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2
votes
1answer
125 views

Why did the space shuttle use bias-ply tyres instead of radials?

Aircraft and automobile tyres can be divided into two main types, based on the orientation of the tyres’ body plies (the layers of tough fabric that form the main structural body of the tyre); radial ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

What is the physical-based/theoretical reason why supersonic area ruling works?

Supersonic area ruling is used to reduce the drag rise that occurs as aircraft pass through the transonic regime. While it has been validated experimentally, what is the theoretical/physics-based ...
-1
votes
0answers
53 views

Two electric motors driving a rotor on a helicopter

So if on the same axis of the main rotor using counter rotating props to drive a single large rotor (two electric motors).... If the prop drivers stay level no matter AOA the rotor uses.... Yes ...
1
vote
3answers
68 views

What are the limits of ground effect over water on an airliner plane at cruising speeds? [duplicate]

What height over a fixed plain (such as water) can a plane begin to take advantage of the ground effect or when air is compressed between the wing and ground near cruizing speed? Could an airliner ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Fuel consumption database using ICAO codes?

I will preface this by saying I do not have any level of knowledge in Aerodynamics - I'm a freelance journalist and so apologies for the poor level of general understanding. I'm attempting to create ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Why did the Boeing Max operated by Lion Air disintegrate upon crashing in the sea from a low altitude?

The Lion Air Max crashed in the Java sea from a low altitude. What is the structural integrity strength of the fuselage?
4
votes
1answer
201 views

Does high density altitude affect your landing speed?

So I had this question asked in my recent commercial-pilot checkride: The DPE asked me about high-density-altitude airports; he specifically asked me if I should add airspeed when I'm on landing ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Does airspeed come into play with vertical speed, in terms of who will reach the ground first?

So let’s say there’s two aircraft, which are the same, and both are cruising at 28,000FT, the only difference is one plane is doing 260 knots and the other is doing 280 knots. If they both pitched ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Which aircraft can fly at FL600 or above?

I would like to know some examples of aircraft (specific models) which can fly at FL600 or higher. As far as I know, commercial airplanes cannot fly that high so I can only think of jet fighters, ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

When does an instrument approach “begin” per §135.225(a)

§135.225(a) states that, "...no pilot may begin an instrument approach procedure to an airport unless— (1) That airport has a weather reporting facility operated by the U.S. National Weather Service, ...
0
votes
2answers
86 views

How to find runway Centerline spacing on airport diagrams?

I know that airport diagrams show the exact position of airport runways in DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds) and therefore could use trigonometry to find how far apart runway centerlines are from ...
2
votes
3answers
150 views

Aerodynamics of Flight Control Surfaces

From what it appears to me, flight control surfaces seem to be taken for granted. In terms of how they actually work and what kind of physical outputs they give in terms of forces and such. Take for ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

What is the correct procedure for operating the engine fire extinguishers on an ATR72?

I am developing an application for airport fire crew and ground staff. Part of the application is to familiarize users with emergency procedures of various aircraft. I have a few questions about the ...
8
votes
5answers
4k views

Has anyone burned hydrogen in a turbine?

I am just wondering if supplying compressed hydrogen to a turbine would be a better fuel as it has three times the octane rating of kerosene. It just seems better all around.
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Why does Lift and Drag calculation over an airfoil ignore shear stress?

why in Lift and Drag calculation over an airfoil we ignore shear stress effect and focus on pressure distribution?
5
votes
0answers
150 views

Were airworthiness certificates revoked for B737 Max?

Following up from this question - or more specifically Brian Drummond's comment on the accepted answer: Or even revoked without modification, if something new is discovered about the existing ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Who is responsible to check differences of radar altimeter?

I have searched the site but failed to find a similar question. I know that modern civil aircrafts are equipped with multiple radar altimeters. Question is: In the unlikely event of those outputting ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Where is the control loop of the actuator closed?

When electro-hydraulic servo-actuators are used for the actuation of control surfaces in aircraft, linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are used for position or velocity feedback. There ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

Does anyone have photos of internal parts of ELAC, FAC, SEC or Boeing 777 flight computers?

I'm an electrical engineer and I'm interested in civil aviation, more specifically in fly-by-wire planes like the Airbus A320, Boeing 777 and others. But I fell in love with the Airbus A320 as it is ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

What do “1%” mean in ICAO Annex 14 § 3.9.9 (longitudinal slope changes)?

— 1 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 3 000 m) where the code letter is C, D, E or F; and — 1 per cent per 25 m (minimum radius of curvature of 2 500 m) where the code letter is A or ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Was the redesigned version of the One-Eleven's APU ever reapproved for inflight use?

The BAC One-Eleven, like most jetliners, has a turboshaft APU mounted in the tail section of the aircraft, which is mainly used on the ground, but, originally, could also be used during flight at ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Is there a penalty for changing the approach procedure after accepting one?

For example: If you request a visual approach and get approved, but you meant to request an ILS approach, are you not allowed to change it? Is there some type of penalty for changing approaches after ...
3
votes
2answers
121 views

How to correct CG on a not leveled aircraft?

I am tasked with weighing a fixed wing aircraft. the aircraft can not be leveled because the leveling points are damaged. therefor it is going to be weighed not leveled, an inclinometer will read a ...
0
votes
2answers
107 views

Are the airspace times of operation days of the week in local or Zulu time?

The margin of the Enroute High sectional H-4 claims that the times of operation of the airspace R-5107K near El Paso are "1400-0300Z, MON-FRI" (and other times by NOTAM). If the days of the week are ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Is an additional rotor useful on a coaxial rotor configuration?

I can understand coaxial rotors cancelling the need for a tail rotor, however, I am curious as to if the second rotor is needed to actually maintain the same pitch or could be just used to offload the ...
8
votes
1answer
99 views

Which timezone do airspaces that cross a time zone boundary belong to on a VFR sectional?

The Albuquerque VFR sectional claims that the airspace table in the margin use local time, but some of the airspaces in the table cross timezone boundaries. Which timezone do those airspaces belong ...
0
votes
2answers
260 views

How can aircraft land on choppy water?

What plane can land the slowest on the water? What plane can land on the choppiest water? Is there a way to land between the waves?
3
votes
1answer
171 views

How do airports in hot climates handle extremely high temperatures?

In June 2017 dozens of flights were cancelled in Phoenix, Arizona because of temperatures exceeding 120 degrees Fahrenheit/48.9 degrees Celsius.1,2 Hot air at a given air pressure is less dense, ...
24
votes
2answers
8k views

What was this mystery flash on an airport runway?

Recently I was onboard a commercial airliner and we had just landed and were headed for the gate. I cannot remember exactly which airport but it was either Schiphol(Amsterdam Airport) or Bristol. As ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Derivation of the Takeoff equation

I am trying to understand the derivation of some simple equations to calculate the neccecary takeoff speed for an airplane (under ideal conditions). Which is taken from 15. Takeoff and Landing. My ...
6
votes
1answer
149 views

Why don't hyperbolic navigation transmitters on the surface (e.g. Loran-C) allow altitude measurement?

I have been reading the following article about radio navigation in general and GPS / GLONASS receiver design: A homemade receiver for GPS & GLONASS satellites in which the author states the ...
21
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between “Type Certificate” and “Certificate of Airworthiness” for an aircraft?

I want to know what exactly is "Type Certificate" and "Certificate of Airworthiness" means for an aircraft.
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Hinge Moment Coefficient Prediction

Is there any tool for Hinge Moment coefficient calculation that takes input of aircraft specification that includes general data such as wing, aileron, horizontal tail plane and elevator data. The ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

How does the reusable holdback bar work?

Sources: wikimedia.org and ar15.com Holdback bars are used to hold a carrier plane at full thrust until the catapult pulls it for launch. Older bars (right) use a disposable shearable block (item 5) ...
9
votes
2answers
562 views

What is that pitot-like device under the left wing of the Cessna 152?

Source: tkaviation.net I suspect it's related to the fuel system, but it's only found on the left wing (see the yellow circle, not the pitot-tube). I haven't been able to find the right keywords to ...
5
votes
0answers
121 views

What does the A340's underwing bulge (plastron) look like?

From Wikipedia: From the start, engineers noticed that the wings were not stiff enough to carry the outboard engines at cruising speed without warping and fluttering. To alleviate this, an ...
9
votes
1answer
821 views

How does increasing the RPM result in a higher AOA for the blades?

I know that an increase in velocity (TAS) reduces the AOA and that makes sense. But how just simply increasing the blade rotation (RPM) results in higher AOA?
52
votes
4answers
17k views

Locked out of private jet - how do you get in?

Ok I'm not a jet owner, I'm a novel writer. I wanted to get my airplane facts right for the story. Say my character has a mid-size (can go overseas) private jet. Has a door lock on the outside door ...
5
votes
2answers
226 views

What is the beeping occasionally heard in the background of ATC?

Occasionally while listening to ATC, I hear a beeping in the background of their transmission. My suspicion is it's a traffic conflict alert since the beeping is usually followed with a traffic alert ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

Constant turn radius with Δ airspeed and bank

Can someone explain how speed impacts rate of turn and and degree of bank required? I'm trying to understand this practice problem but can't get the concept: Say you have 2 vehicles travelling at ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

What is the difference between a 'live' NLG axle and a 'fixed' NLG axle?

What are the advantages / disadvantages of a live and fixed nose landing gear axle and how do they work? Maybe certain aircraft need a particular type fitted? I can't see the need of a moving axle (...
28
votes
2answers
7k views

In WW2 aircraft, where were gun cameras mounted, and did they suffer performance penalties?

During WW2, some aircraft had gun cameras that activated whenever the guns fired, so that people on the ground could evaluate performance and help with kill ratios and other statistics. These were ...
0
votes
0answers
80 views

What is the communication protocol for the side-stick in the F-16 or F/A-18?

The side-stick in the F-16 or F/A-18 communicates with the flight control computer to transmit the pilot inputs. This transmission uses a protocol. Which protocol?
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Pressure at altitude [closed]

How is the exosphere, composed of particles in a gaseous state, preventing the pressurized atmosphere from equalizing with the vacuum of space?
0
votes
0answers
77 views

What are the specifications of this Zenith bush airplane's gear and tires?

I would like to know the name (if any) and the specifications of Zenith's bush airplane? I would like to know the size, the diameter, the maximum load, bearing number/type, and so on. Seems that the ...
13
votes
4answers
2k views

What should I do if I lose situational awareness while in the pattern?

Let's say that I'm doing some pattern work in my favorite little Cessna or Diamond at my favorite little non-towered airport. Everything is going just fine, I'm on the downwind leg... Or, wait a ...
27
votes
2answers
5k views

What does ATC do during “slow” times?

I know at larger airports, it's NEVER a slow time. But what about at smaller airports that are large enough to rate manned ATC, but things aren't always fast-paced, high-traffic like at JFK or DFW, ...
6
votes
3answers
251 views

How much force does a helicopter's tail rotor counteract?

How much force does a helicopters tail rotor counteract? What are the formulas for determining this? How much rotational torque is produced by spinning the blades?
1
vote
0answers
124 views

If props throw air outwards, why do some prop diagrams show a reduction in airstream diameter behind the prop disc?

If props throw air outwards, why do some prop diagrams show a reduction in airstream diameter behind the prop disc, or are these velocity vectors? Diagram showing airflow outwards as shown on nap.edu ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

Is B 737 Max able to comply with certification if MCAS is off or removed? [duplicate]

Boeing 737 Max updated MCAS will probably be cutted off in case of AoA disagree. Without MCAS, the plane is no longer similar to 737 NG (stick force per g requirement). Does that mean a new ...

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