# All Questions

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15 views

### What’s the difference in having pointy flap track fairings VS rounded flap track fairings?

Would either design (or both!)come with compromises in the comfort-during-the-flight department?
25 views

### If the pilots used the brakes upon landing, would the force essentially slam the front wheel down?

So if the pilots braked immediately, with only the back wheels down, and nose wheel still up, would the force from braking cause the front wheel to come slamming down?
101 views

### Out of sight planes during final approach [duplicate]

Does it ever happen that planes descending on a descent path (glide slope) block each other so that one (or more) plane is not visible from the tower (at the airport) or localizer? I want to know if ...
57 views

### How should the maximum output force of the actuator be chosen?

If the hinge moments of the control surfaces of an aircraft are given, how should the maximum output force of the actuator be chosen? Is there any standard or reference?
66 views

### How do I determine the requirements to add a new category to a pilot certificate?

I'm going in for my CFI stage tomorrow and I'm a little confused. If I want to convert between categories - e.g. from airplane to helicopter - where do I find that info and also what are the hour (if ...
5k views

### Why do aircraft cockpit displays use uppercase fonts?

I've seen many images of aircraft cockpit displays and instrument or control labels that all seem to use uppercase lettering, even though there seems to be a lot of evidence indicating that mixed case ...
63 views

### If the airport reported BKN002, would that prevent performing a DH 259' approach?

According to this Instrument Approach (airport: SBAO): The published Minimums are a Visibility of 1300 m, and a DH of 259 feet. In accordance with ICAO, would the Visibility and Ceiling be above the ...
103 views

### Why does the use of reverse thrust on the DC-8 generate a pitch-up moment rather than a pitch-down moment?

Unlike most aircraft, the DC-8 is certified to use reverse thrust in flight (albeit only on its inboard engines). This serves as a very effective airbrake, although it also produces considerable ...
38 views

### How is a stator like a diverging passage?

I've read in a lot of places that stators in an axial compressor are responsible for diffusing air and removing the radial velocity to make the flow parallel to the shaft. What I don't understand is ...
124 views

### How do you write 'to', 'then', or 'via' in IFR clearances shorthand symbols?

Although there are NO restrictions about the usage of shorthand symbols, still it would be useful when I fly with another person together, so I studied those symbols and got some doubt points. If ...
192 views

### What controllers are used in Airbus/Boeing fly-by-wire systems?

I was wondering, what controllers are used in airbus or Boeing aircraft fly-by-wire systems to control servos? Who manufactures such controllers, or are the systems controlled from flight computer ...
112 views

### What are L/D ratio of famous WWII fighters?

I'm looking for L/D ratio of old warbirds. I'm particularly interested by the P-51D, the Supermarine Spitfire Mk.VII and the Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero, but I'm also quite curious about other warbirds that ...
55 views

### Since shock waves have non-negligible viscosity, why do the normal shock relations ignore friction/viscosity?

The normal shock relations (seen below) are derived by using steady, 1D, neglect potential, no shaft work, adiabatic and zero viscosity assumption. However, since shock waves are "thin regions of high ...
61 views

### What is the difference between flight watch and home reserve?

Can anyone explain the difference between 'flight watch' and 'home reserve' with regards to flight and duty periods. This is in regards to a charter operation, where crew members are on standby at ...
1k views

### How do A320 pilots trim?

So, I am very familiar with the 737NG, and there is a trim switch on the yoke for vertical trim. However, I can't seem to locate this trim switch in the A320. Is there a trim switch on the joystick in ...
65 views

### Difference between symmetrical and cambered airofoil?

I have seen images of cambered and symmetrical wings but apart from that what are the major differences between them? I have also read that symmetric wings don't produce any lift at 0° AOA whereas ...
5k views

### Why do some AFBs have planes parked at 45 degrees to others?

I'm assuming this is just a matter of available space but it seems you could get 4 across all aligned but maybe there is another reason. The image is from McGuire AFB but I've seen this on other AFBs.
45 views

### If MH370 was found today, would the flight recorders offer any insight to what happened, or would they be too damaged? [duplicate]

Can the black box from MH370 still have data pulled from it after being submerged in the ocean for so long?
85 views

### Can a safety pilot acting as PIC also log cross country time?

I am working on my instrument rating and I need to build up both my instrument time and Cross Country time to meet the requirements. I am planning on making most of that time by flying with a friend ...
149 views

### Could the Aurora D8 have Ramjets instead of traditional jet engines?

By the design of the Aurora D8, the engines would receive the boundary layer of air atop the fuselage, however, because jets have what I am calling "moving parts", and the pressure differences would ...
166 views

### When do commercial aircraft tail numbers change?

Each (large, commercial and most other) aircraft has a registration number, painted or stickered on its hull: the tail number. I was under the false impression that tail numbers don't change, and ...
88 views

### What are the handling effects of converting a dihedral wing to polyhedral?

I'm looking at plans to build a radio controlled (RC) glider that is launched by rocket boost mainly as a park flyer. I've been given a set of plans for a model that is a dihedral wing (see attached ...
35 views

### How can I study , training and graduate for getting a job in Turkish airlines? [closed]

How can I study , training and graduate for getting a job in Turkish airlines ?
2k views

### What was in the noses of airliners before the weather radar?

At the time of the first Lockheed Constellations, airliners fitted with a weather radar were not common, and the navigator was not placed in the airplane nose. Thus, the nose seems to be mostly dead ...
51 views

### What are the definitions of AFGS and AFCS in guidance systems? [closed]

What are the definitions of AFGS and AFCS in guidance systems?
39 views

### How come PSA airlines got the same IATA code as Comair?

PSA Airlines has the same IATA 2-letter code, "OH", as the now-defunct carrier Comair. Yet - the two companies are not related. How is it, that IATA reassigned the same code to an unrelated carrier ...
39 views

### ExpressJet IATA code before “merger” with Atlantic Southeast?

Before 2011, Atlantic Southeast had the IATA 2-letter code "EV". Then, On November 22, 2011, both ExpressJet and Atlantic Southeast Airlines achieved a single operating certificate that allowed ...
77 views

### Is this true about any generator which uses for grounds aircraft checking by 220W cables ? Shouldn't use from GPU? [closed]

Is this true about any generator which uses for grounds aircraft checking by 220W cables ? Shouldn't use from GPU ? I wanna know about is nessecary 220W AC power for connect to Aircraft when those ...
27 views

### How's ground speed GS evaluated ? Describes for me from A to Z please [duplicate]

How's ground speed GS evaluated ? Describes for me from A to Z please
84 views

### Why will windshear inop illuminate after landing in an MD-83?

Why will windshear inop illuminate on the annunciator panel after landing or before starting taxi in a McDonnell Douglas MD-83?
91 views

### How does the battery master switch activate the battery contactor in Cessna 152?

I have trouble understanding how the battery master switch activates the battery contactor in this schematic from the Cessna 152 manual. This is the model from 1979 or later with an Alternator Control ...
30 views

### How long does it take to die when we would in altitude that push us to hypoxia? [duplicate]

How long does it take to die when at an altitude sufficient to induce hypoxia ?
166 views

### How to find the remaining fuel without electrical power on the MD-80?

After a flight, how to find the remaining fuel without electrical power (even the APU) on the MD-80?
129 views

### What is the use of this object in the cockpit of a Bombardier Dash 8 Q400?

What is the use of this object in the cockpit of a Bombardier Dash 8 Q400?
17 views

### Do check rides completed by part 141 schools with self-examining authority count like normal check rides for CFI renewal and gold seal?

Some schools have self-examining authority issued by the FAA. Do check rides completed in this manner count the same way as a standard check ride for the purpose of CFI renewal and gold seal ...
5k views

### How do planes maintain constant speeds at cruise altitudes?

I'm a noob so pardon my ignorance. So my understanding is that as the plane gets lighter during the flight, its mass reduces therefore reducing the lift needed to maintain the altitude. At those ...
43 views

### Where I can get the flight manual for G650 [duplicate]

My question is in the title. Please if anyone has it and could send it, it would be really nice. I am an engineer trying to better understand the impact of various failure of the engines on the ...
57 views

### Where can the MEL for G650 aircraft be found? [closed]

Anyone knows where I could get the MEL for G650 aircraft? I was looking everywhere on the internet but haven't managed to find anything ... Thanks in advance!
96 views

### Does a CFI need an Instrument Rating

https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp&n=14y2.0.1.1.2&r=PART#se14.2.61_1183 The or below is very confusing. Doesn't it mean I need an Instrument rating or one of the things that ...
349 views

### Is there a age limit to become a CFI?

I’m a new PPL and I would love to become a CFI in the next 2 years (or so). My objective would be to transfer what I know (and will have learned) to aspiring pilots. I’m older, though (just about to ...
121 views

### Could sprinkling cool water on the runway in hot summer decrease air density?

Why is there no such technique used where cool water gets sprinkled on a runway? Cooling down the air above the airport would decrease air density and therefore lead to a shorter starttime for ...
46 views

### How to analytically calculate the tilting angle and aperture of an expansion fan? [closed]

I'm trying to calculate analytically how the expansion fan is positioned relative to the flow. Knowing the incoming Mach number (3.927) and the wedge angle (117°) I'd like to calculate the other two ...
82 views

### Supersonic propellers for supersonic aircraft? [duplicate]

A propeller is a spinning wing. Supersonic wings work. So, provided that the blades are made wide-chord and thin like supersonic wings are, with a supersonic airfoil, can they not power efficiently a ...
14k views

### Why is “runway behind you” useless?

I was recently answering this question and for some reason it made me think of this fairly famous aviation saying The three most useless things to a pilot are the altitude above you, runway behind ...
3k views

### What are the disadvantages for using short-field take-off technique?

It is obvious that using the short runway takeoff method(hold the brake till engine get full power) could get the aircraft in air within a shorter runway distance.Then why it is not used for every ...
31 views

### SOUND-OFF: Bose A20 ANR + BT vs. Faro Stealth 2 ANR + BT [closed]

Alright, Bose A20 & the Faro Stealth 2 (TWO). Both feature active noise reduction (ANR) and Bluetooth wireless for mobile / music / alerts. Bose A20 = $1000 Faro Stealth 2 ANR =$450 Who has ...
256 views

### Can airlines recover costs if they dump fuel for a medical emergency?

As per the title, can airlines recover costs if they dump fuel due to a medical emergency on board shortly after takeoff?
96 views

### Will I be denied or fail a first class medical if I have a recent history of depression? [duplicate]

I plan on going to get a medical exam for a first class medical certificate to attend flight school. Now, a couple months ago I met with a primary physician to get my blood and urine checked as a ...
189 views
+50

### Why does the low voltage warning light not illuminate when the alt switch is on, but the engine is off?

As part of the pre-flight inspection, one of the checks is to verify that the low voltage light is illuminated when switching just the battery on. This makes sense; there's a low voltage and the ...