55

My experience is circa 1990s, but I can offer some perspective on US fixed wing operations. Besides TACAN and ASR for non-precision approaches, there are (were) 3 precision instrument approach options available: Precision Approach Radar (PAR), Instrument Landing System (ILS, or “Bullseye”) Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS). PAR: This consists of both ...


39

The first thing that you should do is check the NOTAM's for the airport (which of course, you should do before you leave on your flight). Very often, these types of errors have been discovered by someone else and the FAA will have issued a NOTAM to let everyone know. In this case there is no NOTAM, so we would have had no reason to suspect an issue before ...


23

It's the fact the autopilot works more accurately than a pilot which is actually the cause of the restriction. The decision to restrict the use of the autopilot usually comes from the certification agency after the ILS inspection flight detected glideslope erratic variations or reversals. The false signals are likely due to interference from the environment ...


23

Your scenario isn't really realistic, the turn coordinator and the AI are almost always on different sources of power to protect against this very event. The TC is almost always electrically driven because it gives an alternate source of information. A loss of an instrument or even a whole suite of instruments is something instrument rated pilots train for,...


21

Assuming that you're asking about intercepting the glideslope from above rather than the localizer, the answer is that it is definitely NOT recommended. There are at least two significant problems if you do this. First, is the fact that at high vertical angles there can be false glideslopes. Looking at the diagram below, if you're coming at the glideslope ...


20

It is the year followed by the day of the year of the last ammendment to the chart. If there have been no changes to the chart since it was first issued, this space is blank. In this case the chart was revised on the 171st day of 2019. If you look at the bottom left hand portion of the chart, the date shows the last time the procedure was revised e.g.—...


18

The correct thing to do very much depends on the clearance that you were given. If you were simply cleared direct to BEJCY and cleared for the approach, then your instructor is correct and you should have completed the procedure turn as charted. If the clearance included the words straight in (i.e. "cleared for the straight in GPS 01 approach"), then you ...


17

Read that other question again. He was approaching from the SSW and made an assumption based on the approach segment from AUGIE. He wasn't actually on the AUGIE-BEJCY leg as it would be impossible to be there if he were approaching from the SSW. His clearance was "Direct BEJCY cleared for the GPS 01 approach". That clearance, in lieu of any specific ...


16

GdD’s answer is accurate (up vote). My answer will be more step by step. The first thing you should do is recognize the issue. That might not be immediately easy depending on your aircraft and it’s electronics suite. If there is no visual and auditory alert, you will have to wait for the gyros to wind down to a certain extent. Immediately announce to ...


15

TCAS 1 will only give a Traffic Advisory (TA). The crew will lookout for the other aircraft and take evasive action if necessary. They also may contact ATC for instructions. They will follow ATC instructions unless they see that the instructions will bring them into the path of the other aircraft. TCAS II will give a traffic advisory first, then a ...


15

You don't have to have permission to fly in IMC in uncontrolled, class G, airspace. However, you must have an instrument rating and be in an IFR-certified aircraft. In uncontrolled airspace, you may fly into IMC as you like and perform whatever maneuvers you want. It's a very good idea to get flight following in order to receive traffic warnings from ATC if ...


14

No arguments needed, it's very specifically defined. According to the FAA's Pilot/Controller Glossary under SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE: c. Final Approach− The segment between the final approach fix or point and the runway, airport, or missed approach point. (See ICAO term FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT.) So it starts at the FAF, which is ...


14

Although I can’t detail fixed wing operations at sea, many countries operating helicopters use an ELVA procedure, an Emergency Low Visibility Approach. Most vessels operating aircraft will have a radar to provide a SCA (ship controlled approach) or if the helicopter has a radar it will be able to fly its own HCA (helicopter controlled approach). Assuming the ...


13

The only minimums that apply to any approach are those printed on the plate. Doing anything else is being a test pilot. Minimums are charted based on obstacle clearance, descent gradient, distance from the airport, and a variety of other factors. The appropriate course of action is to either: land straight in on 31 and attempt to deal with the crosswind. ...


12

There are procedures with temperature restrictions, related to altitude constraints. An example is Innsbruck: The text in the red box says: Procedure N/A below AD temp -7° For effect of temperature on altimeter: How will the altimeter read in air colder than ISA?


12

The key is in the part of the procedure description I've highlighted: When local altimeter setting not received use Northeast Philadelphia altimeter setting -- you're using the altimeter setting for an airport 15 miles away. 15 miles may not seem like a lot of distance, but it's enough for there to be a notceable variation in altimeter settings. The FAA ...


12

If the aircraft has not established a stabilised approach, a go around is required. According to EUROCONTROL's Skybrary, a stabilised approach is defined as: Their Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 7-1 suggests that "all flights must be stabilised by 1000 feet above airport elevation in IMC and 500 feet above airport elevation ...


12

I don't have any definitive information on why the oval shape was chosen. However, it seems to me to be the most practical shape given the navigational equipment available when holding patterns first became necessary. VOR, DME, and GPS technology did not exist. Holding patterns were flown, often by single pilots hand flying, with reference to an ADF needle, ...


11

The literal answer to your question about complying with the plate is also in AIM 5-4-9, right after the piece you quoted (my bold): NOTE- The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or hold-in-lieu-of-PT when it is not required by the procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC ...


11

FAR 91.169 states that IFR flight plans must include an alternate airport unless the weather is at least 2000 ft ceiling and 3 miles visibility, from one hour before to one hour afterwards (1-2-3 rule). The same regulation also states that the alternate airport must meet the following critera: (c) IFR alternate airport weather minima. Unless otherwise ...


11

I can't say for sure, but I would assume that the pattern-based drills were removed because of the new emphasis on scenario-based ("real world") training the FAA has been moving toward: While Pattern A and Pattern B are useful for honing your skills (and I'll even admit they're kind of fun to fly) they're not something you'll fly in the "real world" - you ...


11

It's defined in the pilot/controller glossary: VISUAL CLIMB OVER AIRPORT (VCOA)− A departure option for an IFR aircraft, operating in visual meteorological conditions equal to or greater than the specified visibility and ceiling, to visually conduct climbing turns over the airport to the published “climb−to” altitude from which to proceed with the ...


11

FAA/NACO charts aren't masters, either The master form of a FAA instrument approach procedure isn't the FAA/NACO approach plate for that procedure -- that plate is a derived document, just like the Jeppesen plate for that approach is. The master, instead, is kept by the FAA in textual form as a set of Form 8260s. These provide a precise, formulaic ...


11

Autoland exists at least in part because a pilot can't safely hit (the right part of) the runway (at the right speed and attitude) without visual references, so a lot of precision electronic guidance equipment is needed, and then even more equipment to ensure the first equipment is working correctly. In contrast, the sky is much bigger than the runway. It's ...


10

Unless you were "cleared straight-in" for the approach, when IMOMY is your IAF (as it was in this case) you are required to fly the course reversal, even if you can execute a direct entry. This is because the approach does not have terminal arrival areas labeled NoPT. So, yes, it was appropriate to fly the 6nm reversal. That said, no, you cannot choose a ...


10

The FAA says (per 14 CFR 91.185): If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received, or if none has been received, upon arrival over the clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from which an approach begins and commence descent or descent and ...


10

An appropriately installed GPS may be used until crossing the final approach fix on a non-localizer approach, and until the segment requiring navigation via the localizer on a LOC, ILS, SDF, or LDA approach. It's generally approved and legal at any other time. During the missed approach, a pilot may switch to GPS immediately, unless the missed approach ...


10

Answer is yes. FAA ATC Section 6. Vectoring: When vectoring or approving an aircraft to deviate off of a procedure that includes published altitude restrictions, advise the pilot if you intend on clearing the aircraft to resume the procedure. PHRASEOLOGY− FLY HEADING (degrees), MAINTAIN (altitude), EXPECT TO RESUME (SID, STAR, etc.). ...


10

I think it just means a situation in which the DME is "no longer locked on". Sounds like the DME may not be seen properly from those areas mentioned in the NOTAM. From the Naval Instrument Navigation Workbook TACAN Characteristics 1.Bearing/Distance Unlock. TACAN bearing and distance signals are subject to line-of-sight restrictions because of ...


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