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11

To add to Michael Hall's answer, the direct entry is the one where you get straight on to the "racetrack" with minimum maneuvering and that is possible from anywhere within the direct entry sector. The other two entries involve initial maneuvering "off the racetrack" so to speak. That entry diagram is a procedural convention, not a hard regulation you must ...


7

The minimum vertical separation in a holding stack is no different from the minimal vertical separation used elsewhere. This is almost universally 1000 feet. In countries where Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) has not been implemented, 2000 feet of vertical separation is required above FL290. 2000 feet is also needed if a non-RVSM equipped aircraft (...


5

The answer is yes, you would enter holding just as you depicted.


4

The text is written that way to take into account the various type of holding entries. In case of a parallel or teardrop entry, the outbound leg starts after passing over the fix. In all other cases the outbound leg start after passing abeam the fix, following a turn that starts over the fix. Case 1: Established in a holding pattern So when established in ...


4

I haven't found any specific guidance for hand flying entries to RNAV (RNP) holding patterns. But part of the concept of RNAV is that the navigation system can provide the complete desired path including hold entries. Referring to RTCA DO-236C RNP MASPS and the requirements for holding operations, I find the following: The dimensions of the hold pattern ...


3

No, there is no limit. Aircraft stay as long in holding patterns as they have fuel on board.


3

The minimum separation in a holding stack is still 1.000ft. Given that wake turbulence vortices move with the wind direction, you would have to fly the holding pattern with a direct headwind or tailwind to hit one. Or your speed difference between two aircraft in the same pattern by pure chance correlates to the wind speed and direction. If you have enough ...


3

From some of the ATC feeds I've seen transcribed controllers seem to prefer 2000 feet separation. Which makes sense if you consider that airplanes aren't going to hold on the exact altitude (which would then lead to violation of separation) and think about what can happen to airplanes in a holding stack. Using 2000' separation also lets the controller ...


2

Actually that happened recently. For operational/load reasons, JFK needed to use tailwind landing runways, making them too short for the weight of an A380. The A380 asked controllers for a more suitable runway but they were unable to break the flow enough to allow that. (I also wonder if this A380 pilot was conservative, and other A380s were landing ...


2

At least in the US, there isn't any maximum holding time. The FAA's ATC Orders 4-6-1(c) give instructions for controllers, and they're allowed to issue an "indefinite" delay: When additional holding is expected at any other fix in your facility’s area, state the fix and your best estimate of the additional delay. [...] When holding is ...


1

There is no time limit. The aircraft may be holding until the pilot requests a diversion, or declares an emergency, which they will do depending on fuel on board. I know airliners are required to carry extra fuel in case of rerouting (including a safety margin). Actually not really. The required fuel is calculated as fuel needed to fly to destination, ...


1

If you follow the holding guidelines you will never leave the protected area. This includes performing an appropriate entry, applying correct wind correction, and flying the correct leg length. ATC expects you to slow to holding speed no later than 3 mins before arriving at the holding fix for planning purposes, and generally doesn't expect you to use the ...


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