Questions tagged [instrument-flight-rules]

Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations governing aircraft operations. IFR permits flying and navigating by instruments alone in conditions where there is no visual reference outside the aircraft.

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3answers
136 views

Is using a VOR considered IFR or VFR?

As the title mentioned. And also, is using it in zero visibility (or near) a real life scenario?
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Which sub-scale setting may a pilot use on an instrument approach in South Africa--QFE or QNH?

I saw this question in my Instrument Rating exam and I need to know which answer is correct, A or B. Question: As far as the vertical reference of an aircraft during the final approach segment of an ...
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1answer
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KSEE LOC-D conundrum

Consider the LOC-D at KSEE and note the Alternate Minimums criteria. 99.9% of the time, the winds strongly favor 27R; The tower closes at 1900 PT currently (usually at 2100 PT non COVID times); LOC-D ...
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1answer
354 views

Can a non-IFR rated pilot accept an IFR clearance, provided the operation occurs in VMC only?

According to this FAA ruling a pilot can operate an aircraft under an IFR flight plan even if the aircraft is not IFR certified, provided the operation occurs in VMC. What the ruling doesn't ...
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Can you change airways when they cross without a named fix?

There are a few victor airways that cross without a named fix, just two solid lines drawn over each other on the IFR low charts. Can these be used as intersections for changing airways in IFR route ...
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Do I need to call Clearance Delivery for IFR Practices when taking off from a D airport?

I have the following question: If I am going to practice IFR approaches under VFR, do I need to contact clearance delivery for that or it's enough to contact ground and state my intentions? I would ...
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152 views

How far along was JFK Jr. in his instrument training?

I read up a little more about the infamous and tragic incident. JFK Jr. had over 300 hours logged, and about 36 in the Saratoga, half of which was solo. It's not like he was a newly minted VFR pilot ...
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1answer
94 views

Why RNAV SIDs and STARs are RNAV 1 instead of RNP 1?

I am studying for my CFII check-ride and I was wondering to know why SIDs and STARs are not RNP 1 but RNAV 1? Let's start with the following two definitions RNP - Required Navigation Performance: It's ...
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3answers
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IFR requirement for altimeter question (i.e. +/- 75 feet) [closed]

What if the ATIS/AWOS/ASOS results in a very low or very high altimeter setting (i.e. barometric pressure)? Surely this setting will result in an altimeter setting way outside the envelope of the +/- ...
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2answers
107 views

How do I determine holding pattern entry and direction in this example?

I need help with this question for the IFR written test: "A pilot receives this ATC clearance: '...CLEARED TO THE XYZ VORTAC. HOLD NORTH ON THE THREE SIX ZERO RADIAL, LEFT TURNS...' What is the ...
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255 views

Why are the MSA direction needles not oriented to north?

Why is it when you look at an MSA the arrows are pointed opposite of where they should be?
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1answer
94 views

How to navigate onto VOR RWY 18 approach at KDEC?

Maybe a dumb question. I've seen a few places where a VOR approach doesn't have an obvious (to me) way to get lined up inbound without radar vectors. Say you don't have GPS and you're navigating with ...
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2answers
88 views

What altitude to use for IFR off-airways route

Say I want to fly off-airways (both Victor airways and T routes) for my IFR flight, direct to my destination in the US. How do I know what my off-route altitude should be so I can file for that? I ...
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1answer
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Is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace?

In the US, is some sort of clearance, such as a clearance to enter nearby controlled airspace, required to legally fly in IMC in Class G airspace? Or to put the question another way, in the US, may an ...
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Why do helicopter operations avoid IFR?

In almost any airplane commercial operation, unless you’re doing something very short haul daytime ops, an Instrument Rating is all but required with airplanes(it’s even in the FARs). Generally the ...
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92 views

How accurately do I need to maintain my altitude while VFR-on-top?

Is holding altitude as stringent a requirement when flying VFR-on-top? If the deviation exceeds say 200 feet off a given VFR altitude (i.e. 5500’ heading eastbound) is this as big of an issue for ATC?
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Could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time?

In the US, could a flight ever be considered to be operating under Visual Flight Rules and Instrument Flight Rules at the same time? If not, where in the FARs is this spelled out? Consider the ...
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Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E airspace in the US?

Does a glider pilot need to file an IFR flight plan to legally fly in cloud in class E (controlled) airspace in the US? Or could he or she contact ATC and receive a clearance to enter cloud without ...
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What organisation owns intersection names?

I understand that five letter intersection codes (such as WARPI, PAPPI, KUBBS, ROSLY, ZALPO, ...) are unique in the world. However, their names don't comprise a national prefix (as aircraft tail ...
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What does “airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exception” mean?

I was reading Cessna IFR Training program and came across this line that airspace above 14,500 MSL is controlled with few exceptions. What does it really mean? Class A doesn't start until 18,000 ft, ...
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How should one fly the entry procedure to an approach when the hold is not aligned with the outbound course?

Consider the following NDB DME approach into runway 08 at Jersey (EGJJ): Let's assume we are coming in from the North and are currently cleared direct to the JW NDB flying inbound on a 180° track. ...
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3answers
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When does ATC contact the pilot for a frequency change?

Usually, when the aircraft enters a new flight information region for example, ATC will ask the pilot to enter a new frequency. I'm curious about when they do. Is there a rule about it (in an IFR ...
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IAP / “Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts” What does “Procedure NA” Mean?

The image below is of an FAA "Instrument Approach Procedure" The entire thing is the "Procedure" It contains a "Procedure Turn", which when not required typically states: "NoPT" Now, in some places ...
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Why and how would I land straight-in from a circle-to-land approach?

I'm currently studying for an IR (US). One of the exam practice questions concerns an IAP having only circling minimums, and references 5-4-20(c) of the AIM, which reads: Straight-in Minimums are ...
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FAA's handbook, “in the middle of instrument”means where in this page?And is there anything wrong in ths page that I can correct?

Excuse me, does anyone know how to correct this page. My English and knowledge of aircraft is not well. this is one of FAA's handbook, "Instrument Flying Handbook" and its "Instrument Flying Handbook ...
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98 views

What is an approved weather source for flying an instrument approach into an airport with no working ATIS?

What can you use as viable weather information landing at an airport with ATIS inoperative due to the tower being closed after hours? Let's assume the approach secondary weather source is also ...
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56 views

At what altitude should I join overhead a fix when my legal MSA is lower than the holding altitude?

For example, if my MSA is 4600ft and the holding altitude is 6500ft, am I legally allowed to join overhead the fix at 4600ft, or do I need to join overhead the station at 6500ft?
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768 views

Can a pilot initiate an enroute descent to an IAF without ATC 's approval?

An IFR flight is cleared DIRECT to a published IAF for an approach at the destination airport. The cruising altitude is 10,000’, the IAF crossing altitude is 2,000’ and the T/D begins about 24nm prior ...
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1answer
97 views

Having trouble reading some charts (SBMG-SBLO)

I'm a flight sim user practicing instrument navigation with a short and apparently simple flight, SBMG to SBLO (South America). The distance between the two airports is 49.5 nautical miles (the ...
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What is considered to be a approved deviation in an ILS beam during a CAT3 approach?

For category 3 approaches, the airport has to transition to LVP mode. In this mode- the holding points are taken back a little bit and the runway surroundings are clear. My question is- Is there a ...
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When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
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127 views

What is the difference between high altitude vs low altitude approach?

Is there any factor that influences the decision of whether to take a high or low instrument approach (e.g. Hi Tacan or Low Tacan)? What are the differences between these two approaches?
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How should this ODP be flown if heading east?

The KFDK departure procedure for RWY 23 states: DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 23, climb heading 229° to 1200 before turning right. Does this only apply if making any sort of right turn after ...
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Why are there no emergency flight rules in place to prevent IFR-certified helicopters, operating under special VFR, crashing in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

In modern times, engineering allows humans to do everything: Drive in fast cars or trains, diving into the deep sea, and even going to space. Which is a great thing indeed. But when it comes to ...
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1answer
263 views

Why do helicopters crash in low visibility (IMC)? [closed]

There are no known direct eyewitnesses of the crash of helicopter flight Sikorsky S-76B N72EX with 9 people on board, including Kobe Bryant. However, there are many earwitnesses who heard the ...
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134 views

What's the difference between a Sole Means Navigation System and a Primary Means Navigation System? [closed]

For bonus points, how you define a supplemental means navigation system?
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143 views

When does an instrument approach “begin” per §135.225(a)

§135.225(a) states that, "...no pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless— (1) That airport has a weather reporting facility operated by the U.S. National Weather Service, ...
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Is there a penalty for changing the approach procedure after accepting one?

For example: If you request a visual approach and get approved, but you meant to request an ILS approach, are you not allowed to change it? Is there some type of penalty for changing approaches after ...
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5answers
406 views

Why are primary and supportive instruments in instrument flying different depending on the phase of flight?

For example, in straight-and-level flight, the power's primary instrument is the Air Speed Indicator (ASI), and the supportive are the engine instruments. In another example, straight constant-...
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1answer
92 views

A Question about Departure Procedures at KLRU

The Las Cruces International Airport has the following text in the Takeoff Minimums and ODP document: LAS CRUCES, NM LAS CRUCES INTL (LRU) TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND (OBSTACLE) DEPARTURE ...
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What is the proper phraseology for a clearance with a named obstacle departure procedure?

The Phoenix Mesa-Gateway Airport (KIWA) has a named obstacle departure procedure - the Phoenix Departure. What's the correct phraseology for when clearance assigns it to you? Is it "N123AB, cleared ...
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280 views

What is CBIR & Basic IR?

I know that the IR - Instrument rating - is the full-blown option to be allowed to fly IFR. I also know that EIR - En-route Instrument rating - is an option to have a license that's restricted to fly ...
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144 views

What is required by and for flights that cross borders in terms of border control?

This can apply to countries that have water in between, like the UK-France or US-Canada. If an aircraft crosses into neighbouring country, does it need to go to a border-controlled airport (with ...
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312 views

How long is a climb leg in a step-climb cruise flight segment allowed to take, according to regulations (FAA/EASA)?

I am working on a trajectory optimisation program for commercial, large aircraft, in which I want to incorporate realistic air traffic control regulations. One of the constraints I want to incorporate ...
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If the airport reported BKN002, would that prevent performing a DH 259' approach?

According to this Instrument Approach: The published Minimums are a Visibility of 1300 m, and a DH of 259 feet. In accordance with ICAO, would the Visibility and Ceiling be above the Published ...
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If you were to fly an ILS in a knife edge would you receve GS and LOC be flipped?

because LOC and GS work the same way, if you were to fly one at 90 degrees bank would your information be displayed on the wrong indicators?
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2answers
925 views

How can I identify the FAF on this Jeppesen chart?

According to this Jeppesen ILS Approach Chart: How can the FAF be identified? Would it be the point at which the G/S is intercepted? What is the difference between FAF and FAP?
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155 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
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339 views

Can I file IFR DIRECT with a non-WAAS GPS?

The AIM 1-1-17 2 (a) states: Aircraft using un-augmented GPS (TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and operational means of navigation ...
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183 views

What requirements are needed to fly an approach that requires you to fly over the US/Mexico border?

I was flying North of El Paso Texas listening to El Paso Approach when I heard Approach ask a Falcon Jet if they could fly into Mexico to fly a Runway 4 GPS approach. At El Paso, the runway 4 ...

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