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Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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54 views

Do I have to follow airways to meet the IFR cross country 250 NM flight requirement in 61.65?

I understand that there is cross-country flight of "a distance of at least 250 nm along airways or ATC-directed routing" requirement for the IFR rating, but I'm not sure if understand what the second ...
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1answer
66 views

To use the equipment suffix “G”, does the GPS have to be certified for IFR?

To use the equipment suffix "G", does the GPS have to be certified for IFR flight?
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3answers
218 views

Is it normal to instruct an aircraft to squawk VFR if it goes around on an IFR visual approach? [closed]

A pilot is flying IFR on a visual approach to a towered airport. He elects to go around due to gusting winds and notifies the tower. The tower then asks his intentions. He replies that he would still ...
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1answer
93 views

Where can I find official definition of VFR and IFR? [duplicate]

I know that ICAO Annex 2 'Rules of the air' states rules such as general rules, visual flight rules, instrument flight rules, etc. And aircraft should fly in accordance with either visual flight rules ...
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1answer
87 views

For IFR flights that require two alternates, is there a regulation that requires enough fuel to reach the furthest one?

For flights that have two alternate destinations, I'm looking for a reference - either EASA or ICAO - that states that you need enough fuel to reach whichever alternate would require the most fuel to ...
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2answers
95 views

How to interpret/use “Fix Minimums” (at KALB)

This one stumped both myself and my CFI. Im specifically asking about the minimums at KALB IL/LOC 19 but a general answer is also appreciated. The plate lists two distinct sets of minimums and we ...
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0answers
50 views

Does an autopilot that controls roll, pitch and a yaw damper meet the requirements of 135.105(c)(1)?

For single-pilot VFR operations, 14 CFR 135.105(c)(1) requires that: The autopilot is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and maneuver it about the three axes Does this ...
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2answers
227 views

Does an airport need to have at least one instrument approach that I can use in order to fly IFR to it?

Half Moon Bay (KHAF) does not have any instrument approaches into the airport that I can use. All the approaches require RNAV but my aircraft is not RNAV-capable. Can I fly IFR to it? I'm thinking ...
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1answer
128 views

What is the definition of mountainous area?

MEA, MORA, grid MORA, and MOCA for a non-mountainous area gives 1,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle, and in mountainous area gives 2,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle. But what is ...
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59 views

When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
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3answers
214 views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
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2answers
147 views

What does the “visibility” number mean on an approach plate?

In the profile view in an approach plate, there is a visibility number next to the MDA or DA. What does it mean? Is it limitation to use the approach?
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1answer
58 views

How does turning Errors in the Air Driven Artificial Horizon work?

Turning through 90°, 180°, 270° & 360°, the error is different. I can understand what is turning error and pitch error individually. But why turning through different degree, the resulting error ...
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1answer
147 views

What are the specific side step minimums for an approach?

This question piques my curiosity a bit on this subject. In regards to circling approaches the AIM 5-4-19 states that a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument approach procedure which serves ...
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1answer
93 views

How to understand the requirements for IFR currency?

So the requirement reads "six instrument approaches; Holding procedures; and Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems." I am still a little unclear on how to interpret ...
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2answers
133 views

Does an IFR flight at night in VMC count as “night VFR conditions” (FAR 61.129)?

FAR 61.129 several times uses the phrase “night VFR conditions.” Does this mean strictly flights conducted under VFR at night, or does it include night flights conducted under IFR but in VMC?
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3answers
545 views

Where can I find the exact definition of VFR and IFR?

Although I have worked as ATC more than 5 years(not US), I don't know the exact definition of VFR and IFR. Of coure, I know that under VFR, pilot mainly use their eyes to navigate, but I want to know ...
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55 views

What is the specific FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? [duplicate]

What is the FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? I saw some parachute jumpers come through a solid cloud layer with a base at around 1300 AGL. They landed ...
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54 views

Is it legal to fly this approach in Bahrain if the VORTAC is out of service?

Can I fly the VOR/DME/ILS RWY 33R approach at Bahrain/Isa Airbase (OBBS) if the OBBS VORTAC is out of service?
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88 views

Are the terms “Coupled approach” and “Hand flown approach” strictly defined?

I was looking on SE and also Google for the answer, but couldn't find anything. My question is when to log an approach as coupled or handflown? All of the approaches I fly are CAT I but the aircraft's ...
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1answer
235 views

What's the difference between the Multi Engine Instrument Rating and Instrument Rating in Canada?

Are the requirements for the Multi Engine Instrument Rating the same as Instrument Rating in Canada or is there a separate exam for each of them? Thanks!
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1answer
208 views

What are the differences between blue airports and green ones on the low en-route chart?

As far as I know, a brown airport on the low en-route chart does not have an approach procedure but blue and green airports do. But what exactly are the differences between these colors?
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1answer
167 views

Does an instrument rating bridge category and class?

I had previously been under the impression that if a pilot held an instrument rating that it would apply to aircraft in another class. The requirements of 61.57 would seem to support that since ...
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1answer
260 views

confusion between RNAV and RNP approaches and specifiations [duplicate]

Ive been really confused between these two specifications recently. For example my research suggested that RNP has on board monitoring and alerting and RNAV doesn't require this, however then why must ...
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1answer
1k views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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1answer
168 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
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1answer
94 views

Fly over or fly by question

As far as I know, we're to fly-over a RNAV fix if such is drawn surrounded by a circle. But, in non RNAV procedures, how do I know that I must fly-over a fix? E.g.:Taking this chart into account: ...
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2answers
258 views

What does it mean to fly a procedure turn?

So, I'm flying IFR to Newport (KONP) for the ILS RWY 16. There's an aircraft on the approach, so I'm cleared direct BUHRS at 5000' to enter the hold as published. I get to BUHRS, I turn outbound on ...
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1answer
910 views

Vertical and horizontal separation between cruising and climbing aircraft

I was recently a passenger on a commercial aircraft at cruise altitude when I noticed another aircraft just reaching its cruising altitude while crossing our flightpath from below, at what looked like ...
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1answer
570 views

Why are the minimums between these two ILS instrument approaches to the same runway so different?

The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Z Rwy 16R are 1095/40. The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Y Rwy 16R are 1461-1 1/2. Question: Why are the minimums for the ILS Z so much lower than the minimums for ...
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0answers
59 views

What indicated altitude should I hold at after missed approach at KTVL airport

Assume I'm planning on conducting the GPS RWY 18 approach at KTVL (Lake Tahoe airport) and the current temperature is -40C. If I execute a missed approach and proceed to the holding fix (HETRY), at ...
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1answer
129 views

Substitute Suitable RNAV system for Inop Radar on approach “requiring” Radar

Assuming my aircraft's navigation equipment is a "Qualified/Suitable RNAV System," as defined by AC 90-108, is it legal for me to fly the LDA Y Rwy 19 IAP to DCA with ATC Radar out of service? Here ...
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5answers
4k views

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally “maneuver at will” in actual IMC?

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC? Let's say you want to practice a series of reversing 360-degree turns and not have to communicate every change in ...
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3answers
3k views

In the US, is it legal to cover up some of the required gyro instruments during flight under IFR in actual IMC?

In the US, is it legal to cover up some of the required gyro instruments during flight under IFR in actual IMC? The purpose being for "partial panel" practice.
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3answers
247 views

Navigate to the final approach course after radio failure under IFR

What would ATC expect the pilot to do if, at the position marked below by the red X, the aircraft lost radio communication and was on a radar vector heading 250 degrees at/assigned 3000 msl and the ...
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2answers
777 views

What is the role of an intermediate fix?

There are the IAF and the FAF, which has clear roles. One is where you start the approach and the other where you start to descent and end the approach. But what is the purpose of an Intermediate fix?
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1answer
1k views

Can a flight instructor without instrument rating legally provide instrument training?

In the US the FAA requires student pilots to receive at least 3hrs of instrument flight training. Can a flight instructor that does not hold an instrument rating legally provide a private pilot ...
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1answer
236 views

IFR to VFR Flight Plan Change [duplicate]

A pilot has filed an IFR flight plan. While airborne, he feels like changing to VFR flight. Can he request for it and what are the conditions?
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3answers
898 views

How long is a clearance void time valid?

You're picking up your IFR clearance on the ground and you get a 10 minute void time from now. What phase of flight is that 10 minute void time clearance good until? ..your wheels are up? ..a ...
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0answers
203 views

How do I use the “Inoperative Components or Visual Aids Table” when more than one component is inop?

I can't fully seem to understand this sentence: If more than one component is inoperative, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative Can ...
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2answers
776 views

What are my take off minimums?

Requesting for some clarification. Part 91 operator. 0-0 visibility and ceiling minimums Departing Rwy 15 at ADS Can I depart with a standard 200 ft/nm cross DER 35 ft. since I don't need to ...
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2answers
293 views

When would a pilot request a “VMC descent” or “VMC climb”?

Can anybody explain what's the point of this and in what kind of situations a pilot needs it? ICAO Doc 9432 "Manual of Radiotelephony" 8.3.3 An aircraft may request a clearance to climb or ...
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1answer
539 views

How to fly IFR to an airport without any instrument approaches?

Would I just file an IFR flight plan to the airport in question, and expect to be cleared for the visual approach if there are no instrument approaches at the destination airport?
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2answers
561 views

What is the missed approach procedure when initiated below MDA/DA/DH?

Let's say you continue below the DA/DH on an IAP because you have the APL insight; and of course no lower then 100 ft above TDZE. Now you arrive and don't see any required visual cues to continue to ...
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0answers
56 views

Are ASR and PAR approaches commonly used in Europe?

How common are ASR and PAR approaches these days? Are they still practiced anywhere in Europe?
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1answer
115 views

On an IFR flight, should I avoid class B and include approach fixes/procedures in the route?

When creating an IFR route, should one route around and avoid class B airspace? Should one include the IAF (Initial Approach Fix) of the desired IAP (Instrument approach Procedure) in your route? ...
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1answer
251 views

Does clearance delivery assign VOR or GPS-A approaches?

I've listened to clearance delivery feeds on LiveATC. Is it possible for clearance delivery to assign VOR or GPS-A approaches instead of standard terminal arrivals (STARs)? Or would they just give you ...
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1answer
224 views

Does Part 135 allow single-engine night IFR operations in a turboprop?

Do the Part 135 rules allow single-engine turboprop night IFR Part-135 operations? If not, then all the night activities of current popular (and expensive) single-engine turboprops are by private or ...
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3answers
366 views

What is the ATC phraseology to request a parallel track?

What is the correct phraseology to request a parallel track due to weather for example? Something like: OE-DLM, request parallel track to the east, 2 nm Background: I am asking for non-airline ...
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0answers
62 views

What is the legal definition of separation as it relates to ATC? [duplicate]

ATC provides "separation" for all aircraft in class bravo airspace. What is the legal definition of separation? Is it the same or different than the see-and-avoid rule (FAR Part 91.113(b)) where all ...