Questions tagged [approach]

The phase of flight in which an aircraft is lining up with the runway and preparing to land.

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What is the purpose of WAAS?

Does it just help with all of the approaches like LPV and stuff? Or is it its own thing?
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Is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach?

As written before, is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach? I read somewhere that SBAS is also a possible source, but in that case wouldn’t it be a LPV ...
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Why do none of the procedures for EFSA use the SVL VOR-DME?

This is inspired by this question. Looking at all the approach and STAR charts for EFSA in Savonlinna, Finland, they are all RNAV. The Linna VOR-DME is not used for any of them even though it is ...
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9 votes
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What happens if the autopilot fails to initiate a flare?

What are the chances of autopilot failing to do a flare in an otherwise stable autopilot controlled approach and landing? Has it happened before and how was it dealt with?
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How does an Airport decide to change CAT status - what ground equipment is required for CAT I / II / III [closed]

The airport must, of course, be continuously monitoring the status of ILS, Lighting, RVR etc. From this status information, it seems logical that the CAT of any Approach can be calculated - but ...
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What’s the difference between Arrival and Approach controllers?

Some airports have two separated frequencies related to arrival. Arrival and approach. When I navigate to some airports that have both frequencies, I first contact the arrival controller then, at a ...
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How do flights fly on some special days when there are firecrackers bursting near the source/destination airport? [duplicate]

I mean there might be festive nights like New Year eve, when there is spectacular display of colorful firecrackers in the sky, but when there are flights descending or ascending near a city with an ...
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Can an IFR civilian aircraft use a TACAN for DME distances? [duplicate]

Flying the KRDR LOC RWY 35 approach. How do I get my DME distance to HONNE or CANLI? can we pick up DME distance from a TACAN? Just used GPS Overlay but can we get distance from the TACAN?
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872 views

Are there any U.S. airports that offer GCA (PAR/ASR) approaches?

Are there any U.S. Civilian or Joint-Use (military/civilian) airports that currently offer either/both a PAR (Precision Approach Radar) or an ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) Ground Controlled ...
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Why do flights approaching Kabul seem to take a different route since the Taliban took over?

From a reporter on Twitter: Nerdy question but genuinely curious: All fights into Kabul would previously approach from the east, flying towards the direction of Nangarhar, then making a U-turn over ...
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4 votes
1 answer
203 views

How many degrees deviation from the defined final course can I have to start the descent?

To do a VOR, ILS or RNP approach, I am turning to establish the final approach course. The approach chart shows I should descend to a lower altitude for intercepting the final descent path. So, my ...
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What is the reason the MDA for VOR approaches differs from the DA for ILS approaches?

What is the reason for the numerical difference between the MDA altitude in VOR approaches and the DA altitude in ILS approaches?
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2 votes
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228 views

Do the regulations allow DME from an expired IFR-certified GPS with an out of date database to be used for this ILS approach under an IFR plan?

Since we cannot fly an RNAV approach with out of date GPS database, the approach in question is KCRE ILS 23. Whether it was asking for V2F or the full approach starting from ASHES (which is 18.5 DME ...
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5 votes
3 answers
731 views

How to correct the design of an aircraft that is not speed-stable during approach?

I was just wondering if an aircraft is found to NOT be speed stable during the approach flight phase, what might a designer be able to do to stabilize the aircraft without adversely impacting its ...
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2 votes
1 answer
170 views

Approaching a towered airport for landing but no specific pattern entry direction from atc

Here’s the scenario that happened to me - Flying into a busy class D, I contacted tower with the usual “XYZ tower, Warrior 12345 12 to the west at 2,500 full stop with Oscar” They respond “Warrior ...
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2k views

What, exactly, is a final controller?

This http://www.xavius.com/ordapp.html tutorial mentions the user work song as a final controller for two runways and says that during busy periods one controller would work each runway. I’ve never ...
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What conditions must be met for Straight in Approach minimums to be published? [duplicate]

Looking at KSEE LOC-D approach, the final course is pretty much lined up with the runway. The MDA leaves you about 1200 AGL. I'm thinking only circling minimums are published because it would be a ...
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Why do some GPS receivers suppress RAIM integrity warnings after you pass the FAF?

RAIM performs an integrity check 2NM from the FAF. If RAIM is lost before the FAF, one should execute the missed approach. However, if RAIM is lost after passing the FAF, some GPS receivers will ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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What are the approach speeds for each flap setting in a Cessna 152?

I am still trying to understand how the approach speeds for different flap speeds work. I cant find it in the handbook but I want to know the different approach speeds for the following flap settings: ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What does "when used as an alternate" mean in the context of 135.225(e)?

Here's the text of 135.225(e) [No pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless] The MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums prescribed in part 97 of this chapter or in ...
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Why would holding instructions be sent as an ACARS message?

I was browsing ACARS messages listed on an aviation enthusiast website in Greece (similar to FR24 and others), and noticed a message sent to UA124, a 767 from KEWR to LGAV: The SAT VOR is located at (...
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3 votes
2 answers
548 views

Vector to final on RNAV approach with the Intermediate and final segments are not aligned

Consider the RNAV 30 approach to C83 (Byron, CA), On a recent training flight requesting vectors for the approach, ATC pointed us to the MOVDD IF before cutting us loose (informing us that we would ...
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4 votes
1 answer
322 views

When can I proceed inbound in a hold in lieu of a procedure turn when cleared for the approach?

Let’s say I am holding on a published hold in lieu of a procedure turn but not yet cleared for the approach. Upon receiving approach clearance (say on the outbound leg of the hold) would I have to ...
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Why does it feel like a plane stops in mid-air during approach?

At some stage while on approach to an airport in a commercial jet, it feels like the plane is almost coming to a complete stop in mid-air. Is this maybe as a result of the flaps engaging or the ...
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2 votes
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87 views

Is the longitudinal extremity of an obstacle limitation surface based on the threshold or the displaced threshold?

In a case where a displaced threshold (DTHR) is present, should the longitudinal extremity of the obstacle limitation surfaces (for example, the conical surfaces) be counted from the threshold (THR) ...
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2 votes
1 answer
142 views

When does the FMS in the 737NG switch to approach mode?

I fly a B737-800, and we talk about when the FMS enters "Approach mode". At this point, the FMS will command the Vref (plus additive) at the appropriate flap setting. This is helpful to know ...
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4 answers
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Why don't flights fly towards their landing approach path sooner?

For example shown here, the flight is heading to the centre of the airport, until it gets close when it then moves into it's landing path. This is an inefficient use of time, fuel and emmissions, why ...
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10 votes
1 answer
353 views

Why would an ILS have a glide path angle less than the preferred 3°?

According to EASA the preferred Glide Path Angle is 3°: EASA Easy Access Rules - Page 22 - 4.1.2.1. There are some airports (e.g. Larnaca 2.75°) which are using a lower Glide Path Angle than 3°. Using ...
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390 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
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2 answers
238 views

Why does GBAS broadcast Final Approach Segment data when SBAS does not?

Ground Based Augmentation Systems broadcast message four, the Final Approach Segment, along with corrections for GNS signals in messages one and two. Since the FAS is essentially a semi-static ...
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4 votes
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What is the difference between IAN and LNAV/VNAV?

Is there a real difference or benefit in using Integrated Approach Navigation (IAN) instead of LNAV/VNAV for a non-precision approach (NPA)? Both give you lateral and vertical guidance during an NPA. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
191 views

In the B737, does an IAN NPA require that the G/P is 3° or can the G/P angle vary?

For an IAN Approach to be recognized and work in a Boeing 737, does the Approach G/P need to be exactly 3° or can it vary?
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7 votes
2 answers
428 views

What RNP level is required for an RNP approach if the chart does not specify a value?

RNP (Required Navigational Performance) approaches require the aircraft to monitor the navigation accuracy within a specified limit, called RNP level: There are several different levels of RNP. ...
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4 answers
1k views

How do I know which airports have ILS and for which runways?

I have been into flying for years but something I can't figure out is how do I, as a pilot, know if an airport I am going to has ILS, which runways would have it and why do only some have it but the ...
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0 votes
2 answers
124 views

Why is the ILS16 approach at KSKF not available in my Garmin 430W?

I am doing flight instruction on the San Antonio area (Texas) and I've been shooting different approches on the vecinity airports. One of the approaches I usually execute is the ILS 16 at KSKF, which ...
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0 votes
1 answer
230 views

Is this an accurate method to showing how the correct Decision Altitude/Height for an approach has been determined?

Here's my method of summarising how the decision altitude/height for an approach was determined: ...
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2 votes
1 answer
282 views

Can I fly the LNAV MDA when the GPS is set up for LPV?

I am going to do my CFII checkride in a few weeks and my DPE wants to do RNAV approaches to satisfy the Non-Precision and Precision approaches tasks on the PTS/ACS. According with the Instrument ACS ...
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1 vote
1 answer
5k views

At what point can Approach mode be engaged in an A320?

In my experience using Flightgear and other computer simulators, when flying an ILS approach on an A320, the approach mode can only be engaged at a certain point or later. What is this point, and why ...
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5 votes
1 answer
307 views

Why are the MSA direction needles not oriented to north?

Why is it when you look at an MSA the arrows are pointed opposite of where they should be?
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2 votes
1 answer
457 views

What do the different types of approach abbreviations used on the A320 MCDU exactly mean?

On the MCDU I have noticed after setting up the approach there are a number of different codes which appear next to the runway designator these are namely as below: CI CF FI CD FD Can someone kindly ...
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5 votes
2 answers
480 views

Why might DTK on GPS not match depicted course on approach plate?

I hope this isn't a dumb question, but I haven't flown a whole lot of GPS approaches and today I observed something that I cannot explain: There was a 2 degree split between the Desired Track (DTK) ...
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1 vote
0 answers
105 views

Unstable Approach [duplicate]

What is considered to be an "unstable approach"? Which are the exact parameters against which an approach is being judged, in order to be considered "stable" or "unstable"...
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4 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the difference between ILS and VOR/DME?

I have wondered many times about the difference between VOR/DME and ILS and which one is better for carrying out approaches. Why do pilots use VOR/DME when the ILS is a better option because it is ...
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1 vote
1 answer
147 views

How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
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3 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to fly an RNAV (RNP) approach with VNAV in a Boeing 737?

Let us assume you are flying a B737NG and you are cleared for an RNAV (RNP) approach which has several legs with different altitude crossing restrictions. What do you enter in the MCP altitude window?...
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2 votes
1 answer
123 views

What is meant by these criteria for a stabilized approach? [closed]

Based on regulation, there are several criteria for when an approach is stabilized. I want to ask: Only small changes in heading/pitch. How small? The aircraft is in correct landing configuration. ...
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2 votes
0 answers
98 views

Why is the ILS 36R approach at ZBAA over twice as long as a standard ILS approach?

I fly exclusively in a consumer flight simulator, so excuse me if there's an obvious answer to this. ILS approach plates typically show a long, arrow-like symbol to indicate the part of an approach ...
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6 votes
2 answers
264 views

How to say the name of this approach clearance: COPTER RNAV (GPS) 027°

JFK has this approach: https://aeronav.faa.gov/d-tpp/2006/00610COPTERR027.PDF How is this approach said on frequency? Is it the "copter RNAV zero two seven approach" or the "copter RNAV zero two ...
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1 vote
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365 views

Mushing glide vs forward slip sink rate

Source: Wolfgang Langewiesche - Stick and Rudder; An Explanation of the Art of Flying I ran across a mushing glide in Wolfgang Langewiesche's - Stick and Rudder; An Explanation of the Art of Flying ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why does an A300/310 in LAND or GO-AROUND mode have to be at least 400 feet AGL for manual control column movement to disengage the autopilot?

Each of the A300/310’s two autopilots has two modes of operation: In CWS (Control-Wheel Steering) mode, the autopilot(s) attempt to hold the attitude that the aircraft had at the moment of autopilot ...
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