# All Questions

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### Why aren't 757 scimitar winglets flush with the ailerons?

Over my many past flights aboard 757s, I have seen changes being implemented with their design. One of which was notably their refit of scimitar winglets. Although one of their most notable ...
254 views

### Why does the P-3 Orion use an engine driven compressor instead of bleed air for pressurization?

In another question, an answer mentions that the P-3 Orion uses a gearbox driven compressor for cabin pressurization, even though the aircraft uses T-56 turbine engines that supply bleed air in other ...
470 views

### Why do the 737-100's JT8Ds, and no others, have suck-in doors?

Of the various use cases of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D (the most-produced low-bypass turbofan in history, and the second-most-produced turbofan of any description1), those installed on the 737-100 ...
269 views

### What are these blades on the engine cowling of a Wittman Tailwind?

The Florida Air Museum in Lakeland has a Wittman W-8 Tailwind with four wooden, propeller-like blades on the engine cowling: Source: own work What are the blades for? It's an experimental aircraft ...
196 views

### How to know that single engine aeroplanes are not allowed to depart on the TETAN SID?

I'm studying for my IR exam and came across another tricky AIP question. Which of the following statements about the TETAN 1A standard departure chart are correct? Single engine aeroplanes ...
253 views

### Why is the F35B's elevator not in neutral position when in vertical flight mode?

I was watching videos of F35B taking off and landing vertically on ships when I realized that when transitioning from horizontal to vertical flight mode (I don't know the exact vocabulary to describe ...
846 views

### When is this Class D airspace not Class D airspace?

The Terminal Area Chart (TAC) shows the Class D airspace for Los Angeles International Airport (KLAX) view the full TAC. I have highlighted in green the north and south portions of the Class D ...
453 views

### What is the primary reason that the non-towered airports KACV and KTVL have E4 extensions to E2 airspace?

NOTE-- this question is not about why it was desired to protect the airspace that ended up within the E4 "extensions". Rather, this question is about why that was done by designating that airspace as ...
192 views

### Did the Phantom F-4 contain “polychron” or other synthetic materials as a replacement for rubber circa 1969?

update: In order to make it easier to answer this question, use of "synthetic materials as a replacement for rubber circa 1969" in any aircraft might be good enough. Michael Crichton's 1969 science ...
728 views

### Can anyone identify what/where this photo is of?

This is a photo by the Real Photograph Co. (Liverpool) No.684. I think it may be a crashed WW1 Biplane (lots of the photos with it were WW1 biplanes).
511 views

### How can I convert a frozen ATPL from South Africa to an Iranian one?

I have got a frozen ATPL license from South Africa and I'm from Iran. I came back home last year and I have converted my CPL/IR license to the Iranian piloting license by doing Air Law and Human ...
203 views

### How are “charter” and “passenger” flights defined in the AIDX standard?

I'd like to know the difference between these flight types in the IATA AIDX standard; specifically, for use in fuel order notifications.
419 views

### What is the time information on the G1000 MFD map during a hold?

I just completed an ILS approach and went missed. I followed the published missed approach and entered the hold. When I entered the hold, on the MFD map a timer-like display was on top of the "...
139 views

### How can the fuel decrease evenly from both wing tanks when an A320 is running on APU only?

I stumbled over this sentence in a training material about fuel leak: "If the fuel quantity symmetrically decrease in both wing tanks and the fuel quantity in the center tank decrease, the fuel leak ...
362 views

### How are crews managed after a diversion (far from hub)?

While reading one of the reports of flight diversion, I started thinking about how airlines manage aftermath of the diversion especially for long haul transatlantic flights. Many of the reports say ...
181 views

### Who is this flyer seen in Oakland c. 1929?

Looking for identification of the man on the left. Second from left is W.A. "Sandy" Sanders, third is Denny Wright, and fourth is Clyde Sunderland. Oakland, around 1929.
317 views

### Which US airport has the lowest circling MDH?

As I recently contemplated 14 CFR 135.223 and its implications, I began wondering about airports with exceptionally low circling minima. For a little context and background, the part of §135.223 that ...
102 views

### How to say the name of this approach clearance: COPTER RNAV (GPS) 027°

JFK has this approach: https://aeronav.faa.gov/d-tpp/2006/00610COPTERR027.PDF How is this approach said on frequency? Is it the "copter RNAV zero two seven approach" or the "copter RNAV zero two ...
127 views

### What is this extension at the tip of the Supermarine Southampton's wing?

Looking at this Wikipedia image of the Supermarine Southampton flying boat, I noticed what at first looked like a small wheel. But then I thought it couldn't be, as a wheel would be pointless in a ...
199 views

### What are those tiny circles on fan blades of Trent 1000?

From Sam Chui's video, there are tiny circles on the surface of three fan blades of next generation Trent 1000 engine. Why aren't they present on remaining fan blades? Below comments suggest they are ...
136 views

### Was there more than one incident or accident where an Airbus FBW aircraft reverted to mechanical backup?

There was an accident Smartlynx A320 training flights MYX-9001 at Tallinn on Feb 28th 2018, where ELAC pitch control failed due to fault in the stabilizer actuator, and then both SECs failed due to ...
106 views

### Why does enabling engine sync on the MD-80 series trigger the “Master Caution” light?

I fly in a consumer PC flight simulator. Among my virtual fleet is a fairly faithfully-reproduced MD-83. One fairly strange detail I noticed is that enabling engine sync (either on N1 or N2) in the ...
150 views

### What does the A340's underwing bulge (plastron) look like?

From Wikipedia: From the start, engineers noticed that the wings were not stiff enough to carry the outboard engines at cruising speed without warping and fluttering. To alleviate this, an ...
147 views

### Do Constant maximum lift to drag ratio variable pitch propeller exist?

Are there variable pitch propellers, where pitch is set so that the blades constantly are at their maximum lift to drag ratio AoA, whatever the incoming relative wind speed & direction? Such a ...
246 views

### What kind of antique WWI aircraft model is this? Inventor's prototype?

I've discovered an interesting WWI era model of an aircraft and I am trying to find out what could it be. It is 29" long and it looks like not a hobby model, but an inventor's prototype. I love the ...
89 views

### Do UL aircraft complying with LTF-UL need to copy an existing design pattern?

With my current pipe dream being to get physically involved in aviation instead of only theoretically, I looked into the regulations for ultralight planes in Germany. On multiple occasions in the ...
274 views

### What is the highest indicated airspeed ever achieved in a traditional aircraft?

It is fairly well known that the SR-71 holds the record for highest speed for a traditional aircraft (not a rocket/able to land and takeoff under its own power). However since the SR-71 flies much ...
355 views

### Do aircraft using only spoilerons for roll control, with no conventional ailerons, have a crossover airspeed?

Airplanes generally have a crossover airspeed (a minimum airspeed below which directional control of the airplane cannot be maintained in the event of a rudder hardover). This is because, as airspeed ...
144 views

### How heavy are turbofan and turboprop propeller blades?

How heavy are the blades from Turbofan (CFM56-5B, RRTrent800, PW4062A) and Turboprop (PW127M) engines? Is there a general appromixation like $$m_\mathrm{Fan} = 0.1 \times m_\mathrm{Turbine}$$ ...
168 views

### Does an autopilot that controls roll, pitch and a yaw damper meet the requirements of 135.105(c)(1)?

For single-pilot VFR operations, 14 CFR 135.105(c)(1) requires that: The autopilot is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and maneuver it about the three axes Does this ...
393 views

### How to calculate lift and drag coeffecients for VTOL aircraft in the takeoff stage?

How would I calculate CL and CD for a VTOL aircraft while it is in it's takeoff/landing stage? The particular aircraft is a fixed wing/quadcopter hybrid so I know that I can treat this as a thin ...
402 views

### How does an aircraft's weight affect the V-n diagram?

I have a reasonable understanding of what a V-n diagram shows and what the envelope and the boundaries mean. However, the question I have is how does the weight of the aircraft specifically affect the ...
601 views

### How to fly a parabolic arc?

The title says it all, how do you fly a parabolic arc? Me and my friend Ben, are starting a research lab. We want to learn how to fly a parabolic arc.
878 views

### Can the iPad use GPS data from a Garmin aera 660?

Can the iPad use GPS data from a Garmin aera 660 portable GPS unit? I assume this would happen via Bluetooth, if it's possible. I would like the more accurate WAAS data from the Garmin for use with ...
228 views

### How is the required motor power calculated for a quadcopter?

I've been trying to find the required motor power for a quadcopter. I first calculated drag power and then I made a linear trend line for motor power against motor weight. I made the motor power 1.5 ...
381 views

### Why do we see many more 5th and 8th freedom cargo flights than passenger flights?

Usually, we can see many cargo flights operating between 2 foreign countries (and even as domestic flights within a foreign country in some cases). There are passenger flights that operate in the same ...
201 views

### Why is this G-AIRMET's valid time earlier than its issued time?

For this G-AIRMET map, why is the valid time earlier than the time it was issued?
138 views

### I have an Australian CPL, what do I need to fly in Indonesia?

If I have an Australian CPL can I fly in Indonesia? How likely am I to obtain employment if I have 250 hrs. flight in Indonesia?
911 views

### What are the locations on the Boeing 737 wing where the airfoil changes?

I would like to know where along the span of the 737 (let's say the NG) wing the two midsection airfoils are used. I am planning on running a CFD analysis of the 737 wing, and I need accurate data.
657 views

### What job opportunities are there for low time pilots in Malaysia?

Does a new pilot who has just obtained ATPL license has job opportunities? When I search at pilot job offered on Internet, they mostly required more than 3,500+ flying hours. What I knew about those ...
198 views

### Can pilots take multitools onboard unlike passengers in Canada?

Can pilots in other countries or Canada carry Swiss army knives onboard on commercial flights?
266 views

### Is there any mechanism in engine mount to prevent shock loads on engine while landing?

How engine is mounted in wing is restricting motion in any direction but is it still resistant to shock loads, or is there any mechanism inside engine associated to bearings that will absorb shock ...
309 views

### Do Red Bull Air Race aircraft make use of nitrous oxide injection?

Microsoft Flight Simulator X contains Red Bull Air Race missions where the player flies an Extra 300S through a race course and makes use of Nitrous Oxide injection for the engine. While I have heard ...
144 views

### What is the difference between stopbars and Intermediate Holding Position Lights?

I know that stop bars continuously light red and stand at before taxi route joint, holding points or runway entrance but what about the Intermediate Holding Position Lights or how can we differentiate ...
524 views

### How big is the radar cross section of a modern glider?

I heard somewhere that modern glider made of plastic and composite materials are less detectable than other aircraft by primary radar. I wonder how much. What is the radar cross section of a typical ...
71 views

### Is it possible to create Interference Drag without physical surfaces conjoining?

Interference Drag is when boundary layers mix/combine, usually it's caused by pieces of metal conjoining (wing struts/gear retracting). Is it possible for interference drag to be created without ...
113 views

### What does a Letter of Intent contain?

When operators purchase new aircraft it seems that a Letter of Intent is frequently the means by which this is done. What does such a Letter of intent usually contain? Bonus question: Would the ...
84 views

### How should this ODP be flown if heading east?

The KFDK departure procedure for RWY 23 states: DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 23, climb heading 229° to 1200 before turning right. Does this only apply if making any sort of right turn after ...