Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2
votes
2answers
219 views

What does “airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exception” mean?

I was reading Cessna IFR Training program and came across this line that airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exceptions. What does it really mean? Class A doesn't start until 18,000 ft, ...
4
votes
3answers
120 views

How should one fly the entry procedure to an approach when the hold is not aligned with the outbound course?

Consider the following NDB DME approach into runway 08 at Jersey (EGJJ): Let's assume we are coming in from the North and are currently cleared direct to the JW NDB flying inbound on a 180° track. ...
3
votes
3answers
976 views

When does ATC contact the pilot for a frequency change?

Usually, when the aircraft enters a new flight information region for example, ATC will ask the pilot to enter a new frequency. I'm curious about when they do. Is there a rule about it (in an IFR ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

IAP / “Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts” What does “Procedure NA” Mean?

The image below is of an FAA "Instrument Approach Procedure" The entire thing is the "Procedure" It contains a "Procedure Turn", which when not required typically states: "NoPT" Now, in some places ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Circle to land in VFR conditions

I'm currently studying for an IR (US). One of the exam practice questions concerns an IAP having only circling minimums, and references 5-4-20(c) of the AIM, which reads: Straight-in Minimums are ...
0
votes
0answers
89 views

FAA's handbook, “in the middle of instrument”means where in this page?And is there anything wrong in ths page that I can correct?

Excuse me, does anyone know how to correct this page. My English and knowledge of aircraft is not well. this is one of FAA's handbook, "Instrument Flying Handbook" and its "Instrument Flying Handbook ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

What is an approved weather source for flying an instrument approach into an airport with no working ATIS?

What can you use as viable weather information landing at an airport with ATIS inoperative due to the tower being closed after hours? Let's assume the approach secondary weather source is also ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

At what altitude should I join overhead a fix when my legal MSA is lower than the holding altitude?

For example, if my MSA is 4600ft and the holding altitude is 6500ft, am I legally allowed to join overhead the fix at 4600ft, or do I need to join overhead the station at 6500ft?
7
votes
3answers
720 views

Can a pilot initiate an enroute descent to an IAF without ATC 's approval?

An IFR flight is cleared DIRECT to a published IAF for an approach at the destination airport. The cruising altitude is 10,000’, the IAF crossing altitude is 2,000’ and the T/D begins about 24nm prior ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

Having trouble reading some charts (SBMG-SBLO)

I'm a flight sim user practicing instrument navigation with a short and apparently simple flight, SBMG to SBLO (South America). The distance between the two airports is 49.5 nautical miles (the ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

What is considered to be a approved deviation in an ILS beam during a CAT3 approach?

For category 3 approaches, the airport has to transition to LVP mode. In this mode- the holding points are taken back a little bit and the runway surroundings are clear. My question is- Is there a ...
7
votes
2answers
124 views

When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
1
vote
0answers
90 views

What is the difference between high altitude vs low altitude approach?

Is there any factor that influences the decision of whether to take a high or low instrument approach (e.g. Hi Tacan or Low Tacan)? What are the differences between these two approaches?
4
votes
0answers
80 views

How should this ODP be flown if heading east?

The KFDK departure procedure for RWY 23 states: DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 23, climb heading 229° to 1200 before turning right. Does this only apply if making any sort of right turn after ...
-4
votes
2answers
173 views

Why are there no emergency flight rules in place to prevent IFR-certified helicopters, operating under special VFR, crashing in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

In modern times, engineering allows humans to do everything: Drive in fast cars or trains, diving into the deep sea, and even going to space. Which is a great thing indeed. But when it comes to ...
0
votes
1answer
251 views

Why do helicopters crash in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

There are no known direct eyewitnesses of the crash of helicopter flight Sikorsky S-76B N72EX with 9 people on board, including Kobe Bryant. However, there are many earwitnesses who heard the ...
0
votes
1answer
100 views

What's the difference between a Sole Means Navigation System and a Primary Means Navigation System? [closed]

For bonus points, how you define a supplemental means navigation system?
1
vote
1answer
133 views

When does an instrument approach “begin” per §135.225(a)

§135.225(a) states that, "...no pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless— (1) That airport has a weather reporting facility operated by the U.S. National Weather Service, ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Is there a penalty for changing the approach procedure after accepting one?

For example: If you request a visual approach and get approved, but you meant to request an ILS approach, are you not allowed to change it? Is there some type of penalty for changing approaches after ...
2
votes
5answers
346 views

Why are primary and supportive instruments in instrument flying different depending on the phase of flight?

For example, in straight-and-level flight, the power's primary instrument is the Air Speed Indicator (ASI), and the supportive are the engine instruments. In another example, straight constant-...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

A Question about Departure Procedures at KLRU

The Las Cruces International Airport has the following text in the Takeoff Minimums and ODP document: LAS CRUCES, NM LAS CRUCES INTL (LRU) TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND (OBSTACLE) DEPARTURE ...
1
vote
3answers
120 views

What is the proper phraseology for a clearance with a named obstacle departure procedure?

The Phoenix Mesa-Gateway Airport (KIWA) has a named obstacle departure procedure - the Phoenix Departure. What's the correct phraseology for when clearance assigns it to you? Is it "N123AB, cleared ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

What is CBIR & Basic IR?

I know that the IR - Instrument rating - is the full-blown option to be allowed to fly IFR. I also know that EIR - En-route Instrument rating - is an option to have a license that's restricted to fly ...
0
votes
2answers
143 views

What is required by and for flights that cross borders in terms of border control?

This can apply to countries that have water in between, like the UK-France or US-Canada. If an aircraft crosses into neighbouring country, does it need to go to a border-controlled airport (with ...
1
vote
3answers
215 views

How long is a climb leg in a step-climb cruise flight segment allowed to take, according to regulations (FAA/EASA)?

I am working on a trajectory optimisation program for commercial, large aircraft, in which I want to incorporate realistic air traffic control regulations. One of the constraints I want to incorporate ...
5
votes
2answers
169 views

If the airport reported BKN002, would that prevent performing a DH 259' approach?

According to this Instrument Approach: The published Minimums are a Visibility of 1300 m, and a DH of 259 feet. In accordance with ICAO, would the Visibility and Ceiling be above the Published ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

If you were to fly an ILS in a knife edge would you receve GS and LOC be flipped?

because LOC and GS work the same way, if you were to fly one at 90 degrees bank would your information be displayed on the wrong indicators?
2
votes
2answers
518 views

How can I identify the FAF on this Jeppesen chart?

According to this Jeppesen ILS Approach Chart: How can the FAF be identified? Would it be the point at which the G/S is intercepted? What is the difference between FAF and FAP?
1
vote
1answer
135 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
3
votes
2answers
210 views

Can I file IFR DIRECT with a non-WAAS GPS?

The AIM 1-1-17 2 (a) states: Aircraft using un-augmented GPS (TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and operational means of navigation ...
9
votes
2answers
179 views

What requirements are needed to fly an approach that requires you to fly over the US/Mexico border?

I was flying North of El Paso Texas listening to El Paso Approach when I heard Approach ask a Falcon Jet if they could fly into Mexico to fly a Runway 4 GPS approach. At El Paso, the runway 4 ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

How to do the base turn course reversal? [closed]

Can anyone tell me how to do the base turn course reversal? Please. I'm afraid it might be asked of me in my Checkride and my instructors haven't taught me that. Please.
2
votes
2answers
306 views

During an instrument approach, what are the obstruction clearance given?

I was wondering wether each segments of the approach has different minimum obstruction clearance? (E.g. initial, intermediate and final) From both terrain and man made obstacles. If possible i would ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Partial panel power on stall under the hood

What do you use for control and performance instruments while demonstrating power on stall under the hood with attitude and heading indicator covered (No vacuum instruments in 6 packs ) ?
1
vote
1answer
239 views

If you make up your own IFR waypoints, how does ATC know where they are?

If you make your own IFR waypoints, how does ATC know where they are? Just finished my IFR course in Canada. Was surprised to learn that you can make up your own IFR waypoints. If all IFR flights ...
3
votes
1answer
162 views

How does ceiling relate to IFR and VFR?

I'm working on a Python script that takes in metar data and decides if an airport is VFR/IFR/MVFR etc. This is the website that I'm getting the info from: https://www.aviationweather.gov/metar/data?...
14
votes
4answers
3k views

How do pilots align the HUD with their eyeballs?

In fighter jets, how do pilots align the HUD with their eyeballs?
3
votes
0answers
669 views

How Does the FAA Define the Dimensions of the Touchdown Zone?

Does the FAA give a regulatory definition of the term "Touchdown Zone" for use within the context of landing operations? In 14 CFR 91.175 the FAA requires—in certain cases—that pilots must be in a ...
4
votes
0answers
126 views

Is the Common Route, either of a SID or a STAR, related to the Runway Transition (climb phase) or the Enroute Transition (enroute phase)?

Based on this question ("What are the 'parts' of a SID procedure?"), I would like to ask for clarification concerning the role of the Common Route in a SID. As far as I have understood, the most ...
4
votes
1answer
291 views

What is the lowest RNP approach requirement without being RNP AR?

I was recently told by a friend that as soon as RNP for an approach is below the 1.0/0.3nm standard that it is required to be RNP AR. At least here in Australia, a curved segment anywhere on the ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

Descending while turning inbound on a non-precision approach

I'm writing my instrument rating examination soon and one of the questions that I came across was: While executing a VOR A RWY 01 approach for Alexander bay, 2700ft is reached at 8DME on the ...
2
votes
1answer
146 views

How are VFR / GAAP approach points selected?

This is kind of an Australia based question. How are VFR approach points selected and why they are where they are? Also what challenges will pilots face from the GAAP (General Aviation Airport ...
2
votes
1answer
200 views

Is it a violation to list an alternate airport based on an approach your aircraft is not equipped to execute?

A pilot has planned a flight to another airport, and the weather indications at the destination require an alternate airport to be included in the flight plan. An ILS and a VOR approach exist at the ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Can hood time in a glider be logged as simulated instrument time for FAA IR purposes?

I need to build my simulated instrument time toward IR. Can flying under the hood in a glider (with an instructor/safety pilot...) be legally counted as simulated instrument time in the same way would ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

IFR Currency with a safety pilot who has a BasicMed [duplicate]

Here’s my situation and question. For my IFR currency, I’ve asked a friend to be the Safety Pilot. He’s aptly qualified BUT he does not have the traditional Medical, but rather he has BasicMed. My ...
3
votes
1answer
227 views

Does the Enroute Phase begin at a 30NM distance from the departure airport?

ICAO's Doc 8168 Volume II ("Aircraft Operations") states: Part III "Performance-Based Navigation Procedures" Section 1 "Underlying Principles" Chapter 1 "RNAV Concepts" 1.2 "Flight ...
6
votes
2answers
267 views

What can I do if I cancel IFR when I shouldn't have?

Standard procedure for T-38 training is to cancel IFR in the MOA and fly back to the base VFR. A couple days ago I canceled in the MOA out of habit and instantly realized that I was above a broken ...
5
votes
1answer
325 views

Advantages to doing an initial instrument rating training in a Cirrus over a conventional aircraft?

I live in Australia and I'm in the process of choosing a school for my instrument rating. I need feedback from the many of you out there with IFR experience willing to share their thoughts. I'm going ...
3
votes
1answer
424 views

Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
4
votes
3answers
270 views

When a hold is distance based, do you still used a timed entry?

Let's say you have to do a parallel or tear-drop entry to enter this distance-based holding pattern. Do you still fly outbound from the fix for one minute and then make your turn inbound to re-...

1
2 3 4 5
8