Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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22 views

When a hold is distance based, do you still used a timed entry?

Let's say you have to do a parallel or tear-drop entry to enter this distance-based holding pattern. Do you still fly outbound from the fix for one minute and then make your turn inbound to re-...
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2answers
97 views

Distance to the runway/ touchdown point

Trying to learn about aviation, and looking through all the displays in the cockpit, and also the Garmin G1000, I am not sure where I see the distance to the runway touchdown point, or the start of ...
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19 views

How much of an instrument approach must be in instrument conditions in order to qualify for currency as actual instrument? [duplicate]

I've always wondered if there is any guidance on logging of instrument approaches in actual conditions when the conditions are only actual for some portion of the approach. Hypothetical example: A ...
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1answer
55 views

May an instrument instructor log instrument approaches that a student flies in simulated conditions as approaches for currency purposes?

I was told by a fellow CFII today who says he was told this by a former DPE that a CFII who is providing training to a student can log that student's simulated instrument approaches as the instructor'...
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29 views

What does this line in Minimum Sector Altitude mean?

This is from the AIP Australia ENR 1.5-7 and I need some help interpreting it for my IREX please. In instances where the 25NM MSA has been divided into sectors, and the appropriate 25NM Sector ...
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2answers
110 views

Does ICAO allow continued flight in RVSM airspace after a transponder failure?

If a civil aircraft's transponder fails in RVSM airspace, can it still be allowed to fly in RVSM according to ICAO? And could it be allowed to fly in class A airspace, according to ICAO?
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1answer
64 views

When is a procedure turn not required? [duplicate]

If you are not being radar vectored to the FAF or on a “no PT” transition, are there any other circumstances where a procedure turn that is depicted on an approach chart is not required?
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1answer
89 views

Is the “auto-routing” created by online flight planning resources preferred by ATC over Direct routing when NO preferred route exists?

I noticed that when I use online flight planning resources, they provide an "auto-routing" option for my flight. I also noticed that they are the same between both services so it seems like both are ...
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0answers
54 views

When does the mandatory minimum climb gradient during an Instrument Departure Procedure end?

While studying FAA's Instrument Procedure Handbook, I noticed these minimum performance requirements for obstacle clearance, when a SID or ODP is absent for a particular runway: -- Cross the ...
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1answer
120 views

Is it ever allowed to list your destination airport as the IFR alternate too? [duplicate]

Is it legal (in certain conditions) to have your primary airport of intended landing, also listed as the alternate?
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1answer
85 views

For an airport to be designated as an IFR alternate, does it have to have a TAF?

For an airport to be designated as an IFR alternate, does it have to have a terminal aerodrome forecast at the alternate airport to confirm that the forecast 600-2 and 800-2 will be in place at the ...
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2answers
100 views

Do I have to follow airways to meet the IFR cross country 250 NM flight requirement in 61.65?

I understand that there is cross-country flight of "a distance of at least 250 nm along airways or ATC-directed routing" requirement for the IFR rating, but I'm not sure if understand what the second ...
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1answer
102 views

To use the equipment suffix “G”, does the GPS have to be certified for IFR?

To use the equipment suffix "G", does the GPS have to be certified for IFR flight?
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3answers
247 views

Is it normal to instruct an aircraft to squawk VFR if it goes around on an IFR visual approach? [closed]

A pilot is flying IFR on a visual approach to a towered airport. He elects to go around due to gusting winds and notifies the tower. The tower then asks his intentions. He replies that he would still ...
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1answer
125 views

Where can I find official definition of VFR and IFR? [duplicate]

I know that ICAO Annex 2 'Rules of the air' states rules such as general rules, visual flight rules, instrument flight rules, etc. And aircraft should fly in accordance with either visual flight rules ...
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1answer
102 views

For IFR flights that require two alternates, is there a regulation that requires enough fuel to reach the furthest one?

For flights that have two alternate destinations, I'm looking for a reference - either EASA or ICAO - that states that you need enough fuel to reach whichever alternate would require the most fuel to ...
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2answers
101 views

How to interpret/use “Fix Minimums” (at KALB)

This one stumped both myself and my CFI. Im specifically asking about the minimums at KALB IL/LOC 19 but a general answer is also appreciated. The plate lists two distinct sets of minimums and we ...
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70 views

Does an autopilot that controls roll, pitch and a yaw damper meet the requirements of 135.105(c)(1)?

For single-pilot VFR operations, 14 CFR 135.105(c)(1) requires that: The autopilot is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and maneuver it about the three axes Does this ...
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2answers
265 views

Does an airport need to have at least one instrument approach that I can use in order to fly IFR to it?

Half Moon Bay (KHAF) does not have any instrument approaches into the airport that I can use. All the approaches require RNAV but my aircraft is not RNAV-capable. Can I fly IFR to it? I'm thinking ...
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1answer
279 views

What is the definition of mountainous area?

MEA, MORA, grid MORA, and MOCA for a non-mountainous area gives 1,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle, and in mountainous area gives 2,000 ft clearance from the highest obstacle. But what is ...
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88 views

When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
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3answers
361 views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
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2answers
247 views

What does the “visibility” number mean on an approach plate?

In the profile view in an approach plate, there is a visibility number next to the MDA or DA. What does it mean? Is it limitation to use the approach?
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1answer
73 views

How does turning Errors in the Air Driven Artificial Horizon work?

Turning through 90°, 180°, 270° & 360°, the error is different. I can understand what is turning error and pitch error individually. But why turning through different degree, the resulting error ...
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1answer
266 views

What are the specific side step minimums for an approach?

This question piques my curiosity a bit on this subject. In regards to circling approaches the AIM 5-4-19 states that a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument approach procedure which serves ...
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1answer
200 views

How to understand the requirements for IFR currency?

So the requirement reads "six instrument approaches; Holding procedures; and Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems." I am still a little unclear on how to interpret ...
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2answers
165 views

Does an IFR flight at night in VMC count as “night VFR conditions” (FAR 61.129)?

FAR 61.129 several times uses the phrase “night VFR conditions.” Does this mean strictly flights conducted under VFR at night, or does it include night flights conducted under IFR but in VMC?
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3answers
596 views

Where can I find the exact definition of VFR and IFR?

Although I have worked as ATC more than 5 years(not US), I don't know the exact definition of VFR and IFR. Of coure, I know that under VFR, pilot mainly use their eyes to navigate, but I want to know ...
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0answers
60 views

What is the specific FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? [duplicate]

What is the FAA regulation with regards to a pilot dropping jumpers into a solid cloud base? I saw some parachute jumpers come through a solid cloud layer with a base at around 1300 AGL. They landed ...
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0answers
54 views

Is it legal to fly this approach in Bahrain if the VORTAC is out of service?

Can I fly the VOR/DME/ILS RWY 33R approach at Bahrain/Isa Airbase (OBBS) if the OBBS VORTAC is out of service?
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155 views

Are the terms “Coupled approach” and “Hand flown approach” strictly defined?

I was looking on SE and also Google for the answer, but couldn't find anything. My question is when to log an approach as coupled or handflown? All of the approaches I fly are CAT I but the aircraft's ...
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1answer
416 views

What's the difference between the Multi Engine Instrument Rating and Instrument Rating in Canada?

Are the requirements for the Multi Engine Instrument Rating the same as Instrument Rating in Canada or is there a separate exam for each of them? Thanks!
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1answer
377 views

What are the differences between blue airports and green ones on the low en-route chart?

As far as I know, a brown airport on the low en-route chart does not have an approach procedure but blue and green airports do. But what exactly are the differences between these colors?
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1answer
231 views

Does an instrument rating bridge category and class?

I had previously been under the impression that if a pilot held an instrument rating that it would apply to aircraft in another class. The requirements of 61.57 would seem to support that since ...
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1answer
377 views

confusion between RNAV and RNP approaches and specifiations [duplicate]

Ive been really confused between these two specifications recently. For example my research suggested that RNP has on board monitoring and alerting and RNAV doesn't require this, however then why must ...
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1answer
2k views

Are QDM and QDR the same as 'inbound' and 'outbound' courses?

I'm about to take my last test to join an airline: the simulator. I've been told they ask to perform some QDR/QDM interceptions, as well as radial ones. About QDM/QDR: QDM: Magnetic course from the ...
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1answer
171 views

What route should I fly in this lost comms scenario?

As I've studied, when a pilot faces a lost comm situation the pilot considers two things which are 'fly to altitude' and 'fly to route'. For 'fly to route', the pilot follows or chooses the route ...
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1answer
98 views

Fly over or fly by question

As far as I know, we're to fly-over a RNAV fix if such is drawn surrounded by a circle. But, in non RNAV procedures, how do I know that I must fly-over a fix? E.g.:Taking this chart into account: ...
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2answers
348 views

What does it mean to fly a procedure turn?

So, I'm flying IFR to Newport (KONP) for the ILS RWY 16. There's an aircraft on the approach, so I'm cleared direct BUHRS at 5000' to enter the hold as published. I get to BUHRS, I turn outbound on ...
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1answer
937 views

Vertical and horizontal separation between cruising and climbing aircraft

I was recently a passenger on a commercial aircraft at cruise altitude when I noticed another aircraft just reaching its cruising altitude while crossing our flightpath from below, at what looked like ...
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1answer
621 views

Why are the minimums between these two ILS instrument approaches to the same runway so different?

The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Z Rwy 16R are 1095/40. The minimums for the Van Nuys ILS Y Rwy 16R are 1461-1 1/2. Question: Why are the minimums for the ILS Z so much lower than the minimums for ...
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63 views

What indicated altitude should I hold at after missed approach at KTVL airport

Assume I'm planning on conducting the GPS RWY 18 approach at KTVL (Lake Tahoe airport) and the current temperature is -40C. If I execute a missed approach and proceed to the holding fix (HETRY), at ...
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1answer
160 views

Substitute Suitable RNAV system for Inop Radar on approach “requiring” Radar

Assuming my aircraft's navigation equipment is a "Qualified/Suitable RNAV System," as defined by AC 90-108, is it legal for me to fly the LDA Y Rwy 19 IAP to DCA with ATC Radar out of service? Here ...
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5answers
4k views

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally “maneuver at will” in actual IMC?

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC? Let's say you want to practice a series of reversing 360-degree turns and not have to communicate every change in ...
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3answers
3k views

In the US, is it legal to cover up some of the required gyro instruments during flight under IFR in actual IMC?

In the US, is it legal to cover up some of the required gyro instruments during flight under IFR in actual IMC? The purpose being for "partial panel" practice.
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3answers
310 views

Navigate to the final approach course after radio failure under IFR

What would ATC expect the pilot to do if, at the position marked below by the red X, the aircraft lost radio communication and was on a radar vector heading 250 degrees at/assigned 3000 msl and the ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the role of an intermediate fix?

There are the IAF and the FAF, which has clear roles. One is where you start the approach and the other where you start to descent and end the approach. But what is the purpose of an Intermediate fix?
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1answer
2k views

Can a flight instructor without instrument rating legally provide instrument training?

In the US the FAA requires student pilots to receive at least 3hrs of instrument flight training. Can a flight instructor that does not hold an instrument rating legally provide a private pilot ...
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1answer
275 views

IFR to VFR Flight Plan Change [duplicate]

A pilot has filed an IFR flight plan. While airborne, he feels like changing to VFR flight. Can he request for it and what are the conditions?
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3answers
1k views

How long is a clearance void time valid?

You're picking up your IFR clearance on the ground and you get a 10 minute void time from now. What phase of flight is that 10 minute void time clearance good until? ..your wheels are up? ..a ...