Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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124 views

Before certified GPS, how much did a full IFR panel cost?

Certified IFR GPS navigators are expensive, but the price of even used HSIs and DME seem to bring some perspective to that cost. How much did a full IFR upgrade cost back in the day before GPS?
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filing an alternate (equipped without baro-vNAV) [closed]

(AIM 1-1-18C.9) said ' base the flight plan on use of LNAV approaches at both the destination and alternate' Could anybody explain what it means using the example? Since all GPS approaches are treated ...
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395 views

Holding entry is counted as a one turn holding?

If I ask ATC 'request direct to ABCDE waypoint and one turn holding', do they expect me to do the teardrop entry or parallel entry if I need to and fly the whole holding pattern after that? Or ...
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163 views

In a two-pilot aircraft (Capt/FO), are both pilots held responsible for a pilot deviation?

In the U.S. if, for example, an aircraft is instucted by ATC to climb and maintain FL280 but instead climbs to FL290, are both pilots, in an aircraft requiring two pilots (e.g. A320 or similar), held ...
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169 views

Is the Morse code identifier required continuously when using a VHF NAVAID for navigation?

I am thinking of getting an MGL N16 VHF Nav radio with the MGL Vega V16 Control head. It has an interesting mode of operation (referred to as SCAN Mode) where the single receiver in the N16 rapidly ...
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744 views

Does a circling approach require "one continuous descent to land"?

I recently heard an instructor state that when circling, the pilot "... must execute a single, continuous maneuver once the landing approach is initiated. Don't level off." In his experience ...
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282 views

If RVR equipment is inoperative what visibility should be used for an approach where the RVR minimum is 1800 ft?

At KSLC (Salt Lake City International Airport) the ILS minimum RVR for runway 34L is 1800 ft. If the RVR equipment is inoperative and RVR is not reported how do you determine the minimum visibility ...
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234 views

What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
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270 views

What is considered to be a flight into known Icing?

I am aware that flight into known icing is prohibited if your aircraft is not suitable to fly in icing conditions (unless e.g.: FIKI,...). Given the following example I am wondering if it would be ...
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67 views

Can an IFR civilian aircraft use a TACAN for DME distances? [duplicate]

Flying the KRDR LOC RWY 35 approach. How do I get my DME distance to HONNE or CANLI? can we pick up DME distance from a TACAN? Just used GPS Overlay but can we get distance from the TACAN?
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Does the cross country for instrument rating have leg distance requirements?

I already have my commercial rating so I don’t need to do that long XC. IR-Is this 250nm requirement for the total distance of the flight? Sec. 61.65 Instrument rating requirements. (d) Aeronautical ...
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279 views

Can I log simulated IMC time in a simulator without a CFII?

I am working on my instrument rating under part 61. I need 40 hours of simulated IMC and 20 of those hours can be in a certified AATD simulator like a redbird. Do I need a CFII to sign off on those ...
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Why would an airport have a "Z" approach unless there's also a "Y" of the same type?

Napa Airport (KAPC) has an ILS Z 1 approach, but no ILS Y 1. See here. Why isn't this just the ILS 1? The naming rule described in the IPH, referenced here, doesn't explain why this would happen.
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122 views

Is there a FAR reference for the IFR required reports listed in the AIM 5-3-3?

Section 5-3-3 of the AIM lists "Additional Reports" that "should" be made on an IFR flight. There are 9 of them in a radar environment and 2 more in non-radar. The only reference ...
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194 views

How many degrees deviation from the defined final course can I have to start the descent?

To do a VOR, ILS or RNP approach, I am turning to establish the final approach course. The approach chart shows I should descend to a lower altitude for intercepting the final descent path. So, my ...
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669 views

What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
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157 views

Does compliance with ATC instructions apply to VFR aircraft in Class G?

(U.S.) 14 CFR 91.123 (b) states: Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which air traffic control is exercised. FAR 91.123(b) was ...
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832 views

VFR aircraft on a practice instrument approach—is the aircraft IFR? Do they receive separation?

A VFR aircraft contacts ATC and requests to execute a practice instrument approach (whether full-procedure or vectors-to-final). ATC issues the approach clearance, including the specific words "...
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If cleared for an ILS approach at the Initial Approach Fix, where should I intercept the glideslope?

I am a brand new Instrument Pilot and the answer that I am looking for is related to good technique and not necessarily not what is legal or not. My instructor taught me that when flying an approach ...
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All approaches at airport NA for Alternate planning. Does that mean the same as Airport NA for Alternate if VFR landing is planned?

Jeppesen will use the term "NA" in the "For Filing as Alternate" table if all the available approaches at the given airport are not available. For FAA charts, a pilot will know ...
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100 views

What is the reason the MDA for VOR approaches differs from the DA for ILS approaches?

What is the reason for the numerical difference between the MDA altitude in VOR approaches and the DA altitude in ILS approaches?
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176 views

How do I read this flight plan route?

When I create a flight plan using SimBrief, for example for London Gatwick (EGKK) to Dublin Airport (EIDW), it generates the following route: ...
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236 views

Does accepting a VFR Descent cancel IFR?

After flying on an IFR clearance through a line of Thunderstorms, ATC provided me the option of a "VFR descent at own discretion". After descending and with the field in sight I requested to ...
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Where a Contact Approach is conducted there must be a published Instrument Approach to that airport. Why is this?

The following is required in order for a pilot to conduct a "Contact Approach:" Pilot must request it from ATC; Reported ground visibility must be at least one mile; The pilot must remain ...
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Can I request a visual approach before I have the field in sight?

I was on an IFR flight plan in VMC. The ATC asked me what approach I wanted, and I said visual approach. He said expect RNAV approach instead without saying why. I wonder if it's okay to ask for ...
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What conditions must be met for Straight in Approach minimums to be published? [duplicate]

Looking at KSEE LOC-D approach, the final course is pretty much lined up with the runway. The MDA leaves you about 1200 AGL. I'm thinking only circling minimums are published because it would be a ...
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What does "when used as an alternate" mean in the context of 135.225(e)?

Here's the text of 135.225(e) [No pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless] The MDA or DA/DH and visibility landing minimums prescribed in part 97 of this chapter or in ...
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Does an IFR flight-plan include the approach?

I tried to create an IFR flight plan (at simbrief.com) and there is something I don't get: Are we supposed to know the runway/approach at the destination airport before taking-off, and add it to the ...
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Is it necessary to switch from VFR to IFR when using ILS approach?

I have flown at an airport and asked for vectors for an ILS approach in VMC for practice. But the controller refused to give me vectors and told me that I could only have a visual approach. I got the ...
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73 views

How should this ODP be flown at KELP?

The KELP (El Paso) Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) says: Rwy 4, 8R: climbing right turn heading 120° and ELP R-150 to 9000, then proceed on course. Rwy 22, 26L: climbing left turn heading 120° and ...
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Why does this holding pattern have both minimum and maximum altitudes published?

Reference the VOR-A Approach to Stellar Airpark (P19), in Chandler, Arizona (shown below): When JAROD INT is used for missed approach holding the published procedure calls for the aircraft to climb to ...
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208 views

Too soon to pass the IATRA exam? (Canada) [closed]

I just finished the IFR group 1 rating this week. Currently at 220h Total flight time with CPL, no job in sight (of course), and wondering if I should start studying for the IATRA now or wait until I'...
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Can I document a VOR check with a photo to comply with 91.171(d)?

I'm interested in understanding the limits of what it means to "sign" a record. While enroute for any meaningful length of time, I try to tune two VOR's and I take a photo of the G1000 NXi ...
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412 views

Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
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Is it required to report climbs and descents within a block altitude assignment?

The following is assuming US FAA and IFR. This question stems from a question on CRUISE clearance. Section 4-4-3.d.3 of the 2021 AIM says that in a CRUISE clearance Climbs/Descents within the block ...
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347 views

When can I descend on a feeder route if instructed “maintain ... until established”

AIM 5-4-6 discusses how Approach Clearance applies to feeder routes. It says that when ATC clears an aircraft for the approach, the aircraft is expected to use a feeder route if applicable. My ...
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IFR training in the free route airspace

The free route airspace is spreading in Central Europe, consuming routes and decomissioning VORs. There are no routes left in the high airspace, and some of the FIRs keep a few low (up to FL95) RNAV ...
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Instrument Approaches which do not have a FAF

Most instrument approaches denote the Final Approach Fix (FAF) as the start of the final approach segment terminating in either the Missed Approach Point (MAP) for non-precision approaches or a ...
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128 views

In what airspace may gliders fly in clouds in the UK without an IFR flight plan and without contacting any air traffic control facility?

In what airspace may gliders (sailplanes) legally be flown in clouds in the UK without an IFR flight plan and without contacting any air traffic control facility? Also, how high does this class (...
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132 views

Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
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1answer
153 views

Can instrument training be done in IMC with an instrument-rated safety pilot? [duplicate]

I'd like to fly some hours towards an instrument rating by flying with a safety pilot. I have a safety pilot who is instrument-rated and current (he's working on building time towards a commercial ...
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1answer
298 views

Why would an ILS have a glide path angle less than the preferred 3°?

According to EASA the preferred Glide Path Angle is 3°: EASA Easy Access Rules - Page 22 - 4.1.2.1. There are some airports (e.g. Larnaca 2.75°) which are using a lower Glide Path Angle than 3°. Using ...
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159 views

Is the procedure turn mandatory at non towered airports? [duplicate]

Here is instrument VOR-A approach at Eagle Lake. If I am coming from the north, it looks to me a big waste to make a procedure turn. On the other hand there is nobody there to approve straight-in ...
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1answer
351 views

Are both RVR and visibility minimum required for CAT I ILS?

Is it required to have both RVR and visibility to be more than minimum for ILS CAT 1 or one of them is acceptable. If both required which one has priority.
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2k views

Can I fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) if I can't maintain the minimum speed for it?

I fly a single-engine airplane not capable of more than 120 KIAS. I'd love to fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) into my local airport (US), but want to make sure I fully understand the STAR ...
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1answer
85 views

Why is Transition Altitude fixed but Transition Level is not?

In Jeppesen approach plates we see that the Transition Altitude of the aerodrome is fixed but the Transition Level is not fixed and is given by ATC. What is the reason for this?
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1answer
1k views

When can I start an approach if I lose comms and my clearance limit is not an initial approach fix?

Here is the AIM's definition for a clearance limit: CLEARANCE LIMIT− The fix, point, or location to which an aircraft is cleared when issued an air traffic clearance Assume a clearance such as: &...
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between Cloud Ceiling and Cloud Base?

By definition, Cloud ceiling is The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half the sky. So does, Cloud Ceiling ...
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1answer
215 views

Can a US pilot residing in the EU fly N-reg under IFR on a US PPL?

I am a US citizen living in the Netherlands, and I have an FAA PPL(A) with current IR as well as an EASA PPL(A) without IR. I am currently trying to figure out my easiest path to IR conversion, as I ...
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1answer
134 views

Per the AIM, Helicopter pilots may fly non-copter approaches at half the published visibility. Where is that in the FAR?

In AIM 10-1-2 Helicopter Instrument Approaches, paragraph a1 says the visibility reduction rule comes from 14 CFR Section 97.3. From what I can see, that section is just definitions. What is the AIM ...

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