Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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1answer
76 views

Can instrument training be done in IMC with an instrument-rated safety pilot? [duplicate]

I'd like to fly some hours towards an instrument rating by flying with a safety pilot. I have a safety pilot who is instrument-rated and current (he's working on building time towards a commercial ...
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1answer
198 views

Why would an ILS have a glide path angle less than the preferred 3°?

According to EASA the preferred Glide Path Angle is 3°: EASA Easy Access Rules - Page 22 - 4.1.2.1. There are some airports (e.g. Larnaca 2.75°) which are using a lower Glide Path Angle than 3°. Using ...
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1answer
143 views

Is the procedure turn mandatory at non towered airports? [duplicate]

Here is instrument VOR-A approach at Eagle Lake. If I am coming from the north, it looks to me a big waste to make a procedure turn. On the other hand there is nobody there to approve straight-in ...
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1answer
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Are both RVR and visibility minimum required for CAT I ILS?

Is it required to have both RVR and visibility to be more than minimum for ILS CAT 1 or one of them is acceptable. If both required which one has priority.
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Can I fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) if I can't maintain the minimum speed for it?

I fly a single-engine airplane not capable of more than 120 KIAS. I'd love to fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) into my local airport (US), but want to make sure I fully understand the STAR ...
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1answer
55 views

Why is Transition Altitude fixed but Transition Level is not?

In Jeppesen approach plates we see that the Transition Altitude of the aerodrome is fixed but the Transition Level is not fixed and is given by ATC. What is the reason for this?
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1answer
875 views

When can I start an approach if I lose comms and my clearance limit is not an initial approach fix?

Here is the AIM's definition for a clearance limit: CLEARANCE LIMIT− The fix, point, or location to which an aircraft is cleared when issued an air traffic clearance Assume a clearance such as: &...
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2answers
184 views

What is the difference between Cloud Ceiling and Cloud Base?

By definition, Cloud ceiling is The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half the sky. So does, Cloud Ceiling ...
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1answer
103 views

Can a US pilot residing in the EU fly N-reg under IFR on a US PPL?

I am a US citizen living in the Netherlands, and I have an FAA PPL(A) with current IR as well as an EASA PPL(A) without IR. I am currently trying to figure out my easiest path to IR conversion, as I ...
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1answer
97 views

Per the AIM, Helicopter pilots may fly non-copter approaches at half the published visibility. Where is that in the FAR?

In AIM 10-1-2 Helicopter Instrument Approaches, paragraph a1 says the visibility reduction rule comes from 14 CFR Section 97.3. From what I can see, that section is just definitions. What is the AIM ...
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1answer
111 views

If ATC doesn't assign an obstacle departure procedure in an IFR clearance, what should you do?

If ATC doesn't assign an obstacle departure procedure (ODP) as part of an IFR clearance can you use one anyway? And if there is no ODP, do you then follow the 35ft at runway threshold / 400ft at first ...
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1answer
143 views

How does the G1000 differ from an airliner’s avionics?

I'm going through my multi-engine rating, and my flight training has always been on the G1000. I've had a simple system course on the CRJ-200. In terms of IFR flying, I really don't see much ...
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Is a forward slip considered a “normal maneuver” under 91.175(c)(1)?

After an instrument approach in IMC, 91.175(c)(1) requires, among other things, that operations below the DH or MDA must allow for a "normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers." Can ...
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1answer
64 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
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1answer
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What do EU pilots use for IFR enroute charting (besides Jeppesen)?

Is there something equivalent to FAA IFR enroute charts for the EU, where you can see published routes, holds, minimum altitudes, etc? I can find terminal area procedures in the AIPs, but the ...
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During VMC conditions in terminal airspace (class B), does the pilots have to strictly follow separation standards issued by ATC?

Is it common for pilots to breach separation standards in terminal airspace while the conditions are VMC? I'm interested primarily in commercial aircraft that have scheduled operations in major ...
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327 views

Is using a VOR considered IFR or VFR?

As the title mentioned. And also, is using it in zero visibility (or near) a real life scenario?
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107 views

Which sub-scale setting may a pilot use on an instrument approach in South Africa--QFE or QNH?

I saw this question in my Instrument Rating exam and I need to know which answer is correct, A or B. Question: As far as the vertical reference of an aircraft during the final approach segment of an ...
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1answer
117 views

KSEE LOC-D conundrum

Consider the LOC-D at KSEE and note the Alternate Minimums criteria. 99.9% of the time, the winds strongly favor 27R; The tower closes at 1900 PT currently (usually at 2100 PT non COVID times); LOC-D ...
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1answer
412 views

Can a non-IFR rated pilot accept an IFR clearance, provided the operation occurs in VMC only?

According to this FAA ruling a pilot can operate an aircraft under an IFR flight plan even if the aircraft is not IFR certified, provided the operation occurs in VMC. What the ruling doesn't ...
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Can you change airways when they cross without a named fix?

There are a few victor airways that cross without a named fix, just two solid lines drawn over each other on the IFR low charts. Can these be used as intersections for changing airways in IFR route ...
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Do I need to call Clearance Delivery for IFR Practices when taking off from a D airport?

I have the following question: If I am going to practice IFR approaches under VFR, do I need to contact clearance delivery for that or it's enough to contact ground and state my intentions? I would ...
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165 views

How far along was JFK Jr. in his instrument training?

I read up a little more about the infamous and tragic incident. JFK Jr. had over 300 hours logged, and about 36 in the Saratoga, half of which was solo. It's not like he was a newly minted VFR pilot ...
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286 views

Why RNAV SIDs and STARs are RNAV 1 instead of RNP 1?

I am studying for my CFII check-ride and I was wondering to know why SIDs and STARs are not RNP 1 but RNAV 1? Let's start with the following two definitions RNP - Required Navigation Performance: It's ...
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3answers
138 views

IFR requirement for altimeter question (i.e. +/- 75 feet) [closed]

What if the ATIS/AWOS/ASOS results in a very low or very high altimeter setting (i.e. barometric pressure)? Surely this setting will result in an altimeter setting way outside the envelope of the +/- ...
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139 views

How do I determine holding pattern entry and direction in this example?

I need help with this question for the IFR written test: "A pilot receives this ATC clearance: '...CLEARED TO THE XYZ VORTAC. HOLD NORTH ON THE THREE SIX ZERO RADIAL, LEFT TURNS...' What is the ...
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256 views

Why are the MSA direction needles not oriented to north?

Why is it when you look at an MSA the arrows are pointed opposite of where they should be?
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100 views

How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
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2answers
178 views

What altitude to use for IFR off-airways route

Say I want to fly off-airways (both Victor airways and T routes) for my IFR flight, direct to my destination in the US. How do I know what my off-route altitude should be so I can file for that? I ...
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1answer
108 views

Is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace?

In the US, is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace? Or to put the question another way, in the US, may an ...
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Why do helicopter operations avoid IFR?

In almost any airplane commercial operation, unless you’re doing something very short haul daytime ops, an Instrument Rating is all but required with airplanes(it’s even in the FARs). Generally the ...
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99 views

How accurately do I need to maintain my altitude while VFR-on-top?

Is holding altitude as stringent a requirement when flying VFR-on-top? If the deviation exceeds say 200 feet off a given VFR altitude (i.e. 5500’ heading eastbound) is this as big of an issue for ATC?
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5answers
232 views

Could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time?

In the US, could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time? If not, where in the FARs is this spelled out? Consider the ...
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1answer
185 views

Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E airspace in the US?

Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E (controlled) airspace in the US? Or could he or she contact ATC and receive a clearance to enter cloud without ...
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2answers
2k views

What organisation owns intersection names?

I understand that five letter intersection codes (such as WARPI, PAPPI, KUBBS, ROSLY, ZALPO, ...) are unique in the world. However, their names don't comprise a national prefix (as aircraft tail ...
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2answers
321 views

What does “airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exception” mean?

I was reading Cessna IFR Training program and came across this line that airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exceptions. What does it really mean? Class A doesn't start until 18,000 ft, ...
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203 views

How should one fly the entry procedure to an approach when the hold is not aligned with the outbound course?

Consider the following NDB DME approach into runway 08 at Jersey (EGJJ): Let's assume we are coming in from the North and are currently cleared direct to the JW NDB flying inbound on a 180° track. ...
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3answers
1k views

When does ATC contact the pilot for a frequency change?

Usually, when the aircraft enters a new flight information region for example, ATC will ask the pilot to enter a new frequency. I'm curious about when they do. Is there a rule about it (in an IFR ...
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1answer
136 views

IAP / “Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts” What does “Procedure NA” Mean?

The image below is of an FAA "Instrument Approach Procedure" The entire thing is the "Procedure" It contains a "Procedure Turn", which when not required typically states: "NoPT" Now, in some places ...
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3answers
268 views

Why and how would I land straight-in from a circle-to-land approach?

I'm currently studying for an IR (US). One of the exam practice questions concerns an IAP having only circling minimums, and references 5-4-20(c) of the AIM, which reads: Straight-in Minimums are ...
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FAA's handbook, “in the middle of instrument”means where in this page?And is there anything wrong in ths page that I can correct?

Excuse me, does anyone know how to correct this page. My English and knowledge of aircraft is not well. this is one of FAA's handbook, "Instrument Flying Handbook" and its "Instrument Flying Handbook ...
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1answer
115 views

What is an approved weather source for flying an instrument approach into an airport with no working ATIS?

What can you use as viable weather information landing at an airport with ATIS inoperative due to the tower being closed after hours? Let's assume the approach secondary weather source is also ...
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0answers
57 views

At what altitude should I join overhead a fix when my legal MSA is lower than the holding altitude?

For example, if my MSA is 4600ft and the holding altitude is 6500ft, am I legally allowed to join overhead the fix at 4600ft, or do I need to join overhead the station at 6500ft?
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817 views

Can a pilot initiate an enroute descent to an IAF without ATC 's approval?

An IFR flight is cleared DIRECT to a published IAF for an approach at the destination airport. The cruising altitude is 10,000’, the IAF crossing altitude is 2,000’ and the T/D begins about 24nm prior ...
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1answer
107 views

Having trouble reading some charts (SBMG-SBLO)

I'm a flight sim user practicing instrument navigation with a short and apparently simple flight, SBMG to SBLO (South America). The distance between the two airports is 49.5 nautical miles (the ...
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What is considered to be a approved deviation in an ILS beam during a CAT3 approach?

For category 3 approaches, the airport has to transition to LVP mode. In this mode- the holding points are taken back a little bit and the runway surroundings are clear. My question is- Is there a ...
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2answers
154 views

When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
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0answers
154 views

What is the difference between high altitude vs low altitude approach?

Is there any factor that influences the decision of whether to take a high or low instrument approach (e.g. Hi Tacan or Low Tacan)? What are the differences between these two approaches?
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100 views

How should this ODP be flown if heading east?

The KFDK departure procedure for RWY 23 states: DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 23, climb heading 229° to 1200 before turning right. Does this only apply if making any sort of right turn after ...
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Why are there no emergency flight rules in place to prevent IFR-certified helicopters, operating under special VFR, crashing in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

In modern times, engineering allows humans to do everything: Drive in fast cars or trains, diving into the deep sea, and even going to space. Which is a great thing indeed. But when it comes to ...

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