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39

The first thing that you should do is check the NOTAM's for the airport (which of course, you should do before you leave on your flight). Very often, these types of errors have been discovered by someone else and the FAA will have issued a NOTAM to let everyone know. In this case there is no NOTAM, so we would have had no reason to suspect an issue before ...


24

If you look at satellite imagery it looks like you have very high terrain to the west of the runway. The water would be the primary area available for a climb back to obstacle clearance altitude. Looks like the MAP just routes you with sufficient time to climb to the MA altitude. (Google Maps)


22

SOIA (Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches) allow airports with parallel runways that are 750 to 3000 feet apart to conduct (almost) simultaneous approaches to the two runways. At an airport, one runway uses the ILS PRM approach, while the other runway uses an offset LDA PRM approach (with glideslope). SOIA refers to the LDA PRM approach, where another ...


19

A monitored approach is a special kind of instrument approach involving added verbal call outs and increased monitoring of the airplane and is typically conducted when weather is below a certain threshold. For example, a crew may be required to fly a monitored approach if the weather is below 3/4 mile vis and the captain has less than 100 hours in type, or ...


17

A point shown in parentheses like this is called a Computer Navigation Fix (CNF). If it didn't fall right at the end of the runway, it would be marked with a small X. It's defined in the legend on page 39 (page 41 of the PDF) of the Terminal Procedure Publication User's Guide. These points are only used to define the navigation track in the flight computer. ...


16

First allow me to give a quick introduction to RNAV and RNP before geting to SAAAR / RNP AR. Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation that allows an aircraft to fly on any desired path within the coverage of referenced navigation beacons, rather than navigating directly to and from the beacons. In other words, waypoints ...


13

Eurocontrol has an online repository of European Aeronatical Information Services. You'll need to register, but the basic service is free. By default, the application is JAVA applet based, which works not in the best way. After logging on, you can change the default behaviour to HTML based, which makes it more user friendly. Then clicking "Enter ...


13

The only minimums that apply to any approach are those printed on the plate. Doing anything else is being a test pilot. Minimums are charted based on obstacle clearance, descent gradient, distance from the airport, and a variety of other factors. The appropriate course of action is to either: land straight in on 31 and attempt to deal with the crosswind. ...


13

As Alexander already said in his answer, the turns over water are executed to gain enough altitude before turning back over the terrain. (left: RNAV-A, right: RNAV approach chart). The difference between the RNAV-A approach and the other two (RNAV and LOC) is the required minimum climb gradients for these two approaches. You find them at the bottom of the ...


11

The literal answer to your question about complying with the plate is also in AIM 5-4-9, right after the piece you quoted (my bold): NOTE- The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or hold-in-lieu-of-PT when it is not required by the procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC ...


11

The naming convention is explained in Chapter 4 of the FAA's Instrument Procedures Handbook: When two or more straight-in approaches with the same type of guidance exist for a runway, a letter suffix is added to the title of the approach so that it can be more easily identified. These approach charts start with the letter Z and continue in ...


10

There's an FAA paper on RNAV approaches that explains the differences between LP, LPV, LNAV and LNAV/RNAV approaches. I made a table for my own reference but since StackExchange doesn't allow tables (AFAIK) here's a summary: LP: no vertical guidance; WAAS required; MDA for minimums LPV: vertical guidance; WAAS required; DA for minimums LNAV: no vertical ...


10

LNAV/VNAV approaches were originally designed for larger, more sophisticated turbine aircraft utilizing onboard Flight Management Systems (FMS). These types of approaches uses barometric altimeters and ground radio equipment to compute a descent path and add vertical guidance to an existing non-precision approach. An LPV approach still provides vertical ...


10

Precision Approaches (PA), as you mention, have specific performance requirements, one of which is how "good" the vertical position measurement must be during an approach. In the case of a PA, ground systems either directly measure the aircraft's vertical position on the glide path (Precision Approach Radar in the case of parallel approaches), or provide a ...


9

Yes, with this procedure you are required to fly the procedure turn unless you are flying the CVV transition (which is notated as NoPT), are receiving vectors to final, or receive a clearance for a "straight-in approach" over EYWOK. If you are cleared direct to the final approach fix, none of these apply (but remember that you can always request a straight-...


9

According to the FAA Safety Alert for Operators issued on 09/20/2012 (SAFO 12005): A pilot may never use the approach minimums specified for an approach category lower than their certified approach category, even if the actual approach is flown at a speed that would be in the lower approach category. A pilot must always use the approach minimums specified ...


9

Apart from the fact that it is required to learn, the obvious "benefit" is that you know what to do when flying to an airport that uses a DME Arc approach. RNAV/GPS approaches are becoming more common, but have far from taken over from conventional approaches. Even if an airport has radar, it does not necessarily mean that radar vectoring for final approach ...


9

Non precision MAP fixes are identified in a number of ways: Fixes identified by additional terrestrial Navaids eg intersections between the localizer and radial directions from other Navaid beacons like VORs, NDBs, etc.. Fixes identified by DME slant ranges. Fixes identified by flying a linear course from an identified FAF at a specific airspeed for a ...


8

While researching this subject, I found a few things that shed light on the subject: Procedures FAA ATC Order 4-8-1 Note 1 says: 1. Clearances authorizing instrument approaches are issued on the basis that, if visual contact with the ground is made before the approach is completed, the entire approach procedure will be followed unless the pilot ...


8

So you fly the KEA transition like this: Track RDL 265 KEA until crossing RDL 187 ATV or 27 DME KEA Start a right turn and intercept RDL 192 ATV Fly RDL192 until intercepting final As egid said, RDL 187 ATV is a lead radial which is a radial used only to tell you when to start a turn. As far as 20 DME ATV, it is actually only used for the PELAG transition ...


8

The ICAO classifications have changed: (eurocontrol.int, 2017) ICAO has been reworking the approach classifications since c. 2012, because of the confusion they were causing in the PBN environment. Good news is, LPV SBAS Cat I is now (since at least 2013) a precision approach. Approaches now are two types, A and B. The approach minima are ≥250 feet and &...


8

This is an interesting question because it turns out that RNAV approach criteria aren't defined in the TERPS as you would expect. Instead, there's a separate FAA order 8260.58 for RNAV approaches. The TERPS does indeed give 30° as the maximum offset for most approaches (e.g. section 4-2-4) and 15° for VOR/DME RNAV approaches (section 13-3-4), but VOR/DME ...


8

Perhaps my thinking is now considered outmoded (retired in 1999), but for me the definition of a stabilized approach doesn't preclude turning, but only that the turning (when necessary) is accomplished at a stabilized rate. The idea was to be setup in landing configuration, at your stabilized final approach speed, sink rate, and power and tracking whatever ...


8

Original answer: The speed of Category A aircraft is too low to execute the missed approach. For this particular airport, it's basically a hole in the ground with steep mountains on all sides. To go missed, you gotta get up in a hurry, and the TERPS data probably indicates a minimum speed is needed. Edit: Despite the downvotes and comments stating that ...


7

LPV is a higher precision approach requiring equipment beyond what is needed for LNAV/VNAV. In particular you need dual WAAS recievers in a certified installation. The improved guidance is what allows the lower DH. See this link for more information.


7

That note actually refers to the holding pattern in general, not to the missed approach procedure. Your reading of the missed is correct. Descend to 6000 in holding pattern. Refers to descent from the MSA or any other enroute altitude. Before transitioning from enroute to the outbound initial segment (departing the IAF) the pilot must descend in the hold ...


7

The FMS Bridge Visual Approach 28R is a version of the Quiet Bridge Visual Approach 28R which is coded with GPS coordinates and can be included in an FMS database for approved operators. This allows the procedure to be used when the SFO VOR is out of service, and also gives ATC additional flexibility by allowing them to clear pilots direct to any of the ...


7

First of all, do not let the depicted holding pattern confuse you. It is only there because the missed approach procedure happens to have the hold at the same place, and for the purposes of the course reversal may be ignored. In this case, you have options because the course reversal is simply a "barbed arrow". AIM 5-4-9. Procedure Turn and Hold-in-lieu ...


7

As best I can understand from the TERPS, it's because there are certain criteria for RNAV missed approaches that wouldn't be met by copying the ILS missed approach. Specifically, I found the following (see chapters 7 and 15): In RNAV missed approaches "turns shall not exceed 120°", but the ILS missed approach requires about a 180° turn. There's some ...


7

The equipment requirement (in the aircraft) are different for each of these approaches. In the upper-left box of the Z approach, you can see that DME is required to make this approach. This requirement is not listed in the Y approach. If your aircraft has the right equipment, you can reduce your minimums by selecting the appropriate approach plate. In ...


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