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42 votes
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Why would the Pakistan airspace closure cancel flights not headed to Pakistan itself?

To give an example of how flights can be affected by this in ways to make them impossible, Iranian airspace is closed from sunset to sunrise (unless things have changed recently). Any aircraft that ...
jwenting's user avatar
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39 votes
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Can civilian aircraft fly through or land in restricted airspace in an emergency?

FAR 91.3 states that any pilot in command may deviate from any regulation or rules to the extent needed to deal with the emergency. That includes entering restricted or prohibited airspace. In the ...
Romeo_4808N's user avatar
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34 votes

When flying VFR without GPS, how do pilots know if they are inside controlled airspace or not?

VFR aviation maps called "sectionals" (and now GPS map displays) depict the types of airspace through borders with different colors and dashed lines. You can buy or download the maps for free from ...
jwzumwalt's user avatar
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23 votes

What does the "T" on sectional charts mean in reference to airspace altitude?

T is used to signify that the top of Class C airspace that lies under Class B is the bottom surface of that airspace. This is important when the Class C segment lies under multiple layers of Class B, ...
Pilothead's user avatar
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20 votes
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What are concrete examples for class G up to 14500?

It can be difficult to find these areas on a VFR sectional (there are very few of them anyway), but on an (FAA NACO) IFR en route chart they're shaded brown, so they stand out very clearly from the ...
Pondlife's user avatar
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20 votes

When flying VFR without GPS, how do pilots know if they are inside controlled airspace or not?

Use of a sectional chart and pilotage. You will have to be aware of where you are using ground references while cross referencing where the boundaries of controlled airspace lies in relation to those ...
Romeo_4808N's user avatar
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20 votes
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Why do aircraft fly over Paris when they're forbidden from doing so?

This is a map from SkyVector with the airspace around Paris: You can see several major airports like Charles De Gaulle and Le Bourget to the North East and Orly to the South. In the center, there is ...
Bianfable's user avatar
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19 votes
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Reasoning Behind Individual Airspace Designations

Is there a site that explains the reasoning behind each individual airspace designation? No-- unless you consider the "Federal Register" to be a "site". The reasoning behind any ...
quiet flyer's user avatar
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18 votes
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What's usually going on in a "hot" military operations area (in the US)?

Military pilot here. I can certainly understand why there's confusion surrounding MOA's, having been a Private Pilot long before I flew for the military, and I'm glad you asked the question. The ...
Tyler's user avatar
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18 votes

What is the legal altitude to fly through Yosemite Valley (US)?

Short answer: you can fly in Yosemite Valley at 500ft AGL (most likely); there's no special regulation applicable there; the wording on the sectional is a non-regulatory 'encouragement' only. By ...
Pondlife's user avatar
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18 votes

When flying VFR without GPS, how do pilots know if they are inside controlled airspace or not?

Generally: By Using a (Physical) Map Aviation charts have landmarks and airspaces on them, which you can use to estimate where you're at. Other answers give great examples of this already, I don't ...
Maz's user avatar
  • 301
18 votes

Why would the Pakistan airspace closure cancel flights not headed to Pakistan itself?

Not mentioned in the other answers is simply logistics coordination. If you can't fly over Pakistan, that suggests that maybe you have to fly somewhere else. Perhaps flying around means an ...
BowlOfRed's user avatar
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16 votes

How precisely are airspace borders defined?

The boundaries are defined more precisely than the chart can show. What you see on the chart is a visual representation of the text published in JO 7400.9Z (or the most recent version of it): AWP ...
Pondlife's user avatar
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16 votes

What routes are available for airliners to fly from Europe to Japan without entering Russian airspace?

While it won't be the most efficient or direct routes, flights would be redirected South of Russian airspace. They're probably avoiding Ukrainian air space too, just to be on the safe side. A quick ...
FreeMan's user avatar
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16 votes

Why do airspace shelves look like upside down wedding cakes?

The purpose of airspace classes is to establish areas in which regulations are compatible with and appropriate for the type of traffic expected in that area and the ATC services provided for that ...
TypeIA's user avatar
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15 votes

What are the differences between a VOR and a VORTAC?

VOR stands for VHF Omnidirectional Range. It is a navigation beacon intended for civil use and provides a user with a radial to/from the station. It works on frequencies between 108.00 and 117.95 MHz....
DeltaLima's user avatar
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15 votes

Can civilian aircraft fly through or land in restricted airspace in an emergency?

Being an air traffic controller I know this situation is not as simple as that. Given emergency category pilot can decide to use restricted area or land a military runway. But in the mean time pilot ...
alkinkasap's user avatar
15 votes

Why would the Pakistan airspace closure cancel flights not headed to Pakistan itself?

There are multiple reasons for cancelling instead of rerouting: Take-off & landing slot assignments You may have a pair of slots available and your regularly scheduled flight uses them. ...
FreeMan's user avatar
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14 votes

What does the "T" on sectional charts mean in reference to airspace altitude?

You can start many "what does this thing on an FAA chart mean" questions with the FAA's Aeronautical Chart User's Guide. It doesn't go into a deep explanation, but does show it as an ...
BowlOfRed's user avatar
  • 5,611
13 votes

Can civilian aircraft fly through or land in restricted airspace in an emergency?

It's a principle handed down to aviation from the traditional laws of the sea: Any port in a storm. In fact, if a pilot declares an emergency and asks for vectors to the nearest suitable landing ...
Bobz Yurunkle's user avatar
13 votes

Why are both ATC and TCAS tasked to prevent collisions although TCAS takes precedence anyway?

While ATC's primary goal is to prevent collisions, it is also responsible for the efficient movement of aircraft through the airspace. That requires a strategic approach to managing air traffic to get ...
Gerry's user avatar
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12 votes
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Can I land at an uncontrolled airport under class C without talking to ATC?

It looks to me like New Kent is entirely below the shelf of the class C space. You don't need to go through the Class C Core at all, so I don't see that you need to speak to them. The detour to ...
abelenky's user avatar
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12 votes

When do you contact ATC when departing from a non-towered airport into class C controlled airspace?

This is spelled out clearly in CFR 91.130: (c) Communications. Each person operating an aircraft in Class C airspace must meet the following two-way radio communications requirements: (1) ...
Ron Beyer's user avatar
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12 votes
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What is a listening squawk?

A listening squawk is a transponder code you set to indicate to an ATC controller that you are listening out on a particular frequency. Unlike squawk codes assigned by the controller, the listening ...
IanF1's user avatar
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12 votes
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What is the difference between published and unpublished waypoints?

Published waypoints are waypoints that appear on the charts and in the published navigation databases used by GPS navigators or FMSes. They are referenced using the published identifier for the ...
Gerry's user avatar
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