Note: I am assuming you are asking about US regulations.
If the tower does not give you an instruction, you should not wait for one. Leave the runway at the next available taxiway and then wait for further instructions:
4−3−20. Exiting the Runway After Landing
The following procedures must be followed after landing and reaching taxi speed.
Generally speaking, no.
As for the specific situation, New York Oceanic has been closed since midnight UTC:
DUE TO AN OPERATIONAL EMERGENCY NEW YORK AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER IS DISCONTINUING AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES IN THE NEW YORK OCEANIC FIR UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE.FLIGHTS CHOOSING TO ENTER NEW YORK CENTER AIRSPACE SHOULD EXPECT ONLY ADVISORY SERVICE.
What I was taught that this meant was ...
... because they could not communicate with you, but they wanted you to not land on this pass (interval a mess, crossing traffic, winds maybe wrong, a dozen other things that might crop up) it was more or less "the runway will be ready for you if you take another lap in the pattern." This also gives them a bit of ...
My understanding of light gun signals was taught to me a little differently. For simplicity, I will concentrate on light gun signals for airborne aircraft only.
Alternating Red and Green is exercise extreme caution.
Steady Red is give way to other traffic. Which implies that you should stay in the pattern. But, you are not cleared to land.
Steady Green is a ...
@J.Hougaard's answer is excellent (as usual), but it doesn't address the last part of your question:
How does initial communication with SOCAL differ from when
you've been assigned squawk on ground before take off from
when you want to request one?
If you have a discrete code, then you are "handed off" from one facility or sector to another. This ...
It means that the pilot must climb the aircraft from FL275 (27500 feet) up to FL300 (30000 feet) and then continue flying at that level. The pilot will read back the instruction to ATC, and then do it.
J. Hougaard is correct. With Tower, Approach and Center, yes you can use waypoints in communications. Be prepared for them not to know immediately where a lesser used waypoint is. I have had Center not know where particular Class G airports in their jurisdiction were. Some know the names by heart, but not the airport codes.
When it comes to communicating ...
The definition you quote is pretty clear to me. But let me try to explain some of the background to help you understand it.
An ATC clearance always contains a clearance limit, which is the point to which the flight is cleared. Before reaching the clearance limit, the flight must obtain a clearance for the next portion of the flight. If that is not possible, ...
The answers above are pretty much correct, but it is nice to cite sources.
Since the question is relating to studying for a PSTAR and is tagged Canada, first the Canadian sources:
Aeronautical Information Manual (Canada)
Section 4.2.11 Visual Signals - Aircraft on Ground
4.4.7 Visual Signals - Aircraft in Flight
The Canadian ...
There already is, to some extend.
Firstly, there is a big difference between separation in surveillance environments and non-radar environments. In non-radar environments, the separation minima are much larger, because separation is based on position reports provided by the aircraft, which is deemed less accurate than radar data.
In radar environments, the ...
If your question is prompted strictly by a concern for wake turbulence as one of your previous comments suggests, rest assured that Wake Turbulence Avoidance is already addressed in US pilot training and ATC procedures and protocol. Each aircraft is placed into a wake turbulence category. And both pilots and controllers follow specific rules of engagement ...
Whichever code is assigned to the individual flight by ATC. There isn't a fixed code to use for any one specific route. You might want to see: How does ATC know if you have been assigned a squawk or not?
Yes you may, even if it is not so common. It can certainly make it easier for ATC to locate you quickly, especially if you are not so familiar with the local geography and VFR landmarks. Just remember that some IFR waypoints are used very rarely, so the controller might not immediately be sure of its position. So if you are near a common VFR reporting point, ...
You can find a nice article on standard taxi routes here. They are included in the NOTAMS, or on Jepp charts if you have access to them. The full standard for publishing them can be found here.
This is what they look like:
(source: own image)
As ymb1 points out in the comments you can access them here as well.
IFR flights outside radar coverage will typically be told to squawk 2000, in contrast with VFR flights that will be squawking 7000 or 1200. Upon reaching radar coverage again, they will be given a new discrete code.
In cases where a given unit of airspace (for example, a Class D circle around an airport with a tower) is only in effect part time, there is always a note to this effect in the FAA's "Airspace Designations and Reporting Points" document. The current (August 2019) edition of this document is FAA Order JO 7400.11D. The Class B airspace for KSLC is listed on ...
Bonus question: There is a tiny sliver of class D airspace surrounding
the surface B of SeaTac on the western, southern and southeastern
parts of the bravo that is surface. Anyone know if this belongs to
SeaTac because there is no other field in the center of the area and
if so, why on earth does a bravo airport also have a tiny section of
class D ...