Questions tagged [air-traffic-control]

Air Traffic Control (ATC) is a service of ground-based controllers that directs and coordinates aircraft to improve safety and efficiency.

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What are dry and saturated lapse rates values or ranges for a rising or lowering parcel of air in degrees Celsius?

Environmental lapse rate average is rounded to 2 degrees celsius per 1000 ft.(Note that environmental lapse rate varies through the day).What about parcel of air lapse rate.? Dry lapse rate is a ...
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2 answers
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While descending some pilots put local pressure long before reaching transition level?

Isn't this risky? I thought once they pass transition level they should change to local pressure... But is this not risky to put local pressure qnh before... risky in terms of separation wheter ...
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3 answers
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Which countries use qfe field pressure?

I heard that acrobatic flight, Russians, Americans use qfe but is it always the case? Also why doesn't everyone use it? Isn't qfe field pressure better than qnh local pressure... Does a pilot ever use ...
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If while landing ,a surface inversion occured close to the ground would atc or atis know?

A change in temperature, pressure and many factors might happen in a surface inversion.Thus affecting landing performance and calculation.The local peessure might change suddenly as well...
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Is there a benefit or advantage of decreasing the transtion altitude or transition level? [duplicate]

Some counrties have high transition altitudes and transition levels while other countriea have low ones.
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Who gives us transition level when it varies?

Who gives us transition level when it varies? ATC, ATIS, any others?
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Why does DME colocated with VOR require more separation?

In earlier versions of ICAO Doc 4444 (Amendment 9 and earlier), two aircraft were deemed to be laterally separated if they were departing a VOR on radials which diverged by at least 15 degrees and if ...
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If I get a speed restriction from ATC, at what point am I no longer obligated to comply with the restriction?

If a controller clears me for a procedure, and also says "...do not exceed ___ knots", how long does that restriction apply for?
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Capturing of false glide-slope

I am curious to know a couple of things regarding glide-slope: How often do ATCs encounter flights capturing false glide-slopes? What is the response expected from ATCs in such a scenario? In other ...
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Why is communication between ATC and airliners not also written?

Reading this question: How often does a pilot ask ATC for a repeat? Most modern airliners' cockpits have plenty of digital displays. Why is communication between ATC and pilots not also typed/...
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How to "address" a flight plan to additional stations

Airspace around the Swiss village of Davos is restricted as part of the World Economic Forum every year. The amendment to the Austrian AIP instructs pilots who would still like to cross the affected ...
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How often does a pilot ask ATC for a repeat?

How often does it actually happen? Also, is it fine to ask them to slow down if it’s hard to understand, for example, due to a heavy accent?
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Can air traffic control see control panel selections (I.e. FCU on A320 or MCP on B737)?

I have flown with a few captains that have told me that air traffic control can see the settings we set on the FCU (or MCP on B737): Is this actually correct? I'm aware that ATC can see what speed, ...
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Do pilots of modern high-end aircraft normally communicate their destination to ATC?

Do pilots of modern high-end aircraft ever verbally communicate their destination to ATC? My understanding is clearance delivery is done electronically and when listening to ATC I haven't heard any ...
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How to find ATC recordings for a May 8th general aviation crash?

Unfortunately this Sunday I had a friend and her husband who crashed and didn't make it. Would it be ridiculous to ask if anybody perhaps would know where to look for potential ATC recordings? I have ...
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When told "call sign only" in a frequency change, how to transmit it?

For example: London Control says: BAW211 contact London Approach 118.1, call sign only. What will the pilot say to approach on 118.1? London Approach, BAW211. Or just: BAW211.
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Can ATC provide vectors and separation service to and between IFR aircraft in areas where radar coverage does not exist using ADS-B only?

In the U.S., can ATC provide vectors and separation service to and between IFR aircraft in areas where radar coverage does not exist using ADS-B only? If so, are the separation standards the same as ...
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Is it possible to find out the actual reason for the diversion of V72578 of 15/04/2022?

There's a weird story making the rounds in the news in France these last few days: Flight V72578 on April 15th was delayed, and then diverted, supposedly because of the destination airport's curfew. ...
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What is the vertical separation minima between IFR and VFR?

ICAO Doc 4444, 5.3.2 says The vertical separation minimum (VSM) shall be: a) a nominal 300 m (1 000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m (2 000 ft) at or above this level, except as provided for in b)...
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How strict is the relationship between ATC departure gates and SIDs?

I'm training to be an ATC on VATSIM, and the term "valid departure gate" is tossed about a lot, but not (to my perception) defined. Googling "departure gate" drowns me in ...
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1 answer
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Two low flying large planes made bank turn - not on radar [closed]

On Thursday March 10, 2022, at approx. 7:30pm in Monroe, Connecticut, I witnessed two full sized planes following one another extremely low and then make an incredible bank turn. These planes did not ...
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How are light gun signals handled at remotely controlled airports?

In a comment @randomhead mentioned: Remote towers are already in use at several sites in multiple countries. Off the top of my head and without even googling, there's Leesburg airport in Virginia ...
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What bandwidth and availability is required for modern air traffic control?

A certain telecoms provider is advertising in the UK by showing off that you can operate air traffic control over it's home broadband service. Is this that surprising? I didn't think that air traffic ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Can ATC issue instructions to exclude certain aircraft over international waters?

As an example, the Anchorage Air Route Traffic Control Center's sector extends all the way to the North Pole, far beyond 200 nm of the US coastline. Suppose that the US decides to "close its ...
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What are the differences among ETO, ETA, and ELDT?

We are analyzing the Arrival Manager (AMAN) logs and would like to have an understanding of the difference between Estimated Time for Arrival (ETA), Estimated Time Over (ETO), and Estimated Landing ...
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When must ATC give wind variation and gust?

In connection with takeoff and landing, ATC will give the current wind direction and velocity to the pilot. In some cases, ATC will also report the variation in direction and/or current gust (max and ...
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6 votes
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756 views

Why should you never squawk 0000 in the USA?

FAA Order 7110.66E says Code "0000" should never be assigned or used. and Code 0000 must never be assigned However, NASA recommends that crews set 0000 after landing to help detect when ...
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VFR through Class C to land at Class D (located within Class C)

Student pilot (US) here prepping for long solo XC. I'll be landing at a Class D airport (KSCH) within Class C airspace (KALB). I have a few questions regarding procedure and what is appropriate for ...
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Who or what is the DEN and what do they do?

I was reading some older Av.SE pages and ended up on the ATC procedural document JO 7110.65 for handling emergencies. Down at the very bottom under 10.2.19(b) which has to do with medical/health ...
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1 vote
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What is the reason behind updating the radar tracks on the CWP in chunks instead of updating them all at once?

Some time ago, I noticed that the controller's screen (CWP) of a particular system in a European ACC. was not updating all the visible tracks at once but it was following this pattern: The screen ...
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12 votes
4 answers
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Does "Cross [FIX] at 250 knots" mean I have to maintain 250 knots after the fix?

If you are given the clearance to "cross [FIX] at 250 knots", does this specifically mean : 1 ) Cross fix at 250 knots, and then after [FIX] your assigned speed is 250 knots until otherwise ...
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How are practice areas communicated?

When I fly near my local airport (KSSF) in San Antonio, there's a designated South Practice Area and North Practice Area. ATC knows where they are and all the ...
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What is the difference between CTAF and the Tower frequency? Why does the Chart Supplement list the same frequency twice?

At many part-time towered airports the Chart Supplement will have a listing along these lines: COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 119.2, TOWER 119.2 (1400–0500Z‡) The CTAF is the same frequency as the Tower. What ...
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Which frequency to contact when arriving at a Class C airport when the tower is open, and which frequency when it is closed?

I came across this question on my PPL exam and I'm not able to properly interpret some pieces. The question is: When approaching Lincoln Municipal from the west at noon for the purpose of landing, ...
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How to convert European ATC license (and medical) to FAA equivalents?

I have an Air Traffic Controller license issued by the European union (compliant with ICAO standards). Ratings for tower and approach radar with current validations for both. How can I convert this to ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Is IWA (Phoenix Gateway) a Federal Contract Tower?

how can I find out which airports are operated by the FAA and which are FAA-contract (or even independently operated)? I'm currently looking specifically at IWA, Phoenix Gateway Tower.
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3 votes
1 answer
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Can non-FAA towers employ foreigners?

I understand you must be a US citizen in order to work ATC with FAA. Is it different with the non-FAA towers? Could I as a European citizen be employed (working visa/greencard) there?
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7 votes
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What are the boxes around the airport on the IVAO Approach (APP) screen?

I play IVAO and I sometimes get curious about different positions that different controllers play on. Let's take this airport, Birmingham UK, this is what the APP (Approach) screen looks like What do ...
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1 vote
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In a two-pilot aircraft (Capt/FO), are both pilots held responsible for a pilot deviation?

In the U.S. if, for example, an aircraft is instucted by ATC to climb and maintain FL280 but instead climbs to FL290, are both pilots, in an aircraft requiring two pilots (e.g. A320 or similar), held ...
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What’s the difference between Arrival and Approach controllers?

Some airports have two separated frequencies related to arrival. Arrival and approach. When I navigate to some airports that have both frequencies, I first contact the arrival controller then, at a ...
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Pilot communication with ATC partially unreadable

Can anybody decipher this pilot's landing request due to moderate turbulence (some unreadable words...). Thanks ! https://www.icloud.com/iclouddrive/03kDM9-xQ7Oyz3kUaeRJj6M5Q#AUDIO-2021-12-03-07-51-...
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How to use/be an airborne relay

There are some cases where a pilot may not be able to reach ATC directly due to lack of power or being below the radio horizon: On a handheld backup radio After a forced landing Over open water In ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Why does the MVA have 1000 ft height buffer?

As per definition the Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) in each sector provides 1000 ft above the highest obstruction [...]. I am curious where these 1000 ft stem from. Why not 500 ft? Why not 300 ft,...
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Are there any U.S. airports that offer GCA (PAR/ASR) approaches?

Are there any U.S. Civilian or Joint-Use (military/civilian) airports that currently offer either/both a PAR (Precision Approach Radar) or an ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) Ground Controlled ...
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What should be approx altitude of jet aircraft 10 nautical miles to landing [duplicate]

Please assume the elevation of airport to 2000ft ASL. Under what conditions ATC might mandate aircrafts to fly at lower altitudes? What might be approximate speed at this distance?
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What is the difference between "cruise" and "en-route"?

I have a little misunderstanding about the two concepts: Cruise and En-route. Could you guys help me to compare the similarities and differences between these two concepts, maybe in some aspect like ...
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Does ATC expect 250 KIAS during vectors for an instrument or visual approach?

During vectors to an instrument or visual approach does ATC expect the pilot to maintain 250 KIAS until cleared for the approach or instructed to slow to another speed?
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How does an airspace class change from E to D affect already airborne aircraft?

In the US, there are some airports with a part-time tower. When the tower is in operation, the airspace around the airport is class D and requires communication with the tower. When the tower is ...
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1 answer
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What does "closed traffic" mean?

I'm a Japanese ATC working in Japan. I want to ask about "closed traffic". I checked 7110.65 for this. Question 1: What is successive operation? One day I was on duty and the air force pilot ...
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Flight directional headings [duplicate]

I listen to aircraft land and take off weekly. I noticed in taking off they usually only use about 3 to 5 different directions. I don't understand what they mean when for example they said to the ...
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