# All Questions

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### How does ATC direct aircraft on ground from the parking to the runway?

For medium size airports, ATC will direct aircraft with a single message like this "Taxi to runway 29 via Papa, Sierra". I was wondering if it was the same thing for bigger airports (like ...
14 views

### How much might soft skin reduce aircraft skin friction?

According to Peter Kampf's answer here, soft skin can damp a (vibrational?) mode that cause laminar flow to become turbulent. Thus, it could help delay boundary layer transition. My question is, for a ...
18 views

### How long does it take for an airline to establish a new international destination/route?

This post discusses the process of opening a new route. I wonder how long does it take for an airline to get permission to fly a new route. I am interested on this because, say an airline goes bust ...
64 views

### What organisation owns intersection names?

I understand that five letter intersection codes (such as WARPI, PAPPI, KUBBS, ROSLY, ZALPO, ...) are unique in the world. However, their names don't comprise a national prefix (as aircraft tail ...
77 views

### How much does it cost to buy and operate a cessna 340 as an airliner?

Instead of starting to job in airline as a pilot, I want to buy Cessna 340 or something like that and work with it. Is it worth? I mean, can I make enough money for myself and maintenance of aircraft?
44 views

### What are the variable of the induced drag formula and where does this force apply?

I would to understand a little bit more the induced drag force, therefore analyzing the formula: $$F_D = C_DA\frac{⍴V^2}{2}$$ What do the following variables actually mean? $F_D$ This is the 3D ...
97 views

### What are these large trapezoidal concrete structures found in airports in Grand Theft Auto games? [closed]

In many Grand Theft Auto games, you can find these strange trapezoidal concrete structures scattered around the apron in each airport. My first guess is that they're meant to be some sort of blast ...
74 views

### Do horizontal stabiliser force direction change with CG variation for a given aircraft?

I am wondering about the direction in which horizontal stabilizer provide force. I know that it can provide either upforce or downforce. But I am wondering whether is it determined for a particular ...
32 views

### What is implied about altitude and the VDP by this Visual Flight Segment arrow in the profile view example in the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide?

This is out of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide. The arrow for the visual segment is depicted as being level flight. Is that what is intended to be conveyed? If so, how would you know what ...
134 views

### What might this P-68 be doing? [duplicate]

Right now (28 May 2020, 0910 UTC) this Partenavia P-68 is repeatedly flying, alternately, northbound and southbound over Rome, Italy, in regular straight paths about 45 km long, some 400 meters apart. ...
135 views

### How high does the “bug layer” extend?

As far as I know, a big obstacle to attaining laminar flow in aircraft today is the so-called "bug layer", presumably a lower layer of the atmosphere where bugs are encountered. So, my question is ...
1k views

### What is happening with this aborted flight?

I live near Southend airport in the UK (SEN, EGMC) and noticed a strange behaviour of a cargo jet that does daily trips to Spain. It started out on runway 05, took a normal departure until it turned ...
89 views

### What is this extension at the tip of the Supermarine Southampton's wing?

Looking at this Wikipedia image of the Supermarine Southampton flying boat, I noticed what at first looked like a small wheel. But then I thought it couldn't be, as a wheel would be pointless in a ...
33 views

### IFR flight plan with No VOR/DME/ILS [closed]

Is there any certification implication in IFR Flight or night VFR if we don't have VOR/DME/ILS
1k views

### What does the phrase “electrically controlled and pneumatically operated” mean?

While studying the air-conditioning of the A320 from the FCOM I came across the information that the pack flow valves are "electrically controlled and pneumatically operated". I can not understand ...
71 views

### Does FAA recommends specific maneuvers for complex endorsements? [closed]

I was pretty excited for a 5 hour flight in a piper arrow in a new school this coming weekend but my instructor that I have not flown with before texted me saying that he will not sign me off after ...
7 views

### How often do other space shuttles make physical contact with the international space station? [migrated]

I was surprised to read NASA's statement that This (27 May 2020) mission marks the first time since the retirement of the space shuttle in 2011 that humans will fly to the space station from U.S. ...
50 views

### what are pro/cons of having 1 big engine vs multiple smaller engines? [closed]

In rocketry: what are the advantages/disadvantages between having 5 one-thousand pound thrust engines verses having 1 five-thousand pound thrust engine? Is the rocket receiving the same amount of ...
56 views

### Where do I find charts like this for Europe or Global [closed]

I am playing Xplane11 and I am trying to find charts like this But for Europe or USA and shows every ILS approach, detalied maps etc. For europe I have found one site such as http://www.uvairlines....
138 views

### What is that sensor on the Airbus A220?

What is the that sensor in the picture?
2k views

### What are some “FAA approved” simulators for home that I can log time on?

I'd assume xplanes on iPhone or Android would not be log-able, but wanted to know if there is a affordable simulator kit for home usage that'd help me logging time for IFR requirements?
179 views

### Do most airport use one and only one runway for landing?

Do most airports (especially busy ones) use only one runway at a time for landing? For example, I know Heathrow uses only one of its runways at a time (although they might switch to another half way ...
75 views

### Helicopter Basics: How does lead-lag of blades actually help in compensating for increase/decrease in speed due to flapping?

I understand the following - Due to dissymmetry of lift, flapping up and down occurs. Since angular momentum has to be conserved, the speed of blade increases/decreases during flapping up/down ...
115 views

### At which point in scale reduction do slats and flaps become unnecessary?

Imagine some Fi-156 Storch, and reduce its scale down gradually to 10cm span. Let's assume full scale Fiesler Storch is 100% efficient at, for example, minimizing stall speed. During this reduction ...
117 views

### How can the fuel decrease evenly from both wing tanks when an A320 is running on APU only?

I stumbled over this sentence in a training material about fuel leak: "If the fuel quantity symmetrically decrease in both wing tanks and the fuel quantity in the center tank decrease, the fuel leak ...
143 views

### Do the A-320 landing gear extend if the mechanism is activated above a limiting speed?

I've been told that on the A-320, if the landing gear lever is lowered with the airspeed above a limiting speed, the system will not extend the landing gear. Further, once the aircraft is slowed to an ...
3k views

### Does an F/A-18 require a lot of rudder in turns?

I am an aspiring Navy fighter pilot and I use an X-Plane add on for FA-18 Hornet as a fighter. It's made by a creator named Colimata. I think the turns are unrealistic. When I begin a bank a lot of ...
59 views

### In aircraft where the thrust reversers are not locked out when airborne, is it permissible to go around after reverser deployment?

In general, a go-around, in a jetliner, must either be performed before thrust reverser deployment, or not at all. This is because, if a go-around is attempted after the reversers have been deployed, ...
273 views

### Are there any new orders for the B747 passenger version? [closed]

I was reading an article about the shortcoming and decline in the use of the A380, based on the modification of the model to move people, and there is a comment saying that both the 380 and 747 are ...
116 views

### Why could increases in cockpit voice and image recording potentially raise privacy concerns? [closed]

A major concern someone or other brings up against practically every suggestion to broaden the uses of cockpit voice recordings or add cockpit image/video recorders to the mix (both of these, ...
6k views

### Aborted take off. What happens next?

A rare situation of aborted take off. Everything goes smudge after that. Plane clears the runway and goes back to the either parking position or designated place at taxi way. What steps must be ...
127 views

### Is there any way for the baggage carrier to add some fake luggage?

For the sake of a story that I am writing, is there any way that a conspiracy luggage carrier could add some luggage to given aircraft? Specifically: Is there still a man power used for the purpose ...
62 views

### How does the luggage car's driver at the airport know what to do?

I would like to learn a little bit more about the work of luggage car's drivers. Specifically -- how do any of them know: which luggage car to ride next? which plane must they deliver this ...
61 views

### What is the go-around pattern and procedure for Heathrow?

An hypothetical situation in which an airplane taking-off at Heathrow must go-around / land immediately after taking-off. What will happen during this scenario: Is there any specific action to be ...
211 views

### Aborted take off due to not closed cargo doors. How this will be signalled?

A hypothetical situation (I know that it is very unlikely to happen in real). When closing cargo doors, a piece of fabric from the luggage carrier's uniform stick in between. The cargo door is ...
81 views

### Would supersonic bi/tri/multiplane wings have less lift interference drag than a subsonic version?

Biplane wings interfere with each other, reducing the total lift often to about only 20% more than a mono wing of the same chord and span. But at supersonic speeds - say, Mach 2, where Mach angle is ...
52 views

### “Fly ahead of your airplane”, What other memes did you find useful? [closed]

One of the most useful memes my instructor told me is "Fly ahead of your airplane" think where it will be in 10 sec, 1 min, 5 min and fly accordingly There are other memes such as "Aviate, navigate, ...
320 views

### How does retracting flaps help extend the glide of an aircraft?

As per the video from Smithsonian channel BA flight 38's captain retracted the flaps of the Boeing 777 by 5 degrees to extend glide, to travel further. Why?
2k views

### In aircraft construction, what is the difference between a firewall and a bulkhead?

I'd like to know the difference between a firewall and a bulkhead. They both separate segments of an aircraft, so how are they different as it pertains to their design and purpose in aircraft ...
123 views

### Is it possible for squawk to change automatically in emergency situations?

It might be a silly question, but is it possible for an airliner to automatically switch the squawk code to emergency (7700) during a flight? (For example in case of losing all engines) Thank You In ...
54 views

### What is the relationship between the EASA and JAA? [duplicate]

I have heard of two different European aviation authorities: EASA and JAA (or JAAT). What is the difference in their functions? This would include things such as: Whether they are somehow part of ...
3k views

### Can airliners be considered as GA?

In a Swiss001 video, he said that the Twin Otter was a general aviation (GA) plane. But then in another video, he said that the Twin Otter was an airliner. Obviously, he's not a credible source, but ...
425 views

### Can the “G” and “VRB” wind conditions be combined in METARs?

I have never seen the "VRB" (for wind direction variations < 60°; e.g. VRB12003KT) and "G" annotation (for gusts > 10KT wind speed difference; e.g. 12003GT30KT) being combined in a METAR. Until ...
83 views

### Does the flap settings for the best lift/drag ratio change with speed on the Diamond DA20-A?

As I've recently started time building in DA20, I've noticed the AFM suggests flaps at T/O for a glide. Being very intrigued by this I run across this post. Although I appreciate Peter's reply that ...
62 views

### How to create a simple forces diagram using only lift and drag forces?

I would like to create a simple forces diagram (like a sketch). The lift produced by the wing depends upon to the distance from the the longitudinal axis, but, in order to make it easier, I’m taking ...
118 views

### Does bi-wings create essentially double the uplift as single wings?

This puzzles me a bit, and I cannot find the answer anywhere. Does bi-wings create essentially double the uplift as single wings?
37 views

### What does induced flow exactly means on helicopters flight? How is it different from downward deflection of air?

I believe all airfoils deflect air downwards at an angle at a velocity V. What is the difference between the downward-vertical component of the deflected wind and the induced velocity in Helicopter ...
170 views

### What is the life limit due to metal fatigue in large bombers?

This article explains how the B-52's will be kept flying for 100 years. Replacing the engines, electronics, etc. is one thing, but when would metal fatigue become a problem? These planes are huge and,...