Questions tagged [approach]

The phase of flight in which an aircraft is lining up with the runway and preparing to land.

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3answers
2k views

What, exactly, is a final controller?

This http://www.xavius.com/ordapp.html tutorial mentions the user work song as a final controller for two runways and says that during busy periods one controller would work each runway. I’ve never ...
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What conditions must be met for Straight in Approach minimums to be published? [duplicate]

Looking at KSEE LOC-D approach, the final course is pretty much lined up with the runway. The MDA leaves you about 1200 AGL. I'm thinking only circling minimums are published because it would be a ...
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1answer
149 views

Why do some GPS receivers suppress RAIM integrity warnings after you pass the FAF?

RAIM performs an integrity check 2NM from the FAF. If RAIM is lost before the FAF, one should execute the missed approach. However, if RAIM is lost after passing the FAF, some GPS receivers will ...
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2answers
122 views

What are the approach speeds for each flap setting in a Cessna 152?

I am still trying to understand how the approach speeds for different flap speeds work. I cant find it in the handbook but I want to know the different approach speeds for the following flap settings: ...
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1answer
75 views

What does “when used as an alternate” mean in the context of 135.225(e)?

Here's the text of 135.225(e) [No pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless] The MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums prescribed in part 97 of this chapter or in ...
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1answer
580 views

Why would holding instructions be sent as an ACARS message?

I was browsing ACARS messages listed on an aviation enthusiast website in Greece (similar to FR24 and others), and noticed a message sent to UA124, a 767 from KEWR to LGAV: The SAT VOR is located at (...
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2answers
169 views

Vector to final on RNAV approach with the Intermediate and final segments are not aligned

Consider the RNAV 30 approach to C83 (Byron, CA), On a recent training flight requesting vectors for the approach, ATC pointed us to the MOVDD IF before cutting us loose (informing us that we would ...
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1answer
177 views

When can I proceed inbound in a hold in lieu of a procedure turn when cleared for the approach?

Let’s say I am holding on a published hold in lieu of a procedure turn but not yet cleared for the approach. Upon receiving approach clearance (say on the outbound leg of the hold) would I have to ...
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1answer
475 views

Why does it feel like a plane stops in mid-air during approach?

At some stage while on approach to an airport in a commercial jet, it feels like the plane is almost coming to a complete stop in mid-air. Is this maybe as a result of the flaps engaging or the ...
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Is the longitudinal extremity of an obstacle limitation surface based on the threshold or the displaced threshold?

In a case where a displaced threshold (DTHR) is present, should the longitudinal extremity of the obstacle limitation surfaces (for example, the conical surfaces) be counted from the threshold (THR) ...
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1answer
99 views

When does the FMS in the 737NG switch to approach mode?

I fly a B737-800, and we talk about when the FMS enters "Approach mode". At this point, the FMS will command the Vref (plus additive) at the appropriate flap setting. This is helpful to know ...
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Why don't flights fly towards their landing approach path sooner?

For example shown here, the flight is heading to the centre of the airport, until it gets close when it then moves into it's landing path. This is an inefficient use of time, fuel and emmissions, why ...
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254 views

Why would an ILS have a glide path angle less than the preferred 3°?

According to EASA the preferred Glide Path Angle is 3°: EASA Easy Access Rules - Page 22 - 4.1.2.1. There are some airports (e.g. Larnaca 2.75°) which are using a lower Glide Path Angle than 3°. Using ...
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1answer
174 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
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Why does GBAS broadcast Final Approach Segment data when SBAS does not?

Ground Based Augmentation Systems broadcast message four, the Final Approach Segment, along with corrections for GNS signals in messages one and two. Since the FAS is essentially a semi-static ...
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What is the difference between IAN and LNAV/VNAV?

Is there a real difference or benefit in using Integrated Approach Navigation (IAN) instead of LNAV/VNAV for a non-precision approach (NPA)? Both give you lateral and vertical guidance during an NPA. ...
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86 views

In the B737, does an IAN NPA require that the G/P is 3° or can the G/P angle vary?

For an IAN Approach to be recognized and work in a Boeing 737, does the Approach G/P need to be exactly 3° or can it vary?
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What RNP level is required for an RNP approach if the chart does not specify a value?

RNP (Required Navigational Performance) approaches require the aircraft to monitor the navigation accuracy within a specified limit, called RNP level: There are several different levels of RNP. ...
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600 views

How do I know which airports have ILS and for which runways?

I have been into flying for years but something I can't figure out is how do I, as a pilot, know if an airport I am going to has ILS, which runways would have it and why do only some have it but the ...
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116 views

Why is the ILS16 approach at KSKF not available in my Garmin 430W?

I am doing flight instruction on the San Antonio area (Texas) and I've been shooting different approches on the vecinity airports. One of the approaches I usually execute is the ILS 16 at KSKF, which ...
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146 views

Is this an accurate method to showing how the correct Decision Altitude/Height for an approach has been determined?

Here's my method of summarising how the decision altitude/height for an approach was determined: ...
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1answer
164 views

Can I fly the LNAV MDA when the GPS is set up for LPV?

I am going to do my CFII checkride in a few weeks and my DPE wants to do RNAV approaches to satisfy the Non-Precision and Precision approaches tasks on the PTS/ACS. According with the Instrument ACS ...
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1answer
3k views

At what point can Approach mode be engaged in an A320?

In my experience using Flightgear and other computer simulators, when flying an ILS approach on an A320, the approach mode can only be engaged at a certain point or later. What is this point, and why ...
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258 views

Why are the MSA direction needles not oriented to north?

Why is it when you look at an MSA the arrows are pointed opposite of where they should be?
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297 views

What do the different types of approach abbreviations used on the A320 MCDU exactly mean?

On the MCDU I have noticed after setting up the approach there are a number of different codes which appear next to the runway designator these are namely as below: CI CF FI CD FD Can someone kindly ...
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283 views

Why might DTK on GPS not match depicted course on approach plate?

I hope this isn't a dumb question, but I haven't flown a whole lot of GPS approaches and today I observed something that I cannot explain: There was a 2 degree split between the Desired Track (DTK) ...
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Unstable Approach [duplicate]

What is considered to be an "unstable approach"? Which are the exact parameters against which an approach is being judged, in order to be considered "stable" or "unstable"...
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3k views

What is the difference between ILS and VOR/DME?

I have wondered many times about the difference between VOR/DME and ILS and which one is better for carrying out approaches. Why do pilots use VOR/DME when the ILS is a better option because it is ...
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1answer
114 views

How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
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1answer
809 views

How to fly an RNAV (RNP) approach with VNAV in a Boeing 737?

Let us assume you are flying a B737NG and you are cleared for an RNAV (RNP) approach which has several legs with different altitude crossing restrictions. What do you enter in the MCP altitude window?...
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1answer
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What is meant by these criteria for a stabilized approach? [closed]

Based on regulation, there are several criteria for when an approach is stabilized. I want to ask: Only small changes in heading/pitch. How small? The aircraft is in correct landing configuration. ...
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Why is the ILS 36R approach at ZBAA over twice as long as a standard ILS approach?

I fly exclusively in a consumer flight simulator, so excuse me if there's an obvious answer to this. ILS approach plates typically show a long, arrow-like symbol to indicate the part of an approach ...
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How to say the name of this approach clearance: COPTER RNAV (GPS) 027°

JFK has this approach: https://aeronav.faa.gov/d-tpp/2006/00610COPTERR027.PDF How is this approach said on frequency? Is it the "copter RNAV zero two seven approach" or the "copter RNAV zero two ...
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289 views

Mushing glide vs forward slip sink rate

Source: Wolfgang Langewiesche - Stick and Rudder; An Explanation of the Art of Flying I ran across a mushing glide in Wolfgang Langewiesche's - Stick and Rudder; An Explanation of the Art of Flying ...
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1answer
490 views

Why does an A300/310 in LAND or GO-AROUND mode have to be at least 400 feet AGL for manual control column movement to disengage the autopilot?

Each of the A300/310’s two autopilots has two modes of operation: In CWS (Control-Wheel Steering) mode, the autopilot(s) attempt to hold the attitude that the aircraft had at the moment of autopilot ...
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Why can't you operate packs on HIGH during take-off, approach and landing on a 737-800?

It's in the FCOM Limitations Chapter and I think that these phases are critical phases of flight and I don't want to reduce my engine performance by purposely creating a high demand for bleed air from ...
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1answer
193 views

Why do pilot and GPWS approach callouts say “minimums” instead of “minima”?

A safe instrument approach requires a number of callouts along the way; two of the most important come fairly late in the approach, first to alert the pilot flying that the aircraft is approaching the ...
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387 views

Where does an FMS wind information comes from to calculate V approach?

To calculate the V approach the FMS is using a wind either taken by the ADIRS or inserted on APPR PERF page. At first I will say that it takes the wind inserted by the crew, but I am not completed ...
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974 views

Why can military aircraft descend below the DA / MDA during an instrument approach?

According to §91.175(c) Except as provided §91.176 of this chapter, where a DA/DH or MDA is applicable, no pilot may operate an aircraft, except a military aircraft of the United States, below the ...
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1answer
252 views

When outbound from an IAF on an approach to a procedure turn, may the pilot choose whether to use time or distance?

I was trained that if a fix to be flown over and then outbound for an approach is off-airport, then fly out for 1 minute prior to making a procedure turn. If it is over the airport, then fly outbound ...
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299 views

How can I find examples of airports with specific approach types?

Can you guys help me find airports with these approaches: An airport with only an LNAV mins (so no LNAV/VNAV or anything other than just LNAV) One with an LPV lower than 200 feet One with an ASR ...
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3answers
526 views

What is a circling approach?

What is a circling approach and why is it necessary? I know that if a runway is not suitable for an instrument approach, the pilots should execute landing on a runway which has an instrument approach ...
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230 views

What is the difference between high altitude vs low altitude approach?

Is there any factor that influences the decision of whether to take a high or low instrument approach (e.g. Hi Tacan or Low Tacan)? What are the differences between these two approaches?
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ICAO and EASA classification of instrument approaches

ICAO distinguishes approaches operations based on DH between 'Type A' (DH >= 250 ft) and 'Type B' (DH < 250 ft), which are further divided into subcategories. From the Annex 6 — Operation of ...
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How often do GA pilots use the Autopilot approach feature while landing?

While flying in simulations, I found that using the Approach feature is very beneficial for riding the glide slope (clear weather or not), however, while watching videos of GA pilots, I do not see it ...
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Is there a penalty for changing the approach procedure after accepting one?

For example: If you request a visual approach and get approved, but you meant to request an ILS approach, are you not allowed to change it? Is there some type of penalty for changing approaches after ...
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206 views

What are the dimensions of an approach plate plan view in nautical miles?

I am writing some software to work with approach plates on a website, but I cannot find the scale of the plan view. I am trying to convert the position of a plane in latitude and longitude onto the ...
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226 views

If the airport reported BKN002, would that prevent performing a DH 259' approach?

According to this Instrument Approach: The published Minimums are a Visibility of 1300 m, and a DH of 259 feet. In accordance with ICAO, would the Visibility and Ceiling be above the Published ...
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803 views

Can you continue an ILS approach when weather falls below minimum?

If, after passing the final approach fix, weather deteriorates so that the reported values are now below required minima, is it allowed to continue the approach?
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2k views

During an instrument approach, what are the obstruction clearance given?

I was wondering wether each segments of the approach has different minimum obstruction clearance? (E.g. initial, intermediate and final) From both terrain and man made obstacles. If possible i would ...

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