Questions tagged [wing]

For questions on an airplane's main wing

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How do I choose Cl during cruise flight with a given MTOM and variable S?

Currently I'm challenging myself to build an airplane from scratch. I have a background in aeronautical engineering but I have no experience in actually designing an aircraft from the ground up. (FYI: ...
eckh_ma's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
57 views

Lift distribution of a swept wing with twist, dihedral, taper

I am trying to get the lift distribution of a swept wing with taper (in chord and thickness along the span), twist, and dihedral. I know that Kuchemann Index method is used for swept wings but I am ...
RNG's user avatar
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0 answers
70 views

What is Effective Wingspan?

what is Effective wingspan and why it is said ground effect increase "effective wingspan" of an aircraft? Why would vortex affected by surface result in an increase of "effective ...
Alex Gallegos's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
690 views

Airliner sharp wing tip vs elleptical [duplicate]

Now that most airliner manufacturers are using composite materials for wings, making compound curves is much easier to produce, why aren't we seeing elliptical wings, outer panels or wing tips? ...
jwzumwalt's user avatar
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0 answers
94 views

Has a supersonic airplane with a truss-braced wing been studied/developed?

The X-66 truss braced jet is to be transonic. But have any published studies or development programs been done for a supersonic equivalent? Seems like someone considered it, given that it allows ...
Abdullah is not an Amalekite's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
103 views

Drag breakdown of a typical civil airplane wing

How much of the drag produced by a typical GA/airliner/cargo plane's wing at cruise is induced, frictional, and pressure drag?
Abdullah is not an Amalekite's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is the clamshell on the AN-72 what causes the Coanda effect?

The AN-72 uses the Coandă effect to improve lift and give it better STOL features. In this image of an AN-72 (presumably on a takeoff roll) one can see a clam-shell bucket open at the top of the ...
FreeMan's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
74 views

Spanwise lift distribution units

I was recently reading NASA/Boeing’s report on the Transonic Truss Braced Wing (the SUGAR IV final report), and noticed that when they graph the spanload for the design they graph lift coefficient ...
Alastair Wyllie's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
112 views

what are the compression forces in a strut if the strut is fixed

i am trying to match an experiment i have done and i dont know how to compute the force in the strut in terms of F given these boundary conditions. i have attempted to use fixed end moment equations ...
mwtb123's user avatar
  • 11
4 votes
2 answers
832 views

Swept outer section of the wing on turboprops

It's quite common to see turboprops having a wing with the outer part of the wing with a small sweep (around 3 deg at 1/4 of the chord). What's the reason? It's usually stated that wing taper is used ...
user72410's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
324 views

What is the mathematical relationship between mass and speed for constant thrust in level fight?

Imagine that we have a wing with constant thrust in level flight. Then imagine that we add mass to that wing. In order to maintain level flight, I would expect that the angle of attack would need to ...
Monty Wild's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
125 views

How do I get rid of this chord line along the x-axis when importing an airfoil into XFLR5?

Whenever I try to import an airfoil into XFLR5, I always notice the chord centerline along the x-axis as you can see in the picture. Is there a way to somehow get rid of this line? I'd be thankful for ...
xdpilot12's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
50 views

Are there any sources that contain information on the airfoils of the Boeing 737-500 and 737NG Aircraft?

I have found some information about this on airfoiltools.com (http://airfoiltools.com/airfoil/details?airfoil=b737a-il) but it doesn't specify the exact version of the aircraft, as the generations ...
Joe Dahl's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
156 views

Why does the F/A-18 use external aileron and flap hinges?

As seen in the picture, the legacy Hornet uses ailerons and flaps with external hinges, and I was wondering what were the advantages of external hinges compared to flush hinges in the land-based ...
Nathan Zhou's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
477 views

Different Engine/Prop Sizes on Same Wing/Single Craft?

On a four propeller/engine wing, I’m wondering if theoretically at least, you could have a larger engine near the root of the wing with smaller engine(s) further out on the span..?.. If you could have ...
Greg Dean's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
92 views

Incidence angle in Sailplane

I am determining the shape of the fuselage of a sailplane and I found something that gives me a little conflict, and that is that in most sailplanes it has an inclined tip, I read that this helps ...
andy's user avatar
  • 135
2 votes
4 answers
260 views

Moving from 2D wing to 3D wing design

In terms of the design perspective of an Aircraft, once we decide on the airfoil that would be used for the wing, how would an Aerodynamics Engineer (or you) proceed to construct the wing? The ...
KNVCSG's user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Is there an equation to solve for bank angle using load factor and wing loading as variables? If so, what is it?

The problem is that I'm looking for both wing loading and load factor as variables to solve for bank angle and cannot find any equation that represents this. After searching various websites and not ...
Sam Jones's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
166 views

Effect of wing flexible in stall

How true is it that the deflection (due to large aspect ratio, flexible wing ) of a wing has a certain effect on the stall characteristics? I read about this in the case of large wingspan gliders. ...
andy's user avatar
  • 135
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

Pitching moment due to control surface deflection

How can you predict the change in lift and pitching moment produced by control surface at a certain deflection angle? I am aware that the effectiveness of the control surface is affected by ...
BierRitter's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
413 views

How is the wing area of an airplane determined?

Picture source is from here. Here are wing areas of several airplanes. As we can see the Spitfire, B747-400, and Mirage 2000, their wing area are not rectangular. The line drawn from left side to the ...
AirCraft Lover's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
338 views

How is a turboprop engine mounted to the wing?

For a given turboprop plane such as the ATR-72, there doesn't seem to be a pylon as on turbofan driven planes. This question: How are engines mounted onto wings? has answers that detail how a pylon is ...
keg504's user avatar
  • 23
1 vote
1 answer
293 views

What are some of the advantages of inverse-tapered wings?

Inverse tapered wings are rarely used in aviation. The only legitimate plane I know about with inverse-tapered wings is the XF-91 Thunderceptor. So why aren't they used. What are the disadvantages of ...
Mateo's user avatar
  • 746
2 votes
2 answers
167 views

Any instances of circular wings in full scale gliders/airplanes?

As a kid building from The Great International Paper Airplane Book I was intrigued by the very unconventional plane seen near the bottom of this page with the two circular wings connected by a rigid ...
SDH's user avatar
  • 650
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

What is the material of the wing spar on the Mitsubishi MU-2?

I read that the spar on Twin Commanders are made of steel. Is this also the case for the MU-2?
javiation's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
404 views

Is an airfoil's critical angle of attack measured using "geometric angle of attack" or "effective angle of attack?"

One of the first things we learn about stalls is that they occur when a wing exceeds a certain critical angle of attack, which depends on the specific design of the wing. But if a given wing has a ...
Ethan B's user avatar
  • 659
1 vote
3 answers
210 views

What is a wing theory?

I have an assignment to summarize the topic "wing theory", with the preferred reference used is the book Fundamentals of Aerodynamics by John D. Anderson. But there's no dedicated chapter ...
Robust Bottlecap's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why does the trailing edge have a more pronounced taper than the leading edge on the Cessna 172?

Why does the Cessna 172 have a more pronounced taper on the trailing edge as opposed to the leading edge?
Boeing787's user avatar
  • 6,454
10 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why is this screw on the wing of DASH-8 Q400 sticking out, is it safe?

Was flying with the Dash-8 Q400 and saw the screw sticking out? It's on the wing near the wheel compartment as shown in the picture. Even if safe, it doesn't look pleasant to the passenger. Are loose ...
Eugen Sunic's user avatar
19 votes
5 answers
6k views

What control inputs to make if a wing falls off?

If a wing is severed due to structural damage or from a mid-air collision, what is the best control input to make? I would think opposite aileron and rudder, i.e. if right wing falls off, input full ...
Cloud's user avatar
  • 13.3k
0 votes
1 answer
163 views

How to calculate boundary layer thickness?

So I have a flat plate with a surface of 7sqm and an aspect ratio of 12 with air blowing straight at it (like a wing) at a speed of 50km/h. I would like to manually calculate the thickness of the ...
Vincent Cerowski's user avatar
14 votes
4 answers
3k views

What are these pipelines for between the folding wing mechanism of F4 Phantom II FGR2 and Buccaneer?

The top picture is from Buccaneer and rest are from F4 FGR2. There's not any sealing mechanism between the joints, so these can’t be fuel or hydraulic related. They might have something to do with the ...
Daniel Yang's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Determining optimum area of parafoil, and then drag

I am designing a parafoil recovery system for a small payload of 300x100x500mm (2.4kg). I have chosen an Aspect Ratio of 3, and from a NASA wind tunnel test report, the coefficient of lift and drag is ...
Angus Pollock's user avatar
13 votes
7 answers
3k views

Are there any known aircraft (experimental, otherwise) with non-fixed vertical/horizontal stabilizers?

Imagining contortions of the vertical/horizontal stabilizers and possible use cases for dodging or acrobatics, I was wondering if there were any known aircraft with such a design.
Josh Hibschman's user avatar
19 votes
4 answers
6k views

Why doesn’t lightning punch a hole in the fuselage?

Electric arcing creates a huge temperature in the air around it. When lightning strikes planes, why doesn’t this high temperature air melt/deform the aircraft skin? Also can these high temperatures ...
Sohail Khan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
691 views

Oswalds efficiency factor for trapezoidal wing

For a part of my university project we have to approximate 2d to 3d data ideally using oswalds efficiency factor, the equations given to us are for either rectangular or swept wings however the wing I ...
DanjSmith98's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
119 views

How does a trailing edge flap move on an Airbus A320?

Airbus flaps move in flight direction [link] I don't exactly understand how that works, do they move just 180 degrees (opposite direction) of the flight path or is it something else? And doesn't ...
Aviation Enthusiast's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
193 views

Disadvantages of the Fowler trailing edge flap?

I get that the trailing edge plain flap has disadvantages (like tendency to separate flow as I read on a question on here) But what’s so bad with the fowler flap? Aren’t they like really efficient and ...
FlightWatcher's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
2k views

Which one of these flaps is used on take off and land?

I’m really confused about which one of these flaps is used on take off and land? I didn’t even know there were different types, I thought that the top configuration was the only used one today? Also, ...
FlightWatcher's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why are trailing edge flaps used for landing? [duplicate]

Why are flaps used when landing? Doesn’t a flap increase lift? Edited: why are there so many different flaps on the back of a wing? Isn’t one just used when taking off and landing? Are the others ...
FlightWatcher's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
147 views

How can angle of attack for a T-tail configuration be 21 degrees without stalling and also be flying at its trimmed condition?

I was reading a paper that looks at deep stall for T-tail configurations, and figure 2 suggests that the first trim condition for the aircraft in question occurs at approximately 21 degrees. Surely ...
caged's user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
1 answer
155 views

Can someone help me understand this aerofoil?

I came across this morphing aerofoil, but don’t understand how it works please? Can someone explain also what the components are, like that box in the left? I looked into that reference, but it’s a ...
Warrick's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
69 views

How to approximate the drag for rectangular vertical flat panel placed along the wind and inclined?

So on the top is the view from the top, below it is the side view. If the angle is zero it is similar to simple flat airfoil. So I calculated the Cl and Cd in xfoil and got the Cl = 0 and Cd = 0.02398 ...
Aleksey's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
688 views

Why does pressure difference between top and bottom surface of wings increase as speed increases?

We observe that lift force increases as speed increases on aircraft wings. Theoretically, there must be increase in pressure difference between top and bottom surface of wings. What I don't understand ...
Jawel7's user avatar
  • 244
4 votes
1 answer
231 views

Why do some Caravelles have a full outboard wing fence, and some only a partial outboard fence?

The Caravelle has two wing fences on each wing, so as to limit the spanwise airflow (and associated tip-stall problems) that would otherwise occur due to its rearward-swept wings. On most Caravelles, ...
Vikki's user avatar
  • 28.3k
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

Effect of turbulent flow on flight [closed]

What effect does turbulent flow (let’s say over a wing) have on flight? Could I say it reduces flight performance like lift, increase drag?
Jonathan's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

Other than looking cool, what is the reason behind the TSR-2's anhedral wingtips?

Pretty much what the title says. What is the purpose of the TSR-2's anhedral wingtips? I've heard someone say that they use it to counter yawing I think but is this the true reason or is it something ...
BryBuriya's user avatar
  • 307
1 vote
4 answers
234 views

Lift direction at non-zero angle of attack for a swept wing, or for a straight wing in sideslip

When the direction of forces is popularly explained, they say "the lifting force is directed perpendicularly, and the drag force is parallel to the oncoming flow". But what if it's a swept ...
BierRitter's user avatar
14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why are the trailing edges of wings not always made as 'sharp' as possible?

I noticed that wing trailing edges of new airliners like A220 (CSeries) are not completely sharp. Instead, they are blunt. I always thought that the sharper the better in subsonic flow. What is the ...
O'Terror's user avatar
  • 1,383
4 votes
1 answer
162 views

Impact to lift curve slope for a tapered wing with only trailing edge sweep?

I'd like to use a tapered wing with 0 deg leading edge sweep and 12 deg trailing edge sweep as shown below for my RC model. I understand that lift curve slope, a, is reduced for wings with leading-...
Seth's user avatar
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