Hot answers tagged

31

The controller didn't overstep his boundaries, and he didn't tell the pilot to ignore a weather warning. Shamrock demanded something that's extreme for the NYC airspace: runway heading for 15 miles. Usually asking for right or left deviation is sufficient, and that appears to be what the previous Delta departure did. Once Shamrock declined an easterly ...


16

There are no regulations which require passengers to be seated when the plane is flying a holding pattern, but there are a few practical advantages to keep the seat belt sign on during this phase: The plane is flying at a lower altitude, where it is more likely to encounter turbulence and other unstable weather conditions. Up in FL330 it is usually clear ...


13

ATC has many tools "in their belt" to keep traffic separated. When things back up, it can get crowded. Emergencies and weather regularly cause disruptions and ATC handles them according to the circumstances. To illustrate some possibilities, I will use Seattle as an example here. You can find the airport information here. Most aircraft coming into the area ...


13

This depends on what exactly you want the aircraft to do: Immediately depart the hold and fly directly to another fix: N1234 cleared to 'clearance limit' via direct 'fix' and then as previously filed. Immediately depart the hold and fly an assigned heading: N1234 Cleared to 'clearance limit' via radar vectors. Fly heading 'heading'. Proceed to ...


12

to source from wikipedia: There are three standard types of entries: direct, parallel, and offset (teardrop). The proper entry procedure is determined by the angle difference between the direction the aircraft flies to arrive at the beacon and the direction of the inbound leg of the holding pattern. A direct entry is performed exactly as ...


11

The reason for a different turn rate at higher altitude is because of the physics of Indicated (IAS) and True (TAS) airspeed. Many aircraft would find it impossible to do a standard rate turn at high altitudes. A standard rate turn is 3° per second. This is also known as a two-minute turn because it would take 2 minutes to make a full 360, or 1 minute for a ...


11

The AIM 7-3-9 lists the required separations. Behind a heavy aircraft, the departure hold is 3 minutes and it may not be waived. Behind a small aircraft, the hold may be waived on pilot request only: 3. Additionally, appropriate time or distance intervals are provided to departing aircraft: (a) Two minutes or the appropriate 4 or 5 mile radar ...


11

To add to Michael Hall's answer, the direct entry is the one where you get straight on to the "racetrack" with minimum maneuvering and that is possible from anywhere within the direct entry sector. The other two entries involve initial maneuvering "off the racetrack" so to speak. That entry diagram is a procedural convention, not a hard regulation you must ...


10

As PIC if you don't feel comfortable entering congested airspace at a beehive airport, dont enter it. It's that simple. Divert to another airfield and attempt to return to the original airfield when the congestion abates. If you anticipate high density traffic at an untowered airport, you should let other pilots know your intentions on the CTAF well in ...


10

The article you linked in your question mentions one incident - loss of separation - that's described in more detail here. The Aviation Herald is a good source of information on incidents and accidents but it has very few reports related to holding. There are several about low-fuel incidents because aircraft had to remain in the hold for a long time (...


10

In short, yes, helicopters fly procedure turns, hold, etc. just like airplanes. Hovering at a fix is not practical, as they do not really have the nav capability to perform that, and it is contrary to normal ATC procedures.


9

One you are established inbound on the VOR radial note the heading you are flying to maintain that course. The difference between that and the radial is your wind correction angle. Multiply it by 3 and apply it to the outbound course heading. To do this you don't need to know anything about the wind. You just need to be able to intercept and track the ...


9

Every country regulates its airspace. You will find the ones for the US airspace on the FAA website. https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/us_restrictions/airspace/ What went wrong is speculation, but most probably had to do with Advance Passenger Information System (APIS). When filing a flightplan the passenger list is transmitted and the request ...


9

Not very frequent at all. The need to delay traffic toward an airport is quite common. Usually, it is simply a question of fitting someone in a sequence of arriving aircraft, but there can be more severe cases, such as a runway change or ongoing emergency. In any case, ATC has a number of tools to use, and unpublished holdings are usually one of the last ...


8

Indeed helicopters can be put on holding during IFR. ICAO DOC 8168 VOL II (PANS-OPS) has helicopter specifics in Section 4 Chapter 1 HOLDING CRITERIA: 1.3.2.2.2 Helicopter timing. The outbound timing should be: a) one minute up to and including 1 830 m (6 000 ft); and b) Category A fixed-wing aeroplane criteria above 1 830 m (6 000 ft). Also ...


7

If you're in radar contact with ATC, the answer is no, you will not need to report it unless requested to. If you are not in radar contact (which would be unusual as that is in Class E airspace) you would not have to report your position entering the hold at YAYUB unless you were instructed to hold at this point with an EFC time. From the AIM 5-4-9 When ...


7

There's no "standard holding pattern" at any airport, towered or not. If the runway is occupied or temporarily closed for some reason, you might was well leave the traffic pattern and go putt around for a while someplace where there are fewer aircraft. At a towered airport, the controller will likely tell you what to do - but again, you can make both his ...


7

A. A helicopter uses a LOT more fuel hovering than it does in forward flight. B. ATC are used to seeing their radar blips moving, so having the helicopter keep on moving complies with radar's expectations.


7

These are generally 3 different auto pilot modes. The first two are related to pitch and the third to heading/roll a nice overview can be found here Altitude Hold: Generally speaking setting an autopilot to altitude hold will cause the autopilot to maintain that altitude by varying the pitch of the aircraft. Depending on the system it may attempt to ...


7

A washout filter is used in a yaw damper autopilot to remove the steady state component from the yaw rate sensor. Feedback from the rate sensor is used to damp dutch roll mode, but during turns coupling between yaw and roll results in the aforementioned undesirable steady state yaw rate component. Detail is on pg103 of: this document


7

The controller didn't overstep their boundary but used poor judgment in using "another aircraft just did it..." as justification. That is almost always the last words of a crash as unforeseen weather tempted an aircrew to sneak in one more landing or takeoff. Fast cold fronts travel 1/2mi a minute and what the previous aircraft encountered has nothing to do ...


7

The minimum vertical separation in a holding stack is no different from the minimal vertical separation used elsewhere. This is almost universally 1000 feet. In countries where Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) has not been implemented, 2000 feet of vertical separation is required above FL290. 2000 feet is also needed if a non-RVSM equipped aircraft (...


6

As @fooot mentions, most, if not all, holding will take place at fixes along the arrival, not within the terminal airspace. Once airplanes are being controlled by an approach facility they will resolve spacing issues with vectors. Altitude changes within this airspace can be difficult (see: NY Tracon) and the airspace requirements for holding make it quite ...


6

When holding, it is true that you should take then inbound wind correction and multiply it by three and use that for the outbound correction. Your question centers on what happens if you don't know the correct wind information and obstacle clearance. Fortunately for us, the FAA has given us a wide obstacle clearance area for the holds. While it is ...


5

Yes. The number denotes the distance of the holding pattern. From FAA Instrument Flying Handbook: DME and IFR-certified GPS equipment offer some additional options for holding. Rather than being based on time, the leg lengths for DME/GPS holding patterns are based on distances in nautical miles. These patterns use the same entry and holding procedures as ...


5

I assume that this question is about the US, based on your examples. No, it doesn't change the clearance limit. For some reason I could only find the documentation in the ATC orders, not the AIM. Section 4-2-5 of the orders says: Issue a clearance “direct” to a point on the previously issued route. PHRASEOLOGY− CLEARED DIRECT (fix,waypoint)....


5

The answer is yes, you would enter holding just as you depicted.


4

First come first serve. Typically ATC will direct the first plane to the lowest free altitude in the holding pattern and the next 1000 ft on top of that and so on. It may be possible that a plane comes in at a lower altitude right after a plane at a higher one and gets to skip to a lower spot (so it doesn't need to climb up). When the runway/next segment ...


4

Given that you want to stay in the pattern you could use the upwind leg to avoid flying over the runway. This is, from base go to upwind, then crosswind, etc. As others posted there is no standard holding pattern. For VFR traffic there are no holds either. The pattern may become congested quickly. Your best bet is to divert until the situation improves.


4

So, this is found in the AIM, para 5-3-3 (a)(1)(f) (PDF), assuming you're asking about FAA regulations. 5-3-3. Additional Reports a. The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities without a specific ATC request: 1. At all times. [...] (f) The time and altitude or flight level upon reaching a ...


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