29

Usually, the clearance is given when the runway is clear of traffic or, at least in Europe, when two conditions are met: Reduced Runway Separations is in use and the criteria for issuing the landing clearance are met. The previous traffic will have left the runway when the following aircraft crosses the threshold. (Non-withheld landing clearance) 321.5 ...


21

If the seaplane is operating from a land airport with a control tower AND a water runway, yes. Or, if the seaplane is operating from a Tower controlled water-only aerodrome, such as the one along the waterfront in Vancouver BC in Canada, yes also. Same radio procedures as any other airplane. Otherwise, no.


19

According to the post at LiveATC, Newark was closed, apparently due to smoke in the tower. With the airport closed, nobody could be granted clearance to take off or land. Outside of declaring an emergency, there's nothing the pilot(s) could have done to get clearance at Newark other than just waiting. In an emergency situation like smoke in the tower, ...


19

There is one example in the AIM used for transitioning from VFR to IFR, and it how I've always done it: AIM 5-2-5. Abbreviated IFR Departure Clearance (Cleared … as Filed) Procedures EXAMPLE- "Los Angeles center, Apache Six One Papa, VFR estimating Paso Robles VOR at three two, one thousand five hundred, request IFR to Bakersfield." ...


17

In general, a diplomatic clearance is required for overflight of military aircraft over other countries. The aircraft are considered state aircraft and prior clearance has to be obtained through diplomatic channels. Note that the clearance is usually issued by the defence ministry of the concerned country. The mode of clearance and monitoring varies from ...


17

Whether there are any formal policies for when to request descent will depend on the airline. However, I doubt formal procedures are established, since it should be pretty obvious to pilots when to request descent. From a controller point of view, I will expect you to request descent when you are ready for it - so a minute or so before reaching your top of ...


16

The phraseology was slightly incorrect, this is from the FAA's ATC Orders (section 3-10-5): 3−10−5. LANDING CLEARANCE a. When issuing a clearance to land, first state the runway number followed by the landing clearance. If the landing runway is changed, controllers must preface the landing clearance with “Change to runway.” PHRASEOLOGY− RUNWAY (...


14

Typically it's phrased as "direct to the numbers" and means you should proceed in a straight line from your present position to where the runway numbers are painted on the pavement. This instruction can be issued to fixed-wing aircraft as well, but perhaps not from as wide a range of starting positions. It relieves you of any previous restrictions.


13

No, seaplanes generally don't need clearance to take off unless they are operating from a controlled seaplane base. There are two types of airports controlled (towered) and uncontrolled (self announce). Seaplane bases tend to be the latter and thus do not require "clearance" to take off. At an uncontrolled field pilots announce their intentions on a common ...


12

Assuming you are not already talking to ATC: You: Houston Center, Cessna 1234X, request* Center: Cessna 34X, Houston Center, go ahead You: Cessna 34X is a 172/U, 35 North IDU, 4500 ft, request IFR to Austin Center: Cessna 34X ident, fly heading 270 Center: Cessna 34X is cleared to AUS via radar vectors, climb and maintain 6000 ft, squawk 5634 This is ...


11

Interesting question. The ATC orders mention only two reasons that controllers have to say "at your own risk": The pilot "insists" on using a closed or unsafe runway (3-3-2) A helicopter takeoff or landing uses a non-movement area (3-11-2, 3-11-6) Obviously Solar Impulse 2 isn't a helicopter, so that leaves the closed or unsafe runway reason. I don't know ...


11

There is an excellent article on AvWeb about Pop-Up IFR which goes into more about when pilots should ask for a pop-up IFR clearance. One of the most importatnt aspects is that if you are starting to get uncomfortable with the weather, or are being forced lower and lower, don't hesitate just because you aren't familiar with the proper procedure. Obviously, ...


11

Also, in the USA, landing clearance can be given to multiple aircraft at once for the same runway- eg. "JetBlue 1203, number two following an Airbus A320 on a two mile final, wind 260 at 8, runway 22 left, cleared to land." This is called "anticipated separation", which allows aircraft to get their landing clearance with much more space. However, in Europe @...


10

As a non-commercial civilian, the high seas (international waters) do not exempt you from the local governing rules: the civilian FIR boundaries meet over water, and there is no free-play gap in between. This goes as far back as 1948: Flight over the high seas. It should be noted that the Council resolved, in adopting Annex 2 in April 1948 and ...


9

I think Porcupine911 nailed the first question perfectly with the reference to JO 7110.65W: A "pop-up" IFR clearance counts as filing an IFR flight plan. ATC considers it an "airfiled" flight plan (VFR-to-IFR), and the controller talking to you will take at least the bare minimum information necessary to enter you into the ATC system and generate a flight ...


9

In addition to @SentryRaven's answer, remember that telescopic compression makes that separation seem much smaller than it actually is. Those aircraft are minutes apart, not seconds, the correct amount of time for one to clear the runway and still give the next a chance to abort the landing if needed. In other words, the proximity you perceive from that ...


9

Informing the controller that you are ready to depart and requesting a takeoff clearance aren't the same thing. It isn't bad form to inform the controller when you're ready for the next phase; if the controller isn't ready yet, you won't receive a takeoff clearance, but the good news is that now the controller is ready to get you going as soon as possible ...


9

Short answer: for visual approaches, it is not yet set in EASA regulations, but a draft recommends that the landing clearance be issued somewhere from downwind to short final (dashed line in the diagram below). The relevant distance I found only applies to radar approaches: 8.9.6.1.7 Clearance to land or any alternative clearance received from the ...


8

In the U.S., the phrase "Descend via the (arrival)" means that you are cleared to the altitudes as published. Without that phrase, simply cleared for the ___ arrival, then your clearance is the fixes, but ATC will assign your altitude explicitly. In this case, the published altitudes may later be assigned, so descent planning should still be based on making ...


8

FAA has the following rulings: (a) Category I aircraft landing behind Category I or II- 3,000 feet. (b) Category II aircraft landing behind Category I or II- 4,500 feet. (c) When either is a category III aircraft- 6,000 feet. This picture shows the separation of Category I, II and III.


8

The most important point is that if any ATC instruction isn't clear then you should just ask them to repeat or clarify it. Having said that, turning in the shorter direction is stated in the FAA's Pilot/Controller Glossary: FLY HEADING (DEGREES)- Informs the pilot of the heading he/she should fly. The pilot may have to turn to, or continue on, a ...


8

No clearance is issued without the pilot requesting it. But a request is not just something you do on the radio. The interesting questions here is: how do pilots request something? The most common way is through a flight plan. By filing a flight plan, the pilot details the planned flight, from departure to destination, via a predefined route, with a ...


6

In switzerland, every aircraft is monitored by the air traffic control. However, if the plane flies without a transponder, it's an unknown aircraft for the ATC-Radar and the military will take the necessary steps to identify the aircraft. Head over here for more details. At the WEF (World economic forum), politicans from all over the world visit Davos. Most ...


6

I would try to not over complicate this issue. There are three conditions a clearance/instruction can have: Transmitted/Received Accepted Rejected If ATC provides a clearance/instruction, but has not yet received a response, the clearance/instruction has not been accepted or rejected. If the pilot acknowledges the clearance/instruction with a read-back ...


6

ATC "clearance" is only used in specific situations: A route clearance - pilots request this when ready Takeoff clearance - pilots assumed to be ready unless they say otherwise Approach clearance - ATC provides this once the aircraft is positioned Landing clearance - ATC provides this when ready All of these are very important details of the flight, and ...


5

I see a contradiction in your question. In my experience, you do not receive an instruction to "Line Up and Wait" until after you call "Ready to Go". Once lined up and waiting, you should be doing nothing but waiting for the "Cleared for Takeoff Call". Pre-takeoff runup checks are inappropriate while Waiting at this point, and should have been already ...


5

If you feel you cannot safely comply with any ATC instruction, you can simply reply “Unable” and the controllers will amend your clearance. Remember: you are pilot in command; you are the final authority on the operation of that aircraft. So the scenario might play out as: ATC: “Bigjet, cleared to cross Runway 36. Expedite crossing and report clear.” ...


5

Do what works for you, and omit what you can. For example, "N123 is cleared to KABC" can be condensed to "ABC"... assuming the clearance is for you, why copy your own tail #? You're copying a clearance, so "is cleared to" is, to me, entirely implied by the fact that there is something written. "Climb & maintain 7,000" is for me an "M" with a horizontal ...


5

The definition you quote is pretty clear to me. But let me try to explain some of the background to help you understand it. An ATC clearance always contains a clearance limit, which is the point to which the flight is cleared. Before reaching the clearance limit, the flight must obtain a clearance for the next portion of the flight. If that is not possible, ...


4

Yes, I think you're correct although the phrasing is unusual. The usual phrase is "clearance on request", which is used for IFR departures as explained nicely in this AOPA article: Experienced instrument pilots know that when they call to request their clearance, the controller may not yet have received it. "Clearance on request" is ATC's way of ...


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