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Questions tagged [landing]

Landing is the final phase of flight, when an aircraft touches down on the runway or other surface.

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Why is the A380’s with-reversers stopping distance the same as its no-reversers stopping distance?

Thrust reversers, found on almost all jetliners1 and on the larger propliners, redirect engine thrust forwards, helping to slow the aircraft in the event of a landing or rejected takeoff.2 This takes ...
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Why are thrust reversers not used to slow down to taxi speeds?

In reading this question (Would more throttle when using reverse thrust reduce stopping distance?), it prompted me to remember that on many of my flights (typically on 737s or CRJ type aircraft), it ...
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1answer
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Would more throttle when using reverse thrust reduce stopping distance?

If more throttle is applied after engaging the reverse thrust, would it shorten the braking distance?
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Shouldn't there be ATIS/sign information on sloped up runways?

I landed on Catalina island runway 22 last Saturday after the installation of a new concrete runway. To make it easier for heavyweight planes to land and after a short roll stop, they have made the ...
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1answer
131 views

Is there any plan to create GPS approaches to water areas for seaplanes?

Is anyone working on differential GPS approaches for seaplanes? They are a largely ignored resource with great capabilities for certain remote places
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Why complex landing gears are used instead of simple, reliable and light weight muscle wire or shape memory alloys?

Muscle wires actuators are really simple, have a high power density and are reliable. Landing gears on other hand are used only twice per flight while taking off and landing (if everything goes well ...
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Nose gear failure in single prop aircraft: belly landing or nose landing?

Let's say we are flying a single prop airplane with tricycle format retractable gear, such as a Mooney Bravo or a Piper Comache. The nose gear fails mid-flight and is unable to be lowered. Is it safer ...
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Do aircraft use some kind of stability control to keep the aircraft on the runway during landing? [duplicate]

Modern automobiles use an electronic system called ESP to keep the car on track in slippery situations. Do modern jet liners have a similar system to aid the pilot in keeping the aircraft on the ...
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Landing in very high winds

A few weeks ago, a storm passed through my area with winds reported at 55kt and gusting to 68kt. Many light planes managed to break their tie-down ropes and were flung around the ramp area, which isn'...
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203 views

Do carrier-borne aircraft pilots count the seconds on the downwind leg of the carrier?

On carrier landing, someone tells me that the pilots need to count several seconds on abeam leg of the landing pattern, in order to land precisely on the flight deck. Is that true? What do we call for ...
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1answer
75 views

How do I know when to use flaps in glide approach or force landing?

During glide approach or practise force landing, I can see the aimpoint moving down. It means the aircraft will overshoot the field. But I am not sure when should flaps be used or which stage of flaps ...
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1answer
214 views

What are the pros and cons of practising figure-eight landings on perpendicular runways?

This is just a gee-whiz question, I have no intention of doing this nor am I trying to get anyone's blessing on this. Part of remaining current to legally take passengers up in a plane is having 3 ...
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1answer
114 views

What flying boat has the highest maximum takeoff/landing sea state?

I assume that flying boats have limits on the sea states they’re certificated to take off and/or land in (for instance, hitting a ten-meter wave head-on in a five-meter wooden plane is probably ...
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Why would one plane in this picture not have gear down yet?

This image (as posted in another question) is a YouTube video's thumbnail: I noticed that the lead twin (737?) has gear down, the 747 behind does not (appear to) have gear down, but the third plane ...
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1answer
536 views

How long can the stop in a stop-and-go be?

When a pilot is cleared for a stop and go, how long does this allow them to be stopped on the runway? I'd like to know if there is a limit in regulations or at least guidance for this.
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How does pulling back provide better steering during rollout for light GA planes?

I had requested clarification on an answer to the question, How do I keep a C172 straight on the centerline during landing/rollout? I did not comprehend how pulling back after touch down provides ...
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What prevents the use of an EMAS along the sides of a runway?

The NTSB report about the crash of American Airlines Flight 1420 discusses whether an EMAS would have mitigated the severity of the accident, but concludes, based on testimony from a representative of ...
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Can a plane land on an aircraft carrier without support from its crew?

Imagine a scenario where a carrier was dead in the water. No-one inside. Could a plane land on the carrier? What would such a procedure look like potentially?
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Is there an audible warning on commercial aircraft if you try to land gear up?

In one of the comments on this question (under the accepted answer), someone remarks that Aircraft can legally fly without a system to alert the crew when they are landing with gear up, etc. Are ...
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330 views

Why, and how, are barometric altimeters accurate enough for approach and landing?

The barometric altimeter is used as the primary altitude indicator during approach and landing right up until the aircraft crosses the threshold (after which the radar altimeter takes over and makes ...
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2answers
237 views

Why is LGA's Instrument Approach Procedure VOR-H misaligned with the runway?

I was looking at LGA's Instrument Approach Procedures, and I noticed that on this IAP plate the final segment (CHUGG to MAFAS) is misaligned with the runway. How should I interpret this? Shouldn't be ...
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2answers
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What are the consequences of touching down at too low of a speed?

The consequences of a high speed touchdown / high vertical speed are very much obvious. However, what will the consequences be of a low speed touchdown? How severe are they (if any)?
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How do I keep a C172 straight on the centerline during landing/rollout?

During rollout upon touching down, I'd often find myself veering off the runway centreline to the left. Every time I input rudder, I have this feeling that I am getting pulled out of the turn (while ...
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On the 737NG, after deployment of spoilers automatically after landing, do the spoilers automatically go back down?

So, I was just wondering whether the spoilers on a 737-800, after automatic deployment when landing, will go back down automatically, or need manual input by pilots for the spoilers to go down.
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Is 'bouncing' an airliner on landing in high winds a deliberate technique, or something always unexpected?

Last week, 767 landing at Newark, high winds, a good deal of rocking in the last few minutes, some passengers quite distressed. The landing was harder and noisier than usual, and we immediately ...
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1answer
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How can I calculate which runway to use for landing, based on the wind? [duplicate]

I have a project where the user enters the name of the airport. We fetch the wind direction (degrees) for that airport. Then we use the wind direction and the data about the runways at that airport to ...
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1answer
268 views

Can I legally land an airplane in in Badwater Basin, CA?

Would it be legal to land a light plane in the Badwater Basin salt flats in Death Valley National Park? Let me add that you can obviously land in the park, as you have runways at both Furnace Creek ...
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1answer
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Why don’t aircraft undergo contaminated-runway landing-distance and rejected-takeoff certification testing?

All aircraft have to undergo testing to determine how much runway they need in order to safely land and come to a stop, or to safely reject a takeoff. They do not, however, have to undergo this ...
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1answer
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Why are landing-distance and rejected-takeoff certification tests performed without thrust reversers?

All aircraft have to undergo testing to determine how much runway they need in order to land and come to a stop without running out of runway, and how much runway they need in order to be able to ...
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1answer
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Are tritium runway lights widespread in remote areas?

There was some interest in the 80s and 90s in providing runways in remote areas with tritium lighting (which requires no external power, since the radioactive decay in a sample of tritium gas induces ...
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7answers
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What does an absolute novice need to learn to make a successful emergency landing?

Suppose I am a passenger in a small, non-commercial plane (e.g. at most 8 seats), and the pilot suddenly dies or is otherwise incapacitated mid-flight. Suppose further that nobody else on the plane ...
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1answer
123 views

Can I land a plane in a field in the UK and Republic of Ireland?

So I already saw this question here for the US, but I live in the UK and quite close to the border with the Republic of Ireland (ROI). We have property over the border in the ROI and I was wondering ...
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Can pilots choose runway and landing direction?

Pilots normally receive landing clearance for a specific runway assigned by ATC. Absent an emergency, can pilots of commercial flights (depending on the wind conditions for example) choose a ...
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1answer
104 views

Is there a maximum horizontal acceleration for passengers?

Are there any regulations regarding the maximum acceleration forces that passengers should experience during takeoff/flight/landing? Or what would be considered to be an acceptable horizontal ...
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2answers
103 views

Main structural (and any other) impact of hard landing

I was reading this question related to the parts suffering the most G forces. Reflecting about that question I question myself about hard landing, which is not a normal operation. So, my especific ...
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Are the terms “Coupled approach” and “Hand flown approach” strictly defined?

I was looking on SE and also Google for the answer, but couldn't find anything. My question is when to log an approach as coupled or handflown? All of the approaches I fly are CAT I but the aircraft's ...
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4answers
329 views

Do airplanes with fixed gear usually turn upside down during water landing?

During discussion about emergency landing on water in this YouTube video (4:00) the flight instructor said: "...the problem with these airplanes with a fixed gear, you're usually going to be ...
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3answers
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Do any aircraft have a “self-contained ILS”?

The ILS is an invaluable aid to pilots, especially those operating to/from the many airports where poor weather is common (low-visibility operations would be completely impossible without an ILS); ...
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1answer
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Learn in-depth about airplane operations [closed]

Currently seeking a book or manual that teaches a civilian how a cargo aircraft operates and what it's pilots do, say a 787. Preferably a high-level overview at a per flight phase: Pre-flight: Flight ...
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2answers
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With radio not working, why it is more important to stay away from exactly class D airspace?

The instructions how to land when the radio is no longer working state as the first item "stay away from the class D airspace". Why is the class D specifically mentioned in these instructions? How it ...
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1answer
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Course of other planes approaching the airport

I flew from MUC to TXL recently and made a weird observation. I was sitting in the port side of the plane and -just a few minutes before landing- saw a red light at approximately our height just ...
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1answer
201 views

deployable ILS operation in CAT II or CAT III

can a deployable ILS operate in CAT II or CAT III ? as far as i know a deployable ILS can operate only in CAT I. may I wrong? Thanks
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1answer
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What are the takeoff and landing distances of motor gliders?

I'm doing some estimations of weight and thrust loading for a college project, and in the formula below the landing distance is not a variable, but should be estimated using similar aircraft and usual ...
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2answers
340 views

How do I calculate the required heading for an aircraft carrier with an angled deck to sail into the wind?

The natural wind is from 360 degrees at 10 knots. The desired relative wind down the angled deck is 10 degrees left of the ship’s heading at 30 knots. What heading and speed must the carrier go?
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6answers
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How much can I exceed crosswind limits by? [duplicate]

I'm learning in a Tomahawk. They have a maximum demonstrated crosswind component of 15 knots. My school has a limit of 12 kt, but will only allow students to fly in 50% of that, so 6 kt. Since it's ...
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1answer
325 views

How does the Pseudo-Satellite Zephyr land?

I don't see how the Airbus Pseudo-Satellite Zephyr solar plane can land safely. It this video, it is "thrown" to take off, but no gear or something similar is visible. Will it just land on its belly? ...
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If my company has a Line Maintenance Approval, can they perform a Landing Gear replacement in the Flight Line?

I am not sure if a landing gear replacement is performed in the line or base. Also is a line maintenance approval enough? What are the reasons for your answer? Thank you!
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Do military bases still employ wheel watchers?

When I was in the air wing in the '70s, I had the unpleasant opportunity of pulling wheel watch. The unfortunate individual sat in a small shack (maybe 3 x 6 ft.) with a pair of high-powered ...
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3answers
4k views

To flap or not to flap?

I am learning to fly an Ikarus-C42. The instructor I have recommends to all students that they land without flaps, because it is less to think about and because it gives you more airspeed, thus less ...
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1answer
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Does anybody know that why C172S POH doesn't have normal & soft field landing distance chart?

Thank you for reading my writing. I found out that C172S, C172P model POH doesn't have normal landing distance & soft field landing distance chart or table. It has only short field landing ...