66

Short answer: ILS is rather sensitive to interference and not all electronic devices take much precaution in avoiding the generation of interference. The pilot wants to be sure that the readings he's getting on the localizer and glideslope are accurate, since he can't actually see the runway to verify the final approach path visually. Longer answer: ILS is ...


59

If a visual approach is offered, and it gets accepted by the pilot, the airport can declare higher capacity. Whereas IFR procedures reduce the airport's capacity. US and European airports handle their slots differently. Europe plans for the worst, which can on good days limit the full potential. The US plans for the best, which can on bad days end up in ...


50

The short and sweet answer to this question: That kind of thinking is what kills a lot of pilots. A non-instrument rated pilot may know how to fly and navigate but does not yet have the skill to do so in total reliance upon instruments. A PPL does require you to have at least 6 hours of simulated instrument flying with an instructor. That may keep you ...


39

It is very rare for weather to go IMC unexpectedly. A responsible pilot should see that weather is deteriorating, and begin planning for the nearest available landing. If they cannot find a landing, they should contact ATC while still in VMC, declare an emergency, and begin working with ATC to get down safely. In some cases, a pilot may inadvertently ...


39

ILS approaches were in common use in 1970 when I got my instrument rating. The normal (Cat I) ceiling minimum was 200 feet. So, yes, a 707 would have been able to land with a 300 foot cloud ceiling in the 70s. I checked Wikipedia and and found the history paragraph below: Tests of the ILS system began in 1929 in the United States.[14] A basic system, ...


31

There are several reasons: For departure clearances. An IFR clearance may have a void or release time so that clearance is only valid between certain times. For holding pattern legs. A standard holding pattern is based on a time of one minute at or below 14,000' MSL and 1.5 minutes above 14,000' MSL on the inbound leg. For holding pattern clearances. ...


27

A visual pilot flying into instrument conditions is a serious emergency. It's much better to avoid the situation in the first place which is why there's a significant amount of training around preventing that from happening , namely in learning meteorology and practicing good flight planning. Pilots should always be looking out for deteriorating conditions, ...


27

(This answer is based on light aircraft in the US.) Leaving aside any scenarios where you must file IFR (class A, IMC) and any where you can't (pilot and/or aircraft not IFR-capable), it comes down to whether the 'overhead' and benefits of operating IFR are worth it for your particular flight. By the way, your question seems to assume that IFR is required ...


26

The other way around - you set up the pilot for eye-to-HUD alignment. When you are in the right position then you can see all the data-fields on the HUD - if you can't see them, you move your seat.


24

You didn't mention which country or jurisdiction you're asking about, but in the US 14 CFR 91.113(b) says: When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft I ...


22

SOIA (Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches) allow airports with parallel runways that are 750 to 3000 feet apart to conduct (almost) simultaneous approaches to the two runways. At an airport, one runway uses the ILS PRM approach, while the other runway uses an offset LDA PRM approach (with glideslope). SOIA refers to the LDA PRM approach, where another ...


22

Once in the air, the pilot's most basic task in manipulating the controls is to keep the airplane right side up. As it turns out, this is much easier to do when we have reference to an outside real horizon miles across rather than an inside artificial horizon a few inches across. We can do it, and we can even internalize doing it just as we have internalized ...


22

Because it is very difficult to navigate with instruments alone. I just wished to illustrate to you by giving you an example. (These are flight simulation images, but should illustrate the idea well.) Try landing a plane like this: (hint: you're on a ~30 degrees intercept to an ILS) Ops, it appears that you just lost your vacuum pump and your attitude ...


21

I was wondering how long that it would take for this question to come up. It is the old "pitch -vs- power" airspeed control technique debate that rages throughout the aviation world. There are strong proponents of both techniques (and they seem to view it almost as a religious debate in that the other side can never be right, no matter what), and both ...


21

My instrument students, when they get more advanced, file FP with their name, and in remarks say "Training xxxxxx CFII" That way it is clear. The FAA office investigated one student, dug up his past flight plans, and determined that the way he filed was acceptable. The FAA told me they had reports of him going actual prior to his receiving a rating. I ...


20

Update with relevant info from InFO 15012 (I'm skipping the FTD portions as not relevant to the question, and including the simulated parts but italicizing them as they're useful but also not relevant). Translated, you can log an approach when: it is flown solely by reference to instruments, and it is flown in IMC, and Actual Instrument time is logged, or ...


20

Since you are already on flight following you are already in the system (ATC has a flight strip for you and a datablock on the radar). Just call ATC and ask them for IFR to your destination. Austin Approach, Cessna 12345, request IFR to Austin Since you have flight following ATC already knows your type, equipment suffix, location and altitude, so I ...


20

The VFR on top clearance is often given with a block of altitudes. Such as this from the reference document "Maintain VFR-on-top at or between six thousand and one zero thousand.” With this clearance the pilot can fly any altitude they want within this block of altitudes without having to contact ATC for further clearance. This flexibility can be useful ...


20

It is not legal to conduct skydiving into clouds, atleast in US. From 14 CFR §105.17 Flight visibility and clearance from cloud requirements: No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of an aircraft may allow a parachute operation to be conducted from that aircraft— (a) Into or through a cloud, or (b) When the flight ...


20

It's all about making sure everybody knows what's going on. While you are on an instrument approach and thus flying IFR, ATC is responsible for spacing you, giving instructions on heading and speed in order to fit you in with other inbound aircraft. In that situation they expect you to confirm and follow those instructions, and if you don't it makes for a ...


19

A monitored approach is a special kind of instrument approach involving added verbal call outs and increased monitoring of the airplane and is typically conducted when weather is below a certain threshold. For example, a crew may be required to fly a monitored approach if the weather is below 3/4 mile vis and the captain has less than 100 hours in type, or ...


19

There is one example in the AIM used for transitioning from VFR to IFR, and it how I've always done it: AIM 5-2-5. Abbreviated IFR Departure Clearance (Cleared … as Filed) Procedures EXAMPLE- "Los Angeles center, Apache Six One Papa, VFR estimating Paso Robles VOR at three two, one thousand five hundred, request IFR to Bakersfield." ...


19

You can read this related question if you want to learn more about the interference between electronic devices and airplanes. An answer there links to a very good document written by NASA on the topic. Long story short: Electronic devices are complicated. Airliners are complicated. Therefore, we can not predict exactly what the interference between them ...


19

At the moment the answer is "None" - with two exceptions: LORAN receivers These are already worthless because the US has shut down our LORAN chains. They are jokingly referred to as "IFR-Certified Lead Bricks". ADFs The FAA is killing off NDBs one by one - an ADF is basically an expensive, drag-producing AM Radio in many parts of the country, and its ...


19

A pilot will usually adjust his seat height to align his eyes roughly with the design eye-position in an aircraft. As there is almost no parallax error, even with the wrong seat height, HUD-elements will still align correctly with objects outside, however, some HUD-elements will be outside the projected field-of-view and not be visible to the pilot. The HUD ...


18

Having worked as a software engineer on the lateral guidance subsystem of the FMCS (Flight Management and Control System) for the Airbus A310 about 30 years ago I found @reirab's answer fascinating. I can fill in some gaps as to how the information from the different systems is used and why the ILS information is particularly critical. On the A310 3 sets ...


18

In the first scenario, where it sounds like you're assuming that the intruder aircraft is known to be hostile even without seeing it, a shot with a radar missile would be unaffected by the IMC, and that scenario is a pretty straight-forward kill. The hard part of IMC for a modern fighter aircraft isn't killing the target, it's getting the positive ID on it ...


18

The correct thing to do very much depends on the clearance that you were given. If you were simply cleared direct to BEJCY and cleared for the approach, then your instructor is correct and you should have completed the procedure turn as charted. If the clearance included the words straight in (i.e. "cleared for the straight in GPS 01 approach"), then you ...


17

Usually when ATC has a need to vector you across the final approach course, they will tell you about it before they do. Something along the lines of "N1234 fly heading 230, vectors across final for spacing.". If they don't and you see that you are getting close, you should ask them if they want you to intercept the course. The AIM addresses this in ...


17

Visual separation is addressed specifically in the AIM (see below). It is an ATC instruction sometimes given when the pilot reports another aircraft in sight. ATC is then able to instruct the pilot to "maintain visual separation" from the other aircraft, and it doesn't matter if they are IFR or VFR. Then it becomes quite simple: Don't hit the other ...


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