Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

The phase of flight in which an aircraft is lining up with the runway and preparing to land.

1
vote
1answer
87 views

Does ATC prefer ILS over RNAV?

Listening to APP for several major (US class B) airports, it seems that every flight is vectored to intercept the localizer. Is it really possible that 100% of flights filed an ILS approach? If so, ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

RNAV (RNP) Approach Height Loss Question?

While viewing the following approach chart, which is an RNAV(RNP) CAT C Approach, there are several landing minima, stating a HEIGHT LOSS OF 50' AND 150', what does that specifically mean?
2
votes
1answer
88 views

What is timed approach?

I have tried to find what timed approach is, but I cannot find any reference to it. Could you let me know what it is and when it is used?
1
vote
0answers
80 views

Diversions because of fog: What are the reasons?

It's fog season again around my local airport MUC (EDDM), and I have noticed a number of diversions recently. Some planes were holding a bit before attempting to land, performed a go around and then ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

If an approach chart says “GPS required”, do I need GNSS capability to fly it?

If an aircraft is /Y, /C, or /I (RNAV no GNSS), can they fly an approach chart that says "DME/DME/IRU or GPS required"? GPS in my mind is a GNSS. If you don't have DME/DME/IRU and are RNAV (non-GNSS) ...
1
vote
2answers
137 views

What does the letter “D” next to the VOR frequency and name mean?

In most charts there is the letter D next to the VOR freq. What does this mean? I assume the H and L in brackets in other charts mean high and low VORs (correct me if im wrong). But what does the D ...
1
vote
1answer
182 views

Are there any airports that require arriving/departing flights to fly under an obstruction?

Are there any airports with approaches and/or departures that require pilots to fly under an obstruction at some point (thus meaning that, for at least a short segment of the approach or departure, ...
3
votes
1answer
176 views

What is the source for the “rule” forbidding configuration changes below 200ft AGL?

I keep hearing from countless instructors, and even some DPE's, that in single engine aircraft, no configuration changes are allowed below 200AGL (i.e. flaps). Some have also stated that this is ...
3
votes
4answers
201 views

Do different planes (category) aim differently in the 'final stages before flaring'?

(youtube.com) Do different planes (categories A through D) aim differently in the final stages before flaring? I'm asking about precision runways. The reasons I ask: An ILS' glide slope is not ...
24
votes
4answers
4k views

Do any airports have a steeper standard approach than London City?

Watching the CS100 certification of the 5.5deg steep approach into London City, I wondered if there were any airports with steeper standard approaches. By standard I mean published. I have seen very ...
8
votes
3answers
390 views

Why would a pilot on final to a towered airport not speak up when ATC clears another aircraft to land on the same runway, without mentioning them?

Every time I watch AOPA's Accident Case Study video Communication Breakdown, I'm left wondering. Here's an aircraft (in this case, '1DA) on final approach for landing on a towered airport, when ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

Is it possible to load (and not activate) the approach procedure on a Garmin 1000 or 430?

I noticed sometimes when I fly with a G1000, or Garmin 430 and am doing multiple practice approaches I can't always load my next approach. It forces allows me to activate the approach, which would ...
3
votes
1answer
292 views

Why wouldn't KJFK offer the ILS for 22L?

(Source: Flightradar24) The above was from last Sunday around 17z. I was watching FR24 with the ATC feed. The airport was operating in 'arrival priority' with approaches to both 13L (Canarsie) and ...
8
votes
1answer
249 views

Why are there many different approach lighting systems?

Why not just have only 2 or 3? What's the point of having such a number of different configurations? What's the practical application of each lighting scheme? I mean, do they really help pilots in a ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Are ASR and PAR approaches commonly used in Europe?

How common are ASR and PAR approaches these days? Are they still practiced anywhere in Europe?
0
votes
0answers
70 views

Approach speed Exceedance

What are the possible effects when an aircraft exceeds its approach speed limitations? i.e. unstable approach? Go around? Runway overrun I know a lot of factors come into play, however, I wish to ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Does having lead-in lights in sight allow descent below MDA?

Does having lead-in lights in-site during an approach that includes them allow for a pilot to descend to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation? 14 CFR 91.175 allows a pilot to make such a ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

What are the differences between FCLP markings and equipment and the LA on a ship?

Most Naval and Marine Corps Air Stations have these markings on at least one or more of their runways: It’s a Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) area and used to maintain proficiency amongst ...
5
votes
1answer
225 views

Could a 'wind wall' help to reduce the wind shear problem at St Helena airport?

I've seen a fair number of articles online about "The World's Most Useless Airport" (St. Helena, HLE/FHSH), which was unable to open to full commercial flights (as was the intention) due to the wind ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Why do some IAPs lack an Intermediate Fix and/or include other fixes between Final Approach Fix (FAF) and Intermediate Fix (IF)?

I have noticed that some Initial Approach Procedures (IAP) do not mention an Intermediate Fix, but they do include at least one fix before the Final Approach Fix. Take, for example, this IAP of the ...
3
votes
4answers
823 views

Why would the Speedbrake be required for such a long time on approach? [duplicate]

As far as I was aware, the Speedbrake is designed to slow the aircraft down. On landing, I do understand why they are required. Once the aircraft has hit the tarmac, they are deployed to 1) slow the ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Approach plate does not require DME, but DME used in the published missed?

This approach plate doesn't say "DME REQUIRED", but the published missed approach uses DME. Can I still fly it without DME equipment? If this approach didn't say "RADAR REQUIRED", could you fly it ...
3
votes
4answers
256 views

Does a Tower controller need to see an aircraft on final to give landing clearance?

If there is an IFR aircraft on approach that has already received an approach clearance, and he reports being at the final approach fix but the controller does not have him in sight yet, can the ...
0
votes
1answer
100 views

Need help to clarify the terms “arrival”, “departure”, “approach”, “terminal” and “transition” fix for US STAR and SIDS

I find it a bit difficult to clarify, while consulting the US published STAR and SID published charts, which fixes are designated as arrival, departure, approach, terminal and transition. Could ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

How to interpret the published altitudes for each of US STAR procedures?

I have been studying the STAR procedures, as published by FAA, and I am trying to understand the way that the altitudes are defined for each fix/route. Take, for example, CAMRN4 of JFK. I see the MEA ...
8
votes
3answers
629 views

Clearance limit of VFR practice IFR approach?

When a VFR aircraft has been approved by atc to perform a practice approach, is the aircraft also cleared for a published missed approach procedure?
3
votes
2answers
176 views

Does TRACON airspace override Class B airspace in terms of control authority when controlling approach or departure procedures?

This is a simple schematic description of Class Airspace. My understanding is that Class B has strict rules, specific lower and upper altitude limits and requires clearance to enter. However, I have ...
0
votes
1answer
189 views

What is the sequence of ATC frequencies for final approach at JFK?

Recently I was listening to liveATC.net and tried to understand the sequence of operations for the voice communications. However, it seems that there are a lot of frequencies for the approach ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

Can I fly a “Contact Approach” to this airport?

In order to request and receive a clearance to conduct a "Contact Approach" the airport, among other requirements, must have a published instrument approach (IAP) and be reporting at least 1 mile ...
7
votes
1answer
284 views

Can I use radar service instead of DME or GPS for this ILS approach?

At the top of this approach chart for KDNN in the briefing section, it is stated that "Simultaneous operation of I-DNN and GQO DME required." If my aircraft is not RNAV/GPS or DME equipped can I fly ...
6
votes
3answers
522 views

Is it always the case that any one STAR leads to all the runways?

I was making an addon for a flight simulator and I am having a problem figuring this scenario out: Let's take CYOW - Macdonald Cartier international. It has 6 runways: 04, 07, 14, 22, 25, 32. It has ...
2
votes
2answers
295 views

Can I do a CAT III ILS approach if minimums are above CAT I?

I was going to an airport with weather at minimum for CAT I approach. Not wanting to know whether or not I could make it I thought about asking ATC if I could do a CAT III approach even though the ...
7
votes
2answers
396 views

How to handle vacuum and turn coordinator failure in IMC?

I just earned my FAA instrument rating and a considerable amount of time was spent training partial panel. This meant flying with no vacuum gyro instruments - attitude indicator and directional gyro. ...
4
votes
2answers
175 views

How do partial- and full flaps compare for gusty approaches?

From an aerodynamic aspect, how do partial flaps and full flaps compare for gusty approaches?
1
vote
0answers
239 views

Where can I find a database of SIDs, STARs and approaches?

I am investigating SIDs, STARs and approach procedures. I have a couple of questions about it: Is there a way to get SID, STAR, and approach data from airports around the world? I don't mean from the ...
3
votes
1answer
348 views

Is a non-WAAS Garmin 530 certified for an LNAV/VNAV approach?

I may not understand all the details of what I'm asking but trying to wrap my head around it. I am aware that before WAAS, some GPS aircraft were equipped to get vertical guidance by a Barocorrected ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

How do radio altimeter systems compensate for objects on the ground?

My understanding of a radio altimeter is that it can provide more accurate altitude readings below the transition level. It occurred to me a number of days ago whilst sitting beneath the glide path ...
3
votes
0answers
163 views

Does EASA approve the use of localizer back course?

Does EASA approve the use of localizer back course? Are there some countries in Europe that allow it?
2
votes
1answer
683 views

Where does the transponder read altitude, or does ATC get it from radar?

When flying instrument approaches in a rented plane, Approach called out an altitude discrepancy between the assigned altitude which is being flown using the altimeter and the altitude being reported ...
3
votes
1answer
256 views

What is acceptable visual cue at Decision Height when performing CAT II approach?

For CAT II approach, the decision height is below 200ft but not lower than 100ft with RVR of 300m. In this case, if the aircraft is at 100ft above the ground, should the captain of that aircraft be ...
3
votes
1answer
134 views

What was the Vmca of the 2-engine 747 config the El Al 1862 crew faced, and could they have landed the plane at a corresponding Vref?

In the El Al 1862 crash, the flight crew lost control of their 747 in what basically amounts to an aggravated Vmca roll during approach after two engines detached from the aircraft, causing the loss ...
5
votes
1answer
335 views

Can the Safety Pilot log an approach if acting as PIC?

Suppose you are acting as Safety Pilot and PIC on a flight in IMC. Further suppose that the pilot at the controls is instrument rated but his or her IFR currency has expired. If the other pilot acts ...
8
votes
2answers
260 views

How do I find all the frequencies for my local TRACON?

I'd like to program my hand held radio with all frequencies that I can expect to need around my area. Specifically, I'd like to find an official list of all the frequencies used by the local Tracon ...
7
votes
1answer
118 views

How should I interpret the Douglas DC-4 approach climb performance chart?

Can someone explain what "C = .04 Vso2" means as the "denotes required rate of climb?". I assumed the point at 6500 ft altitude and 60,000lbs landing weight will mean that the required rate of climb ...
2
votes
2answers
829 views

How far away from the airport is the descent for approach and landing initiated? [duplicate]

I am wondering if there is a rule-of-thumb formula for the speed, altitude and the distance from the airport that the descent for approach to land is initiated? I see airlines do it about 25 to 30 ...
7
votes
1answer
334 views

How to communicate a circling approach over CTAF?

The FAA ATC job order says: Circling approach instructions may only be given for aircraft landing at airports with operational control towers. But I could not find a phraseology example that ...
9
votes
1answer
439 views

When should I start turning in this circling approach?

I've been practicing circling approaches in Homestead General Aviation Airport in Homestead, Florida (X51). I performed the RNAV (GPS) RWY 10 approach with circling minimums. My questions are: a) ...
3
votes
1answer
631 views

What's the purpose of depiction of visual flight track on some Jeppesen approach charts?

29 is the visual flight track in this chart. Why is it depicted from the MAP to the threshold of the runway? Does it signify some alternative procedures pilots are expected to perform if they decide ...
10
votes
1answer
499 views

What does a 10nm/20nm circle on instrument approach charts mean?

A lot of instrument aproach charts (VOR or ILS) have a circle around the navaid. It can be 10/20 NM or in km, like the 20km circle in the image. What does this circle mean?
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Why does a steeper approach cause an increased landing rollout?

A pilot of a high-performance airplane should be aware that flying a steeper-than-normal VASI glide slope angle may result in: A) a hard landing B) increased landing rollout C) landing short of the ...