Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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108 views

Descending while turning inbound on a non-precision approach

I'm writing my instrument rating examination soon and one of the questions that I came across was: While executing a VOR A RWY 01 approach for Alexander bay, 2700ft is reached at 8DME on the ...
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65 views

How are VFR / GAAP approach points selected?

This is kind of an Australia based question. How are VFR approach points selected and why they are where they are? Also what challenges will pilots face from the GAAP (General Aviation Airport ...
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141 views

Is it a violation to list an alternate airport based on an approach your aircraft is not equipped to execute?

A pilot has planned a flight to another airport, and the weather indications at the destination require an alternate airport to be included in the flight plan. An ILS and a VOR approach exist at the ...
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54 views

Can hood time in a glider be logged as simulated instrument time for FAA IR purposes?

I need to build my simulated instrument time toward IR. Can flying under the hood in a glider (with an instructor/safety pilot...) be legally counted as simulated instrument time in the same way would ...
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62 views

IFR Currency with a safety pilot who has a BasicMed [duplicate]

Here’s my situation and question. For my IFR currency, I’ve asked a friend to be the Safety Pilot. He’s aptly qualified BUT he does not have the traditional Medical, but rather he has BasicMed. My ...
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63 views

Does the Enroute Phase begin at a 30NM distance from the departure airport?

ICAO's Doc 8168 Volume II ("Aircraft Operations") states: Part III "Performance-Based Navigation Procedures" Section 1 "Underlying Principles" Chapter 1 "RNAV Concepts" 1.2 "Flight ...
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177 views

What can I do if I cancel IFR when I shouldn't have?

Standard procedure for T-38 training is to cancel IFR in the MOA and fly back to the base VFR. A couple days ago I canceled in the MOA out of habit and instantly realized that I was above a broken ...
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159 views

Advantages to doing an initial instrument rating training in a Cirrus over a conventional aircraft?

I live in Australia and I'm in the process of choosing a school for my instrument rating. I need feedback from the many of you out there with IFR experience willing to share their thoughts. I'm going ...
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92 views

Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
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78 views

When a hold is distance based, do you still used a timed entry?

Let's say you have to do a parallel or tear-drop entry to enter this distance-based holding pattern. Do you still fly outbound from the fix for one minute and then make your turn inbound to re-...
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108 views

Distance to the runway/ touchdown point

Trying to learn about aviation, and looking through all the displays in the cockpit, and also the Garmin G1000, I am not sure where I see the distance to the runway touchdown point, or the start of ...
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How much of an instrument approach must be in instrument conditions in order to qualify for currency as actual instrument? [duplicate]

I've always wondered if there is any guidance on logging of instrument approaches in actual conditions when the conditions are only actual for some portion of the approach. Hypothetical example: A ...
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74 views

May an instrument instructor log instrument approaches that a student flies in simulated conditions as approaches for currency purposes?

I was told by a fellow CFII today who says he was told this by a former DPE that a CFII who is providing training to a student can log that student's simulated instrument approaches as the instructor'...
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44 views

What does this line in Minimum Sector Altitude mean?

This is from the AIP Australia ENR 1.5-7 and I need some help interpreting it for my IREX please. In instances where the 25NM MSA has been divided into sectors, and the appropriate 25NM Sector ...
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132 views

Does ICAO allow continued flight in RVSM airspace after a transponder failure?

If a civil aircraft's transponder fails in RVSM airspace, can it still be allowed to fly in RVSM according to ICAO? And could it be allowed to fly in class A airspace, according to ICAO?
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73 views

When is a procedure turn not required? [duplicate]

If you are not being radar vectored to the FAF or on a “no PT” transition, are there any other circumstances where a procedure turn that is depicted on an approach chart is not required?
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Is the “auto-routing” created by online flight planning resources preferred by ATC over Direct routing when NO preferred route exists?

I noticed that when I use online flight planning resources, they provide an "auto-routing" option for my flight. I also noticed that they are the same between both services so it seems like both are ...
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119 views

When does the mandatory minimum climb gradient during an Instrument Departure Procedure end?

While studying FAA's Instrument Procedure Handbook, I noticed these minimum performance requirements for obstacle clearance, when a SID or ODP is absent for a particular runway: -- Cross the ...
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226 views

Is it ever allowed to list your destination airport as the IFR alternate too?

Is it legal (in certain conditions) to have your primary airport of intended landing, also listed as the alternate?
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125 views

For an airport to be designated as an IFR alternate, does it have to have a TAF?

For an airport to be designated as an IFR alternate, does it have to have a terminal aerodrome forecast at the alternate airport to confirm that the forecast 600-2 and 800-2 will be in place at the ...
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123 views

Do I have to follow airways to meet the IFR cross country 250 NM flight requirement in 61.65?

I understand that there is cross-country flight of "a distance of at least 250 nm along airways or ATC-directed routing" requirement for the IFR rating, but I'm not sure if understand what the second ...
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169 views

To use the equipment suffix “G”, does the GPS have to be certified for IFR?

To use the equipment suffix "G", does the GPS have to be certified for IFR flight?
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281 views

Is it normal to instruct an aircraft to squawk VFR if it goes around on an IFR visual approach? [closed]

A pilot is flying IFR on a visual approach to a towered airport. He elects to go around due to gusting winds and notifies the tower. The tower then asks his intentions. He replies that he would still ...
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150 views

Where can I find official definition of VFR and IFR? [duplicate]

I know that ICAO Annex 2 'Rules of the air' states rules such as general rules, visual flight rules, instrument flight rules, etc. And aircraft should fly in accordance with either visual flight rules ...
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116 views

For IFR flights that require two alternates, is there a regulation that requires enough fuel to reach the furthest one?

For flights that have two alternate destinations, I'm looking for a reference - either EASA or ICAO - that states that you need enough fuel to reach whichever alternate would require the most fuel to ...
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How to interpret/use “Fix Minimums” (at KALB)

This one stumped both myself and my CFI. Im specifically asking about the minimums at KALB IL/LOC 19 but a general answer is also appreciated. The plate lists two distinct sets of minimums and we ...
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Does an autopilot that controls roll, pitch and a yaw damper meet the requirements of 135.105(c)(1)?

For single-pilot VFR operations, 14 CFR 135.105(c)(1) requires that: The autopilot is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and maneuver it about the three axes Does this ...
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293 views

Does an airport need to have at least one instrument approach that I can use in order to fly IFR to it?

Half Moon Bay (KHAF) does not have any instrument approaches into the airport that I can use. All the approaches require RNAV but my aircraft is not RNAV-capable. Can I fly IFR to it? I'm thinking ...
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462 views

What is the definition of mountainous area?

MEA, MORA, grid MORA, and MOCA for a non-mountainous area gives 1,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle, and in mountainous area gives 2,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle. But what is ...
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109 views

When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
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447 views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
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356 views

What does the “visibility” number mean on an approach plate?

In the profile view in an approach plate, there is a visibility number next to the MDA or DA. What does it mean? Is it limitation to use the approach?
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98 views

How does turning Errors in the Air Driven Artificial Horizon work?

Turning through 90°, 180°, 270° & 360°, the error is different. I can understand what is turning error and pitch error individually. But why turning through different degree, the resulting error ...
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339 views

What are the specific side step minimums for an approach?

This question piques my curiosity a bit on this subject. In regards to circling approaches the AIM 5-4-19 states that a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument approach procedure which serves ...
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255 views

How to understand the requirements for IFR currency?

So the requirement reads "six instrument approaches; Holding procedures; and Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems." I am still a little unclear on how to interpret ...
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190 views

Does an IFR flight at night in VMC count as “night VFR conditions” (FAR 61.129)?

FAR 61.129 several times uses the phrase “night VFR conditions.” Does this mean strictly flights conducted under VFR at night, or does it include night flights conducted under IFR but in VMC?
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635 views

Where can I find the exact definition of VFR and IFR?

Although I have worked as ATC more than 5 years(not US), I don't know the exact definition of VFR and IFR. Of coure, I know that under VFR, pilot mainly use their eyes to navigate, but I want to know ...
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What is the specific FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? [duplicate]

What is the FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? I saw some parachute jumpers come through a solid cloud layer with a base at around 1300 AGL. They landed ...
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55 views

Is it legal to fly this approach in Bahrain if the VORTAC is out of service?

Can I fly the VOR/DME/ILS RWY 33R approach at Bahrain/Isa Airbase (OBBS) if the OBBS VORTAC is out of service?
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Are the terms “Coupled approach” and “Hand flown approach” strictly defined?

I was looking on SE and also Google for the answer, but couldn't find anything. My question is when to log an approach as coupled or handflown? All of the approaches I fly are CAT I but the aircraft's ...
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539 views

What's the difference between the Multi Engine Instrument Rating and Instrument Rating in Canada?

Are the requirements for the Multi Engine Instrument Rating the same as Instrument Rating in Canada or is there a separate exam for each of them? Thanks!
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485 views

What are the differences between blue airports and green ones on the low en-route chart?

As far as I know, a brown airport on the low en-route chart does not have an approach procedure but blue and green airports do. But what exactly are the differences between these colors?
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297 views

Does an instrument rating bridge category and class?

I had previously been under the impression that if a pilot held an instrument rating that it would apply to aircraft in another class. The requirements of 61.57 would seem to support that since ...
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436 views

confusion between RNAV and RNP approaches and specifiations [duplicate]

Ive been really confused between these two specifications recently. For example my research suggested that RNP has on board monitoring and alerting and RNAV doesn't require this, however then why must ...
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3k views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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171 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
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105 views

Fly over or fly by question

As far as I know, we're to fly-over a RNAV fix if such is drawn surrounded by a circle. But, in non RNAV procedures, how do I know that I must fly-over a fix? E.g.:Taking this chart into account: ...
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401 views

What does it mean to fly a procedure turn?

So, I'm flying IFR to Newport (KONP) for the ILS RWY 16. There's an aircraft on the approach, so I'm cleared direct BUHRS at 5000' to enter the hold as published. I get to BUHRS, I turn outbound on ...
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954 views

Vertical and horizontal separation between cruising and climbing aircraft

I was recently a passenger on a commercial aircraft at cruise altitude when I noticed another aircraft just reaching its cruising altitude while crossing our flightpath from below, at what looked like ...
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681 views

Why are the minimums between these two ILS instrument approaches to the same runway so different?

The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Z Rwy 16R are 1095/40. The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Y Rwy 16R are 1461-1 1/2. Question: Why are the minimums for the ILS Z so much lower than the minimums for ...