Questions tagged [aircraft-limitations]

All aircraft have specified performance limitations that they cannot (or at least should not) exceed, for altitude, speed, weight etc.

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Engine Bearings Damage in Radial Engines

Studying the P47's dive performance in DCS, I noticed how it's easy to damage the engine bearings if you windmill the prop at high speed. Doing some research, I discovered that all radial engines are ...
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1answer
293 views

Why did Concorde have a max pitch down attitude in supersonic flight?

In ITVV Concorde (documentary) as the flight's captain introduced the ADI (attitude director indicator) he explained the dotted line (circled above) as follows: [...] and the little orange dotted ...
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2answers
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What is the absolute ceiling of the A319-100, B737-700 and A220?

What is the absolute ceiling of the A319-100, B737-700 and A220? I have found the service ceiling in Jane's and their type certificate data sheets, but nothing on the absolute ceiling.
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What prevents a small plane like a Cessna or Piper from flying as high as a jet?

Obviously taking oxygen in consideration. What prevents a small plane from being able to fly at a much higher altitude? I know some business jets can fly up to 40,000 ft. Does it have to do with the ...
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1answer
508 views

What is "alternate takeoff" in this PT6A performance table?

I am flight mechanic, and I would like to know about this performance limitation: What is the definition of alternate take off? Why is the alternate take off temperature limit (ITT) lower than max. ...
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Why is the DC-9-80 ("MD-80") prohibited from taking off with a flap setting between 13 and 15 degrees?

A bit of digging into the 7Z9363 accident investigation has brought up some interesting information regarding the DC-9-80 ("MD-80")'s flap system: Flaps may be positioned in any of the six ...
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1answer
330 views

Why is there an altitude limitation on operating the slats/flaps on the A320?

As per the FCOM limitations chapter there is an altitude limitation of 20000 feet for operating the flaps/slats on the A320? Why this specific altitude?
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1answer
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Why this P-51 limitations placard for diving?

I noticed that this placard has different diving speeds related to altitud. My guess is that those values are a safety speed to prevent going into regions close to Mach 1. I know that the speed of ...
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2answers
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What exactly do "attempt" and "cycle" mean in these starter duty limitations?

Can someone please explain me this A320 Starter Duty Limitation in simple terms? E.g. for the CFM56 Starter: No running engagement when N2>20% 4 cycles of max 2 mins Pause between start attempts . ...
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2answers
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What is the minimum speed at which the Antonov An-2 can maintain level flight?

The An-2 famously has "no stall speed", as control can be maintained in descent at arbitrarily low airspeed. As wikipedia says: The An-2 has no stall speed, a fact which is quoted in the ...
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How high can a ramjet go?

Yesterday, there was an off-topic question on Space.SE, asking if a ramjet-missile could place itself in orbit. Impossible for a ramjet, obviously, as it requires a high speed flow of air and is too ...
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Why can airliners not fly as fast as fighter jets? [duplicate]

Why do passenger aircraft not fly at the speed of fighter jets? What factors stop them from achieving such speed?
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3answers
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Why can we not use full throttle in a C172 when cruising at lower altitudes?

My flight training manual (FTM) says that at low altitudes we throttle back our trainers in order to not exceed recommended power settings. But why is that? Is the air close to sea level just too ...
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1answer
560 views

In aircraft where the thrust reversers are not locked out when airborne, is it permissible to go around after reverser deployment?

In general, a go-around, in a jetliner, must either be performed before thrust reverser deployment, or not at all. This is because attempting a go-around after reverser deployment may result in loss ...
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1answer
221 views

Why would larger aircraft have higher crosswind takeoff and landing limits than smaller aircraft?

In a response to an earlier question about the paucity of runways at major British airports, a major theme was that the advent of larger, heavier aircraft with higher maximum-crosswind limits for ...
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What are flight envelope limits of the Stearman Model 75?

Recent monopropeller aerobatic aircraft such as the Zivko Edge 540 have impressive flight envelops limits (up to ±12G, $V_{NE}$ (230 kn) up to 4 times its stall speed ($V_s = 51kn$), low stall speed, ....
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Why shouldn’t the A330/40’s speedbrakes be used in alternate law?

On page 30 of the ATSB report into the QF72 accident (page 50 of the PDF file of the report), in a table describing the actions required of the flightcrew in response to some of the ECAM messages ...
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1answer
117 views

Why are Category II ILS approaches prohibited in an E-Jet with inoperative pitch trim?

Part of the Pitch Trim Runaway checklist for the E-Jet family states that Category II ILS approaches are prohibited if neither pitch trim channel is available: If both pitch trim channels are failed: ...
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2answers
263 views

Does burning fuel to get to your max landing weight violate any regulations?

Consider a hypothetical situation where where an unexpected tailwind will cause a flight to arrive at its destination above maximum landing weight. After reviewing all reasonable changes to altitude ...
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3answers
399 views

Are fly-by-wire fighters protected in AoA?

When thinking about fly-by-wire, I always think about civilian aircraft (Dassault Falcon 7X, Airbus A350...) for which protections are implemented to ensure the aircraft stays in its designed flight ...
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1answer
97 views

What is pressurization influence (if any) on maximum G load an airliner can withstand?

Reading here about skin thickness of airliners I was wondering if, considering some pressurized airliner at cruise altitude, there are differences in maximum operational acceleration loading the ...
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1answer
214 views

Why would Boeing be under review if crew-error is determined to be the cause? [closed]

The captain on Lion air's flight 610, re-trimmed the aircraft through 21 MCAS activations. The first officer, who was given control of the aircraft, got 5 more. Although it is speculated that neither ...
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1answer
271 views

Where and when would a 737-700 be taking off at an altitude of 19 kft?

Another question triggered by reading the 737 technical site; according to this section of the page on the 737's pressurisation system, the 737-700 comes with an option that allows it to safely take ...
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1answer
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Why is a 737 Original speed-restricted below 10 kft with inoperative windscreen heating?

According to this page on the 737's operational limitations, the Original 737s (737-100/-200) are limited to 250 KIAS below 10 kilofeet if the windscreen-heating system is inoperative: Anti-Ice & ...
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1answer
361 views

Exceeding VLO and by how much is too much?

Piper Seminole (PA-44-180) VLO (max gear retraction speed) is 109 KIAS. I've heard that manufacturer published limitations are significantly lower than actual structural and system limitations. What ...
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Is it right to extend flaps only in the white arc?

If the cruise speed is >80kts on the downwind leg but I can only extend flaps in the white arc, am I right in saying I need to get to the white arc, even if I'm on - for example - 100kts? For ...
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Why is FL398 the REC MAX altitude on the A320?

On the A320 PROG page and in our limitations the REC MAX/ MAX FL is listed as FL398. What is the reason behind this ?
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What makes the Antonov An-2 have no stall speed?

The Antonov An-2 is notable for being able to fly at a very low speed. However, what confuses me is that it has no stall speed: The An-2 has no stall speed, a fact which is quoted in the operating ...
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1answer
802 views

What is the largest and heaviest payload ever flown?

Not counting the plane what is the largest or heaviest payload ever flown?
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3answers
227 views

How to apply the TO/GA time and EGT limits?

If there is a published 1) EGT limit and a 2) TO/GA time limit, which one should be applied when the EGT is well below the EGT limit and possibly even below the 'max continuous' EGT. Particularly with ...
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0answers
218 views

Why is the F-16's service ceiling 50,000ft? [duplicate]

What defines the service ceiling for aircraft, in particular the F-16? I suppose, as with almost everything, this depends on the aircraft, the engine type, etc. While I'm fine with a comprehensive ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the critical altitude?

What is the definition of critical altitude and why is important to know in Vmc graph? Also, is there any critical altitude in the Piper PA-44 Seminole?
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1answer
376 views

What is Temperture of VSI and limits of accurate value?

Within a temperature range of +50C and -20C the VSI is Accurate to within limits of : A)+- 200 ft/min B)+- 0 ft/min c)+- 75 ft/min D)+- 300 ft/min
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1answer
555 views

Is extreme wind shear an official classification? Is it rare to land in 65kts headwind, gusting 95kts?

I was a passenger in an A340 during a famous storm 65kts gusting 95kts. Resulted in a go around, but the plane sunk quite fast several times. Is this rare? Are there limits to headwind component? The ...
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1answer
1k views

If all passengers moved to the back, front or one side, would they crash the plane? [duplicate]

all-time classic: Would the load shift of all passengers herding at the back, front or one side make the plane hard or even impossible to keep in the air ? Are there any passenger aircraft where ...
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6answers
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How much can I exceed crosswind limits by? [duplicate]

I'm learning in a Tomahawk. They have a maximum demonstrated crosswind component of 15 knots. My school has a limit of 12 kt, but will only allow students to fly in 50% of that, so 6 kt. Since it's ...
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1answer
218 views

Flying from right seat of Socata TB9 - confused about Pilot manual limitation (US regulations)

I was comfortable flying from the right seat in my Grumman American AA5A and would let non-pilots sit in the left seat to introduce them to flying. I was expecting to do the same in a friend's TB9, ...
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2answers
343 views

Would a refueling stop be cheaper than finding lodging for all the passengers?

This is somewhat late followup question to my original question. Basic story was flight got delayed by almost 24 hours because first, technical reasons, secondly temperatures were very high. As far ...
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6answers
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Is it okay to take off with weight more than the POH max gross weight?

I wonder if I could take off with weight more than the gross weight stated in the POH of my aircraft as long as I take off with a higher speed? I think I have done it once by mistake.
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1answer
276 views

Why have helicopter top speeds not increased much over time?

With advancements in technology why there isn't much increment in helicopter top speeds from what they were in the 1980s? We have newer designs like the Eurocopter X3 which is a hybrid, but the speed ...
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3answers
1k views

What are the consequences of throttling up past 100% of N1?

The B737 is probably my favorite aircraft and I'm always sure to never throttle past 100% of N1. I was told the aircraft is pretty much totaled if you take N1 past 100% but you can eke out that extra ...
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2answers
981 views

Does MMO (limiting Mach number) assume any maneuvering limits?

This answer to a question about emergency descents notes: [Y]ou can accelerate descents by banking the aircraft into a turn. This allows you to increase angle of attack, thus increasing drag to ...
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6answers
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Is it possible to fly a B-24 under Bixby Bridge?

If that sounds like a ludicrous question it's because I believe it is, but here is why I'm asking. My grandfather flew B-24s in WWII and there was something of a local legend that he once flew a ...
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1answer
595 views

Why do we have to perform a normal APU shutdown if a fuel spillage occurs?

I was reading in the limitations chapter of the A320 which stated that if a fuel spillage occurs we have to perform a normal APU shutdown what is the reason behind this?
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1answer
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Why do the old A320s have a lower tailwind limitation compared to the newer enhanced ones?

In my company on the older A320s particularly the ones which are in the MSN 2000 range their tailwind limitation for takeoff and landing is 10 knots. But our newer enhanced ones have a 15 knots ...
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What's the purpose of "over G" penalties in Red Bull Air Race?

This post mentions that if a Red Bull Air Race pilot exceeds 10G acceleration limit for longer than 0.6s on their plane then they are unconditionally disqualified with "did not finish" result no ...
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Do airplanes have a maximum headwind gust component when landing?

An aircraft POH generally gives a maximum demonstrated crosswind component but I have not seen any indication with regards to maximum gust component. I understand that one is supposed to increase the ...
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2answers
4k views

Why are there different starter limitations for dry cranking and manual start on the A320?

I recently had this point clarified that when we place the mode selector to CRANK on the A320 we can dry crank the engine up to 5 mins. But the moment we place the mode selector to IGN/START then we ...
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4answers
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Is the aircraft used by NOAA specially modified?

I have just seen this short video showing "NOAA hurricane hunters" flying through current hurricane "Irma". My guess is that normally an aircraft would not be able/allowed to fly in winds sustained ...
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3answers
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What is the fatigue life of a fuselage based on?

The fatigue life of the fuselage is based on the number of what? Pressurization cycles?