Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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What are the limits for IFR legal heading indicator and compass?

I am a student pursuing CPL/MEIR at a flight school in Turkey that's equivalent of a part 141 in the US. Our instrument equipment check procedures for IFR flight contains comparing the compass heading ...
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How would you enter this approach with a racetrack course reversal at EGPH from the southwest?

For reference this is the NDB ILS DME RWY 24 approach at EGPH. When arriving from the south/southwest, I am sure you would be vectored in but i am interested as to how this would be done without ...
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Can VANS RV-12 with Rotax 912 ULS be used/equiped in IFR? [duplicate]

May an instrument rated pilot fly a VANS RV-12 with a Rotax 912 ULS with the following equipment in VMC, under instrument flight rules for IFR training? Dynon 10" HDX Touch Screen Primary ...
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For what reason are the published segment altitudes (circled in red) relevevant and ever used by flight crews flying this STAR?

On the HLYWD ONE Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) into KLAX (Los Angeles International Airport) there are altitudes (circled in red on the images below) published on its "Transition" routes ...
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Can fuzzy dice help in IMC? [duplicate]

Just had this thought as I’ve read about multiple GA accidents that resulted from unintentional flight into IMC with planes not equipped for it (no attitude indicator), resulting in disorientation and ...
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When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...
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Can a missed approach be used to satisfy the requirements for the long cross country as part of an instrument rating?

The long cross country requirements are as follows: §61.65(d)(2) (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an ...
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What instrument approaches can be flown with just a single VOR receiver?

I've been getting ready to do a series of streaming sessions on Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 that demonstrate the extreme limits of IFR capability. With stuff like the G1000, the Cessna 172 will ...
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Is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach?

As written before, is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach? I read somewhere that SBAS is also a possible source, but in that case wouldn’t it be a LPV ...
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Am I allowed to tell ATC "unable" if asked to climb to less than 12,500 ft without supplemental oxygen aboard?

So, 91.211 says I'm not allowed to fly above 12,500 ft without supplemental oxygen. I'm less clear if all planes with a service ceiling above that line are required to have the oxygen aboard in the ...
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Initial six calendar months of instrument currency

FAR 61.57 states that to act as PIC under IFR or weather conditions lower than the minimums prescribed for VFR, you must have performed & logged, within the previous 6 calendar months prior to the ...
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Do helicopters use Ground speed or True airspeed?

Is there a limit on the speed and minimum altitude of the helicopter before switching between the two?
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What's IFR departure procedure from private field with encroaching obstacles but no published ODP?

So, this question's answer says that, absent a published ODP, I should be 35' above DER, and on a 200'/NM climb. But the airfield in the town I grew up in, 26MA, has no ODP; but 200'/NM isn't even ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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How many holds to be IR current?

14 CFR 61.57(c)(1)(ii) requires "Holding procedures and tasks" to be IR current. Within the 6 calendar months preceding the month of the flight, that person performed and logged at least ...
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What is the purpose of an MRA at an intersection such as the one depicted here?

Per Part 95 of Title 14 of the CFRs the Minimum Reception Altitide ("MRA") is defined as "the lowest altitude at which the intersection can be determined using the ground-based ...
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If the glideslope signal is higher than it should be, can I continue the approach? [duplicate]

When I'm passing Precision Final Approach Fix, if my glideslope is two dot above, and my altitude is at PFAF altitude, can I continue my approach with this glideslope signal? Is it legal? I think the ...
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Before certified GPS, how much did a full IFR panel cost?

Certified IFR GPS navigators are expensive, but the price of even used HSIs and DME seem to bring some perspective to that cost. How much did a full IFR upgrade cost back in the day before GPS?
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Holding entry is counted as a one turn holding?

If I ask ATC 'request direct to ABCDE waypoint and one turn holding', do they expect me to do the teardrop entry or parallel entry if I need to and fly the whole holding pattern after that? Or ...
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In a two-pilot aircraft (Capt/FO), are both pilots held responsible for a pilot deviation?

In the U.S. if, for example, an aircraft is instucted by ATC to climb and maintain FL280 but instead climbs to FL290, are both pilots, in an aircraft requiring two pilots (e.g. A320 or similar), held ...
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3 votes
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Is the Morse code identifier required continuously when using a VHF NAVAID for navigation?

I am thinking of getting an MGL N16 VHF Nav radio with the MGL Vega V16 Control head. It has an interesting mode of operation (referred to as SCAN Mode) where the single receiver in the N16 rapidly ...
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Does a circling approach require "one continuous descent to land"?

I recently heard an instructor state that when circling, the pilot "... must execute a single, continuous maneuver once the landing approach is initiated. Don't level off." In his experience ...
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If RVR equipment is inoperative what visibility should be used for an approach where the RVR minimum is 1800 ft?

At KSLC (Salt Lake City International Airport) the ILS minimum RVR for runway 34L is 1800 ft. If the RVR equipment is inoperative and RVR is not reported how do you determine the minimum visibility ...
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4 votes
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What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
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What is considered to be a flight into known Icing?

I am aware that flight into known icing is prohibited if your aircraft is not suitable to fly in icing conditions (unless e.g.: FIKI,...). Given the following example I am wondering if it would be ...
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Can an IFR civilian aircraft use a TACAN for DME distances? [duplicate]

Flying the KRDR LOC RWY 35 approach. How do I get my DME distance to HONNE or CANLI? can we pick up DME distance from a TACAN? Just used GPS Overlay but can we get distance from the TACAN?
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Does the cross country for instrument rating have leg distance requirements?

I already have my commercial rating so I don’t need to do that long XC. IR-Is this 250nm requirement for the total distance of the flight? Sec. 61.65 Instrument rating requirements. (d) Aeronautical ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Can I log simulated IMC time in a simulator without a CFII?

I am working on my instrument rating under part 61. I need 40 hours of simulated IMC and 20 of those hours can be in a certified AATD simulator like a redbird. Do I need a CFII to sign off on those ...
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3 votes
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Why would an airport have a "Z" approach unless there's also a "Y" of the same type?

Napa Airport (KAPC) has an ILS Z 1 approach, but no ILS Y 1. See here. Why isn't this just the ILS 1? The naming rule described in the IPH, referenced here, doesn't explain why this would happen.
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3 votes
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Is there a FAR reference for the IFR required reports listed in the AIM 5-3-3?

Section 5-3-3 of the AIM lists "Additional Reports" that "should" be made on an IFR flight. There are 9 of them in a radar environment and 2 more in non-radar. The only reference ...
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4 votes
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How many degrees deviation from the defined final course can I have to start the descent?

To do a VOR, ILS or RNP approach, I am turning to establish the final approach course. The approach chart shows I should descend to a lower altitude for intercepting the final descent path. So, my ...
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9 votes
2 answers
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What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Does compliance with ATC instructions apply to VFR aircraft in Class G?

(U.S.) 14 CFR 91.123 (b) states: Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which air traffic control is exercised. FAR 91.123(b) was ...
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13 votes
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VFR aircraft on a practice instrument approach—is the aircraft IFR? Do they receive separation?

A VFR aircraft contacts ATC and requests to execute a practice instrument approach (whether full-procedure or vectors-to-final). ATC issues the approach clearance, including the specific words "...
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6 votes
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If cleared for an ILS approach at the Initial Approach Fix, where should I intercept the glideslope?

I am a brand new Instrument Pilot and the answer that I am looking for is related to good technique and not necessarily not what is legal or not. My instructor taught me that when flying an approach ...
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1 vote
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All approaches at airport NA for Alternate planning. Does that mean the same as Airport NA for Alternate if VFR landing is planned?

Jeppesen will use the term "NA" in the "For Filing as Alternate" table if all the available approaches at the given airport are not available. For FAA charts, a pilot will know ...
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What is the reason the MDA for VOR approaches differs from the DA for ILS approaches?

What is the reason for the numerical difference between the MDA altitude in VOR approaches and the DA altitude in ILS approaches?
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1 vote
1 answer
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How do I read this flight plan route?

When I create a flight plan using SimBrief, for example for London Gatwick (EGKK) to Dublin Airport (EIDW), it generates the following route: ...
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3 answers
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Does accepting a VFR Descent cancel IFR?

After flying on an IFR clearance through a line of Thunderstorms, ATC provided me the option of a "VFR descent at own discretion". After descending and with the field in sight I requested to ...
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Where a Contact Approach is conducted there must be a published Instrument Approach to that airport. Why is this?

The following is required in order for a pilot to conduct a "Contact Approach:" Pilot must request it from ATC; Reported ground visibility must be at least one mile; The pilot must remain ...
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3 votes
3 answers
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Can I request a visual approach before I have the field in sight?

I was on an IFR flight plan in VMC. The ATC asked me what approach I wanted, and I said visual approach. He said expect RNAV approach instead without saying why. I wonder if it's okay to ask for ...
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What conditions must be met for Straight in Approach minimums to be published? [duplicate]

Looking at KSEE LOC-D approach, the final course is pretty much lined up with the runway. The MDA leaves you about 1200 AGL. I'm thinking only circling minimums are published because it would be a ...
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What does "when used as an alternate" mean in the context of 135.225(e)?

Here's the text of 135.225(e) [No pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless] The MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums prescribed in part 97 of this chapter or in ...
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8 votes
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Does an IFR flight-plan include the approach?

I tried to create an IFR flight plan (at simbrief.com) and there is something I don't get: Are we supposed to know the runway/approach at the destination airport before taking-off, and add it to the ...
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Is it necessary to switch from VFR to IFR when using ILS approach?

I have flown at an airport and asked for vectors for an ILS approach in VMC for practice. But the controller refused to give me vectors and told me that I could only have a visual approach. I got the ...
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How should this ODP be flown at KELP?

The KELP (El Paso) Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) says: Rwy 4, 8R: climbing right turn heading 120° and ELP R-150 to 9000, then proceed on course. Rwy 22, 26L: climbing left turn heading 120° and ...
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3 votes
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Why does this holding pattern have both minimum and maximum altitudes published?

Reference the VOR-A Approach to Stellar Airpark (P19), in Chandler, Arizona (shown below): When JAROD INT is used for missed approach holding the published procedure calls for the aircraft to climb to ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Too soon to pass the IATRA exam? (Canada) [closed]

I just finished the IFR group 1 rating this week. Currently at 220h Total flight time with CPL, no job in sight (of course), and wondering if I should start studying for the IATRA now or wait until I'...
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3 votes
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Can I document a VOR check with a photo to comply with 91.171(d)?

I'm interested in understanding the limits of what it means to "sign" a record. While enroute for any meaningful length of time, I try to tune two VOR's and I take a photo of the G1000 NXi ...
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Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Is it required to report climbs and descents within a block altitude assignment?

The following is assuming US FAA and IFR. This question stems from a question on CRUISE clearance. Section 4-4-3.d.3 of the 2021 AIM says that in a CRUISE clearance Climbs/Descents within the block ...
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