is it possible for interference drag to be created without ...
121 views

### what is "Shock on shock heating"?

Can anybody enlighten me on the nature and physics behind what is referred to as Shock on Shock heating. Both , "Hypersonic: The Story of the North American X-15 , Jenkins and Landis" and "Lessons ...
75 views

### How does the ADS-B signal transmission randomization work?

As the FAA mentions, the ADS-B messages like Identification, Position and Velocity are transmitted randomly uniquely between $04 \pm 02$ sec. How does the transmitter define that randomization? Is ...
161 views

### What does a Letter of Intent contain?

When operators purchase new aircraft it seems that a Letter of Intent is frequently the means by which this is done. What does such a Letter of intent usually contain? Bonus question: Would the ...