33

With basic instruments (altimeter, speed and climb indicator and compass): Forget it! A glider can enter a cloud when thermalling into it from below. Below the cloud the rising air was governed by dry adiabatic laws. Once it crosses into the cloud, the air is fully saturated and humidity starts to condense - after all, this is how clouds form. Now the ...


16

Totally legal to tune it up & use it. If it is a VORTAC, it will work just like every other VORTAC out there. If it is a TACAN, you may be able to get DME from it, but you won”t get bearing from it without a TACAN receiver. Many, perhaps most VOR’s out there are in fact VORTAC’s — the TACAN station is colocated with the VOR. It is possible to have a VOR-...


15

The Soviet Union had GLONASS for aviation civilian use in the latter part of the requested 50s-90s period. From 1982 to April 1991, the Soviet Union successfully launched a total of 43 GLONASS-related satellites plus five test satellites. (...) For a long time, the USA could not find out the nature of those "objects". The Telegraph Agency of the ...


14

Yes it is possible to fly in cloud in a glider. In fact there is an endorsement for it for your licence with an exam. (In the UK anyway.) It does only require primary instruments, the one used for cloud flying is called a turn and slip, showing bank and yaw. Along with the yaw string. These are found in almost all gliders I have come across. It is ...


13

Short answer: only part of the airway is unusable, and even then it's usable with GPS. Your image shows V522 between FAILS intersection and the ERI VOR but you have to look at the full airway, which runs from the DJB VOR in the south-west to MYPAL intersection in the north-east: As you can see, only some parts of it are marked unusable, even if they're ...


12

It says it right there on the page where the service volumes are described in the AIM: 1-1-8. Navigational Aid (NAVAID) Service Volumes c. Standard Service Volume limitations do not apply to published IFR routes or procedures. So V267 has been flown at the MEA by an FAA plane, and it obviously met the signal accuracy requirements to be usable at ...


12

That's part of the High Altitude Redesign (HAR) program. As far as the available information, it's now available for flights above FL390, and only in certain ARTCC's in the U.S. The waypoint naming convention is as follows: There are plans to have this system implemented worldwide. The pilot will no longer be limited by airways based on ground navaids. I....


10

The "A" is not an inner marker. The A is an airway marker. Airway markers were part of a now-obsolete system of "red" airways. They were placed along the enroute path and they could be picked up at cruise altitudes. The red airway system was mostly abandoned in the 60's and few "A" markers are still operational. Here's a map showing where they were located. ...


10

It would be difficult to stay stable for any length of time because those basic instruments give you almost no information on your angle of bank. If you could manage to keep your spirit compass on a constant heading and keep the yarn straight, your wings would be level. So while it would be possible, I would think you would need an experienced glider ...


9

I'm offering this answer more for amusement to readers than anything; everything is factual first-person observation by me. No. I cannot fly a glider in a cloud on primary instruments. When I was a young man of 23 years old I flew hang gliders before I obtained my Private Pilot's license in the USA about 1986. My flight instruments in my hang glider ...


9

It means exactly what it says. The ILS is out of service, so you can't use it. An ILS can consist of several different elements, for example localizer, glidepath, DME, inner/middle/outer markers as well as a bunch of technical monitoring equipment, ATC control panels, warning systems and backup power supplies. Should any of these components fail, it may be ...


8

The textual description for OLIVI 4W is: OLIVI FOUR WHISKEY On track 256° to 6.0 DME MND; RT, on track 333° to KOSAX; LT, on track 294° to OLIVI. Climb with 7.9% (480 ft/NM) or more until passing 3000, then climb with 6.4% (390 ft/NM) or more until passing 6000. However, the remarks section holds the answer: 1. PDG 7.9% (480 ft/NM) due to obstacles. If ...


8

MOCAs provide minimum obstacle clearance, as you note; MEAs also provide this—and more. MOCAs are determined essentially the same across the board. The question that I think you should ask is why is the MEA higher than the MOCA in some cases where you might not expect it, namely in the case of some GNSS MEAs. Firstly, all MEAs take into account multiple ...


7

Short Answer: No, the vertical component of LPV approach performance is based on WAAS GPS input, not the altimeter or barometric system. Longer Answer: Your assumption about LPV performance is correct: Baro-VNAV is not used for LPV approaches. On any type of approach with a Decision Altitude (DA), the aircraft's arrival at the DA is determined by the ...


7

I'm not aware of any program at present that does away with ground based infrastructure completely. Present plans are to have the ground based stations as a backup in case of a GNSS outage/interference. The present FAA plan, for example includes DME while reducing the VOR coverage: Navigation- En Route Transition; from FAA navigation Programs Update Sep ...


7

Well first off said stunt is illegal under 91.303 aerobatic flight regs and 91.13 careless and reckless operation of an aircraft. And it's also very dangerous. But no, it would not result in reverse sensing due to the fact that the ILS system is only capable of sensing whether it is receiving more of the 90 Hz signal as opposed to the 150 Hz signal and ...


7

Absolutely. A VORTAC is nothing more than a VOR colocated with a TACAN. Most VOR-DMEs in the US are VORTACs. If there happens to be one located on a base you are certainly still able to use it.


7

You would never list your destination as an alternate (that wouldn't logically make sense), but there are situations where having an alternate is not required: At least one destination alternate aerodrome must be designated and specified in the both operational and ATS flight plans if a flight under IFR is going to be made unless one of the following ...


6

I was taught to fly in cloud using basic instruments in 1976. The problem was one of staying in the cloud without exiting through the side. In the event of losing control, the drill was to open the air brakes and wallow out of the bottom. This worked well enough in my Olly 2B until one day in 1978 it didn't. My cosmim indicated a maximum climb rate and my ...


6

The primary source for every country would be the countries' Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). In some cases the AIP is freely accessible, printed copies can be directly obtained from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or commercial companies authorized to distribute these, such as Jeppesen. In some cases there will be a joint resource for certain ...


6

There are numerous options, and it depends highly on your route. But there are generally enough VORs scattered across the country such that you should be in range of a couple of them pretty much everywhere. As mentioned in another answer, there are NDBs, but in the continental US, generally, the ones not on an approach are getting fewer, as the FAA has ...


6

Homing & 0° relative bearing Homing is a technique used with ADF/NDB navigation, where you point the ADF needle at 0° relative bearing, which means that your nose is directly pointed at the navigational aid you are trying to reach. The same technique can crudely be used with VORs and GPS, where homing onto a VOR would be changing the inbound radial ...


6

FAA/NACO charts aren't masters, either The master form of a FAA instrument approach procedure isn't the FAA/NACO approach plate for that procedure -- that plate is a derived document, just like the Jeppesen plate for that approach is. The master, instead, is kept by the FAA in textual form as a set of Form 8260s. These provide a precise, formulaic ...


6

In the US, the FAA has done this alot, as in their long term plan to phase out a lot of the VORs. Doing that, they're preemptively just adding a Fix for procedures on top of the VOR so they don't have to update all the procedures when the VOR is decommissioned.


6

TACANs are for military use. VOR or VORTAC are the civilian equivalent. Civilians can't generally tune in TACAN. This wikipedia article has more details. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactical_air_navigation_system


5

I assume that this question is about the US, based on your examples. No, it doesn't change the clearance limit. For some reason I could only find the documentation in the ATC orders, not the AIM. Section 4-2-5 of the orders says: Issue a clearance “direct” to a point on the previously issued route. PHRASEOLOGY− CLEARED DIRECT (fix,waypoint)....


5

Any VHF radio can receive the carrier signal of a LOC signal but to use it, you need dedicated circuitry. The LOC transmitter transmits the carrier wave, frequency modulated with two side lobes of 90Hz and 150Hz. In order to use the LOC signal, circuitry needs to exist which will filter out the 90 and 150Hz then measure the difference between them to ...


5

This depends: Under part 91, you just have to remain clear of clouds and have a minimum of a 1,000 ft. ceiling and 3 SM visibility. Commercial operations (121 and 135) are further restricted by their Operations Specifications and have to maintain VFR weather minimums appropriate for the airspace that they are in (among other things, see below). Here is an ...


5

Considering that Jeppesen provides their products in several different formats, such as the paper charts, their JeppView application for iPad EFB's, and database subscriptions for aircraft Flight Management Systems, it seems highly likely that they use a database of their own -- and a massive one at that! Beyond what is publically available, they offer a ...


5

I cannot speak for all of General Aviation (GA), but throughout the IFR portion of my flying career I have generally used SIDs wherever available. NOTE: This choice of using SIDs was not always mine, as ATC will often include a SID in a clearance unless requested otherwise. A pilot has two opportunities to avoid SID's if so desired: firstly, when filing the ...


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