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Questions tagged [aircraft-certification]

Use this tag for questions regarding the certification of aircraft. If your question is regarding regulations or a specific country, please add the relevant tag and state so in your question.

7
votes
2answers
200 views

FAA Large Aircraft: Origin of 12,500 pounds

According to the FAA's definitions in 14 CFR 1.1, a Large aircraft is an "aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight." I have heard this threshold was set based on the DC-...
4
votes
2answers
127 views

How hard is it to certify a kit aircraft if it is based on a production design like a Cessna 180?

I was looking at older planes, specifically the Cessna 180. It is discontinued, but people love them, so they fetch premiums. I saw St. Just Aviation has a kit Cessna 180. There are only 25ish planes ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

How are STCs granted for similar aircraft? Archer vs Arrow

I'm specifically interested in the Garmin GFC 500 autopilot certification, but this question can apply to any STC question. The GFC 500 is certified for a ton of Archer (PA-28) variants, but no ...
13
votes
5answers
6k views

Why are wings load tested upside down?

Why are wings load tested by putting weights on the underside of the wing (placed upside down)? A wing is being pulled into the air from its upper surface in flight, so shouldn't it be load tested in ...
3
votes
2answers
80 views

Can an aircraft get certified for different runway lengths through the FAA based on the amount of payload it is carrying during said takeoff?

When certifying a new aircraft through the FAA, will they certify the AC for just one takeoff distance based on the max payload capacity, or can you get the AC certified for multiple runway lengths ...
7
votes
1answer
197 views

How did the service ceiling certification change in the 70s?

According to this video (at 4:30-4:45) the "later" Cessna T337 and P337 were limited to 20,000 feet whereas the older models "had no such limitation - a quirk in changes in the certification standards ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the reasons for an installed engine to produce less thrust than an uninstalled engine?

Is this only due to the various flight conditions encoutered during operation, such as side winds and turbulence, or are there other reasons? Also, is interference between fuselage and power plant ...
2
votes
1answer
182 views

Why is the gradient line for climb in a one-engine-inoperative condition during take off under CS-25 described in percentage?

Appeciate an explanation in terms of definition of climb in terms of gradient & an explanation of the reasons behind each percentage condition for the different air craft types: twin engine, three ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

How do changes in certification requirements affect previous type certificates?

How does the 2016 part 23 airworthiness requirements rewrite affect older type certificates? If some aspect of an aircraft does not meet the new requirement do all of those aircraft have to be ...
4
votes
1answer
98 views

Are there certification requirements on Dual Inputs?

Is anyone of you aware of (certification) requirements or similar for dual input, and the priority management of dual controls? I only know the Airbus philosophy of summing both inputs and limit them ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Is data approval by DER/DAR still required under new FAR part 23?

New FAR Part 23 rules have been enacted on August 30th 2017, simplifying certification for small airplanes. Will the FAA still require: Designated Engineering Representative (DER) approval for each ...
8
votes
2answers
336 views

Does every device/software, developed for use in the cockpit, need to be certified?

Every avionic, developed for use in the cockpit has to complete a long and expensive certification process. Is this only applying for avionics, installed fixed into the aircraft or also for apps like ...
3
votes
0answers
81 views

What is the FAA Approval Basis for an FMS upgrade on a Part 25 aircraft?

Does anyone know of a recent approval for an upgrade from a Universal UNS-xx FMS to a Universal UNS-1Ew FMS on a FAA registered aircraft, other than a TC, TC update or an STC? I am looking for the ...
0
votes
1answer
490 views

Has the F-35 Lightning II overheating problem been resolved?

This is one of the sources explaining the F-35 overheating problem. Has this been resolved? Are the constant problems, that are being reported about this type normal for an aircraft like this?
5
votes
1answer
262 views

Which FAA regulations apply to the Stratolaunch?

(Image source) Which FAA regulations apply to the Stratolaunch being built by Vulcan Aerospace and Scaled Composites? Do they follow the same regulations for the type cert, production and CofA (...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Are there general accuracy requirements for aircraft power supplies?

Let's say I have some LRU device that requires some DC voltage to be powered on. Are there any general requirements in aviation/aerospace that say how accurate that supply voltage must be in order to ...
25
votes
3answers
6k views

Would the Gee Bee be allowed to fly today, with so little forward visibility?

When looking at the Gee Bee: Source I wonder what the pilot is actually able to see, when rolling on the runway, when flying level, or trying to locate a possible emergency landing place. It seems ...
17
votes
1answer
2k views

What's required for a plane certified to fly to Antarctica?

What special features besides the obvious long range does a plane have to have to fly to and land in Antarctica? I know not just any plane can make the trip, but I couldn't find many relevant ...
5
votes
1answer
436 views

Is there a roadmap to satellite / inertial only based navigation?

GNSS is the most accurate mean of navigation available on the flight deck but it relies on satellite being available and under control. Inertial systems are autonomous, but far less accurate. ...
5
votes
2answers
968 views

How do I find the serial number and other important information of an old airplane I have?

My dad has passed away and I have his plane. I can't find the paper work but I want to get a replacement title from FAA. Their site says that I need manufacturer name, model designation, N-number, and ...
13
votes
4answers
9k views

What is the longest range single-pilot certified (FAA and/or EASA) business jet?

I suspect the single-pilot business jet with the longest range is the SyberJet SJ30x: NBAA IFR Range with 100 nm Alternate M 0.76 (1 pilot + 2 passengers; passenger/pilot at 90 kg each) 2,575 nmi (...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

What is the procedure to turn a certified aircraft into an experimental aircraft?

Last year at EAA Airventure I saw a helicopter (can't remember the model, but it was something like a Eurocopter EC135 or similar with a full glass cockpit). It was US registered (N-Number tail) but ...
7
votes
2answers
233 views

How can one demonstrate/assure safety for LRU's, CBAs, SoC's and other integrated modules?

Does anybody have experience with getting complex modules that were designed by others for common use, approved for incorporation in an airborne system that is at DAL A, B, or C and thus requires FAA ...
6
votes
1answer
661 views

What are the regulations and testing that determine whether a “Spins Prohibited” placard is required in an aircraft?

Clearly some flight testing and certification process is used to establish whether or not a type of production GA aircraft is or is not placarded "SPINS PROHIBITED". What type of testing and what ...
6
votes
1answer
801 views

Does load factor limit actually change with aircraft weight?

Does load factor limit in reality change with aircraft weight? Is it fixed to make certification and operation more simple? Now unloaded aircraft has lower Va speed. This makes sense to keep constant ...
5
votes
1answer
655 views

Are all US airline aircraft certified into known ice?

Are all US airline aircraft certified for flying into known icing (FIKI) conditions? I assume all the large (100+ PAX) aircraft come FIKI certified from the design stage? What's the largest ...
6
votes
2answers
235 views

Why don't DO guidelines have examples?

As per DO-178 C section 6.2 Overview of Software Verification Activity b. When it is not possible to verify specific software requirements by exercising the software on a realistic test environment,...
2
votes
1answer
264 views

Does RTCA/DO-254 apply to power electronics?

DO-254 provides guidance for the development of airborne electronic hardware and it is recognized by the FAA in 2005 via AC 20-152 as a means of compliance for the design of complex electronic ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Which organizations and individuals are invited for a review before the first flight of a new aircraft? [closed]

The first flight of a new aircraft is a major aviation milestone for the company and the industry. What departments or organizations (within a parent organization), and what individuals, are invited ...
5
votes
2answers
452 views

What would prohibit a T-38 Talon from being certified in the Acrobatic category?

The definition of the acrobatic category in FAR 23.3 reads as follows: (c) The acrobatic category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, ...
7
votes
1answer
28k views

What are the differences between Normal and Utiltiy Categories [duplicate]

In the operating handbooks for GA aircraft, there are often weight and balance limitations listed for both Normal and Utiltity category operation. If I restrict the loading to the Utility category ...
0
votes
2answers
192 views

Can countries introduce new aviation policies unilaterally?

Let's say some country intends to introduce a new aviation policy that conflicts with ICAO regulations, like only aircraft certified and approved by our government can fly in our airspace. Can they do ...
5
votes
1answer
620 views

What's a Class F cargo compartment?

Apparently, the Aviation Traders folks worked with EASA to define a special type of cargo compartment, known as a class F, during their work on Iron Maiden's touring airplane. Just what is a Class F ...
10
votes
1answer
281 views

What are the requirements for an aircraft to be allowed to perform fast taxi runs?

In the UK, are any certifications or particular checks legally required for a retired aircraft to perform fast taxi runs (only)? Would it still be possible to do them if the main wing spars have been ...
7
votes
2answers
263 views

Is the US certification process for airliners shorter or longer than in other countries?

I was researching information regarding the competitiveness of different government certification organizations (FAA, EASA, etc) and the processes (Amount of time, costs, etc) to get their nations ...
3
votes
2answers
197 views

Are aircraft separately certified for CAT III ops for +2500 feet elevation?

Is it mandatory have separate certification for aircraft operating CAT III Operations on airports having elevation more than 2500 feet? If so do that aircraft are to carry any additional equipment? ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Why does ETOPS not apply to older 4 engine aircraft?

This is a follow-up to my previous question: What is ETOPS and how does it work? There is a related question here, but it does not specifically answer this new question. Facts: Since February 2015, ...
26
votes
5answers
38k views

What is ETOPS and how does it work?

According to this press release by Boeing earlier this year, the 747-8 has received its ETOPS 330 rating. This is required by all 4-engined planes made after February 2015 to fly beyond 180 minutes ...
6
votes
2answers
15k views

What is the purpose of flutter testing?

All I am aware of is that flutter testing involves the aircraft shaking violently. How is a flutter test performed and what is its purpose?
8
votes
1answer
9k views

What are the regulatory categories of aircraft defined by the FAA?

What are the different aircraft regulatory categories aircraft defined by the FAA? Are there any exceptions?
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Are there any IFR-certificated and equipped aerobatic aircraft?

Are there any acrobatic-category aircraft that are also type-certificated/rated and equipped for flight under the instrument flight rules? What limitations would be placed on such an airplane when ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How would you get certified for the AgustaWestland AW609 as a rotorcraft pilot or without any previous certification?

It seems like AgustaWestland might finally get certification for the AW609 in the next couple of years. Let's say I buy one to transport people to the offshore oil platforms that I hypothetically own....
50
votes
3answers
24k views

Can the Airbus A380 safely fly with two engines out on the same wing?

I know twin-engine jets can safely take off and fly with one engine out (i.e. all thrust only on one side). Of course quad-engine jets are also able to fly safely in case one engine is out. But is ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Can a Cessna 162 Skycatcher be flown IFR in IMC?

This question is similar to these questions: Are there any LSA aircraft that can be flown IFR in IMC? What are the FAA requirements for an aircraft to be IFR certified? Unfortunately I couldn't find ...
12
votes
3answers
1k views

How are evolution and variants of aircraft considered by certification authorities?

Recently, both Boeing and Airbus launched "new" aircraft as a modernized version of their respective best sellers (B737MAX and A320neo). To narrow the question down, I will consider the A320 and the ...
10
votes
1answer
310 views

Can one purchase a Cessna 182JT-A although it has not yet been certified?

To the best of my knowledge, Cessna's 182JT-A has not yet been certified. At least I couldn't find on Google any indication that it has. Lots of items that certification is "imminent" but no real ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Are there certification requirements for an emergency descent?

In case of emergency, an aircraft may have to descend very quickly. Is there some performance (L/D ratio with full spoilers, descent rate, ...) to be proven in the certification process for such ...
6
votes
3answers
4k views

Why might a Cessna 208 need a FAR Part 23 waiver?

The capacity of the Cessna 208 is stated as 9 passengers, or up to 14 with a FAR Part 23 waiver. FAR Part 23 states that it applies to any aircraft with "more than 10 occupants and that is intended ...
13
votes
2answers
780 views

How is an on ground lightning strike test conducted?

Whenever a design company is obtaining an STC for an aircraft (Supplemental Design Certificate) for an electrical installation, one of the required tests to obtain the STC is a lightning strike test. ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

What repairs or modifications can be done without approval/certification?

I realize that this is likely to depend on jurisdiction (EASA or FAA would interest me the most in that case), but is there any common-sense kind of line that you don't cross until you've at least ...