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74

This is how I explain it, hopefully it helps more than hinders! Heading: This is where my nose points - and seeing as my nose is attached to my head, this is where my head (and thus my machine) is pointing relative to North. Course: This is my INTENDED path of travel that I have calculated taking into consideration winds, variation and declination. Track: ...


60

If an aircraft is following a magnetic course changes in magnetic declination as the aircraft moves along its route of flight will affect the true course, and on a long flight such as the hypothetical trip posed here we need to take that into account. Magnetic declination is empirical data, i.e. there are tables of it, and while formulas exist to ...


18

Isn't it supposed that an airway has always the same magnetic course between navaids? No. The course depends on where you plot it from. That's a random RNAV airway I picked, it has two headings, 114° and 298°, and the difference is not 180°, it's 184°, so over the course of 112 nm there is a 4° shift. That's due to the curvature of the Earth. Consider ...


16

Short answer: Yes there is, but it doesn't always work, it involves a LOT of math, and you're probably not gonna like it. Medium Answer: Most flight planning software incorporates a True/Magnetic heading conversion system (ForeFlight for example). Using an electronic flight planning tool like this is probably your best bet if you want an on-the-fly ...


15

Compass readings during turns are inaccurate and sometimes display turns when you are heading straight but accelerating. As such you need something that is referenced to the airframe turning itself. This is where the gyro comes in handy. Since it's referenced to the airframe and relatively unaffected over short periods of time it gives you your heading when ...


15

The "heading" refers to the direction an aircraft is pointing. For a Magnetic Heading, this is in relation to Magnetic North. For a True Heading, this is in relation to True North. True North is directly over the earth's axis. Magnetic North is somewhere over Canada, moving towards Russia. To get the Magnetic Heading, you just read it off the magnetic ...


15

1 - First I calculate the track deviation angle: To find the track angle: outer scale: distance off track (NM) in this case 5 NM divided by inner scale: distance already travelled(NM) in this case 40 NM To do this I divide 5NM per 40NM as per the picture below, the division is within the red circle and the result is pointed by the red triangle that ...


14

During flight operations, the aircraft carrier strives to maintain 30 knots of wind down the angle of the flight deck. Generally speaking, the carrier will adjust its speed and course through the ocean to maintain the desired winds. However, shifting winds and the sheer magnitude of the carrier may mean that the winds are generally down the angle, but may ...


14

I will try to explain as simple as possible, though I'm not a professional. Heading It is the value the compass shows you while you fly your plane, relative to Earth's magnetic field. But your heading is not where exactly your plane goes. Why? because in most of the cases (if not all) there is wind. Track This is the aircraft's actual "path" over the ...


13

Yes, almost all modern computer navigation systems take this into account. The track between two points along the "spherical" earth is called the great-circle track. Except for a N/S heading (or a E/W heading at the equator), the heading will vary along the track. Ed Williams has compiled a formulary for great circle navigation here, mostly derived from the ...


13

Bugs simply make instruments easier to read with a very quick glance. If I need to steer exactly 162 degrees, which is easier? To read where the needle is pointing or just see if the needle is pointing to the bug which I manually set to 162 degrees? The bugs are set by rotating knobs on the gauges. Here, the heading bug knob is in the lower right corner. ...


13

First, I'll try for the 50 words or less: Course is the line across the ground that you want to go. Heading is where you have to point the aircraft to fly that line. That's less than 50 words, but I'm not sure it's any better. Let's look at the obvious first. Let's say, over a short distance, you want to fly a course of 270 degrees true. If you fly the ...


12

When the controller says heading, he means heading. So if he wants you to go into a specific direction, he will take wind into account. The reason for issuing heading are: Every aircraft can fly it, because a compass is fitted on every aircraft. Track keeping requires more sophisticated avionics. If two aircraft fly adjacent to each other, the wind will ...


12

Near the poles 'polar grid navigation' is used. By placing a rectangular grid over the pole, aligned with the prime meridian, a local coordinate system is created. Aircraft fly constant grid courses near the poles. For your example crossing the south pole approaching over the prime meridian the true course will change from 180° (T) to 000° (T), but the ...


10

The term bearing is not so clear, as the link to another answer in the comment shows. But let's say bearing means the angle between the track (over ground) of an aircraft and a fixed location. This position usually is the magnetic or (true) geographic north, but within the context of this question, it could also be any location on earth. If the bearing is ...


10

A heading is the direction the plane's nose is pointed. A course is the direction it is actually traveling. The difference between the two depends on wind. A true heading or course is corrected for magnetic variation; a magnetic heading or course is not. Track and course are often used interchangeably, but technically a "course" refers to what you intend ...


9

A heading (in the general case of moving "forward") is the direction your nose is pointed in. This may not be your course (as discussed here). Headings are measured from onboard a traveling vehicle or object (e.g. from the cockpit of an aircraft or the bridge of a ship at sea). An azimuth is a bearing, more precisely a compass bearing from a specific point ...


9

According to Wikipedia, a "Standard Rate Turn" is three degrees of heading change per second. The bank angle required to achieve this depends on your true airspeed; at a low TAS a standard rate turn is easily achievable with normal, comfortable bank angles (say, 20°, plus or minus). At high true airspeeds, the bank required becomes excessive, and "half ...


8

You wrote: On a flat map, point A might be to point B at, say, heading 060. [...] Is there a formula to determine the optimum heading at the outset (even though it may not 'seem' correct), thereby, reaching the desired point B on the globe at the end of the cruise? As written in the other answer, this is not how large distanced are flown, as aircrafts ...


8

ATC gives headings, and they mean heading; any wind correction is included in the controller's planning. You'll occasionally hear controllers adjust headings ("turn 10 degrees left") because the wind exceeded their expectations.


7

True North is the North Pole. The maps used for navigating are oriented to the North Pole. A pilot can measure the direction between two points to create a 'track' or 'course' to fly in degrees true. Magnetic North is where the compass points - which is not actually the North Pole. Magnetic North is currently over northern Canada. The angular difference ...


7

First thing first, let's go over some concept: heading is which way the plane's nose is pointing at, track is which way the plane is travelling on the ground. E.g. if your heading is 360 (North), and the wind is blowing from 090 (blowing East to West), the plane's track may be 350 (slightly left of North). With that in mind, it's not hard to deduce most of ...


7

These are generally 3 different auto pilot modes. The first two are related to pitch and the third to heading/roll a nice overview can be found here Altitude Hold: Generally speaking setting an autopilot to altitude hold will cause the autopilot to maintain that altitude by varying the pitch of the aircraft. Depending on the system it may attempt to ...


7

A washout filter is used in a yaw damper autopilot to remove the steady state component from the yaw rate sensor. Feedback from the rate sensor is used to damp dutch roll mode, but during turns coupling between yaw and roll results in the aforementioned undesirable steady state yaw rate component. Detail is on pg103 of: this document


6

The short answer is yes, a commercial pilot can make a decision when to turn. To clarify a few points though, there really isn't such a thing as a "published vector". If a departure procedure with heading were to be published it would then become a Standard Instrument Departure, or SID. True, some SIDs will specify radar vectors, but this simple tells ...


5

Not answered yet is this part of the question: How often do they rotate the ship if this is the case? First, just a nomenclature alert: ships don't rotate, they maneuver, steer, or change course. And the answer to your question is: whenever necessary. It is a big ocean and unless there is an island or something nearby, they always face the wind for air ...


4

The true north pole, aka the celestial north pole, is the point on the Earth's surface intersecting Earth's rotational axis on the northern hemisphere (and thus the axis around which all stars appear to rotate). Prior to the introduction of the Global Positioning System, there were no perfect indicators of true north. Two competing and often conflicting ...


4

The Turn Indicator (shown below) has a mark that shows a standard rate turn which takes 2 minutes to go all the way around. The heading indicator (on the right below) can be used to determine how far you have turned or how close you are to your desired heading: There are no "regulations" about turns. A pilot will typically use standard good pilotage skills ...


4

There is no definite answer to this question. If you are far away from the beacon radials are far away from each other and thus small intercept angle would be insufficient to reach desired track in feasible time. Also, if you are, say, five miles away from the beacon intercept angle of thirty degrees would be acceptable for C172 but an overkill for ...


4

G1000 is a multi-unit system. The attitude information comes from a specialised unit called AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System), typically GRS 77. AHRS uses two solid-state gyros (vertical and directional), plus a magnetometer, to obtain a complete attitude information. In addition, AHRS does employ accelerometers and rate gyros. Their data is used ...


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