# Tag Info

17

Your screenshot shows the path for flight WF9480. Flightradar24 shows 2 occurrences of such flight one on the 5th August and one on the 6th August, both are training flights for landing practice. From your screenshot, you were looking at the 6th August flight. All occurrences of WF597 show an aircraft regularly departing Bergen and landing in Kristiansand. ...

15

The only minimums that apply to any approach are those printed on the plate. Doing anything else is being a test pilot. Minimums are charted based on obstacle clearance, descent gradient, distance from the airport, and a variety of other factors. The appropriate course of action is to either: land straight in on 31 and attempt to deal with the crosswind. ...

14

A "circle-to-land" maneuver is basically a low-altitude traffic pattern - albeit one that you arrived at by being guided in on some instrument approach. The magic that makes this low (and possibly abbreviated) pattern possible is that the runway ends at airports with circling approaches have protected (obstacle free) airspace around them, which looks ...

12

If the aircraft has not established a stabilised approach, a go around is required. According to EUROCONTROL's Skybrary, a stabilised approach is defined as: Their Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 7-1 suggests that "all flights must be stabilised by 1000 feet above airport elevation in IMC and 500 feet above airport elevation ...

10

Assuming that you're asking about the US, then according to the Instrument Procedures Handbook p.4-41 (emphasis mine): If the aircraft initiates a missed approach at a point other than the missed approach point, from below MDA or DA (H), or on a circling approach, obstacle clearance is not provided by following the published missed approach procedure, nor ...

9

Intro This is a bit of an odd situation, but they have a good reason for doing what they did. First of all, each instrument approach is designed to be a stand-alone procedure, and the designers consider that you may not have any of the other approach plates when you are flying a particular procedure. All of the information that you need to fly the approach ...

9

According to 14 CFR 91.175(e) you must go missed... Whenever an identifiable part of the airport is not distinctly visible to the pilot during a circling maneuver at or above MDA, unless the inability to see an identifiable part of the airport results only from a normal bank of the aircraft during the circling approach. I added the emphasis about ...

7

"Overflying the field at [whatever] MSL to enter the left downwind for runway 18" is what I would call at a nontowered field. It's also the phraseology that tower controllers have used when I've done that particular approach at a towered field.

7

This is a somewhat tricky situation. The FAA has issued multiple legal interpretations that IFR traffic are bound by the same rules for traffic pattern direction as VFR traffic, even when circling: see Murphy (2009), Collins (2013), Krug (2014). From the Collins (2013) interpretation: As your letter states, under 14 C.F.R. § 91.126(b)(l), a pilot ...

6

It looks like you have a few different questions here. As a caveat, I know nothing about Half Moon Bay so these are (educated) guesses to some extent. Someone with personal experience at KHAF could probably give better answers. Why is circling always west of the runway at KHAF? Circling areas are planned according to the TERPS criteria (see section 2-7-1); ...

5

Yes, it is legal to circle north under IFR using "right" hand traffic and land on Runway 25. "Left traffic" refers to VFR traffic. Traffic patterns are generally flown at 1000' AGL. IFR aircraft don't fly traffic patterns unless they cancel IFR or are doing a visual approach under direction of an active control tower. An IFR aircraft on a circling ...

5

No, you do not need to descend all of the way to the MDA if you have the required visibility to continue. In fact, I would recommend against it since it puts you awfully close to the ground while you are maneuvering to align with the runway. Why do that if you don't have to? MDA stands for Minimum Descent Altitude, and is just that. The minimum. As far ...

5

The protected area for circling approaches is based on distance from the runway(s), and the size of that area (and your approach MDA) depends upon your aircraft's VREF or 1.3×VSO — or, if higher, your actual IAS approach speed. Here's the graphic the FAA uses to demonstrate this, along with the old protected area radii: New circling minumums For ...

5

In this scenario, you do in fact have two legal options -- although you must decide if they are safe. First, you can cancel IFR when you break out on the approach and switch to SVFR (this was mentioned in a comment by @pondlife). You can even coordinate it in advance with the approach controller, and even specify that you intend to do this in the "NOTES&...

5

Flying a missed approach while circling can require some judgement, as the procedures are designed to originate at the missed approach point. Going missed while circling can mean starting the procedure some distance away from the MAP. The goal of the initial procedure should be to intercept the published missed approach course, while maintaining obstacle and ...

4

In the Center environment, when I clear you for an instrument approach, I'm protecting the missed approach, and I expect you to fly it if you cannot land safely, whatever your reason. Realistically, though, if you have good visual, and can do so safely, I'd have no problem with you getting the aircraft up to a safe altitude and circling back to the airport, ...

4

It is allowed. Runway 07 has a published GNSS straight-in instrument approach as of 10 Nov 2016. Download link here, or click image for full size. For non-GNSS equipped planes, there are no published straight-in instrument approaches for runway 07. Only the circling VOR 07. However, in VMC the crew may request or likely be given a visual straight-in ...

4

This is what ICAO specifies If visual reference is lost while circling to land from an instrument approach, the missed approach specified for that particular procedure shall be followed. The transition from the visual (circling) manoeuvre to the missed approach should be initiated by a climbing turn, within the circling area, towards the landing runway, ...

2

What is shown on that approach isn't that a straight-in approach to the runway isn't allowed, but rather that there are no straight-in minimums published for that approach. Why they didn't publish straight-in minima is beyond what I can tell from the chart, although the combination of obstacles near the final and reduced navaid accuracy so close to the VOR ...

2

KSFO has sidestep minima for ILS/LOC 28R to 28L but not from ILS/LOC 28L to 28R. It also has a sidestep from ILS/LOC 19L to 19R but no ILS at all for 19R itself. The latter is probably the more normal case for sidesteps: giving a second runway (probably one normally only used for departures) lower minima than circling without needing to install and ...

1

The 300 m and 1 000 m tables you found are examples. For the actual radius for any aerodrome elevation you need to apply the formulae. The radius is determined using the formulas in Section 2, Chapter 3, Turn area construction (...) The TAS is based on: a) altitude: aerodrome elevation + 300 m (1 000 ft); and b) temperature: ISA + 15°. First is $R$ (rate ...

1

Yes, they need to be corrected, mainly for two reasons: 1) Legally, the horizontal criteria for circling is the distance from the threshold of each usable runway (search for TERPS circling criteria if you are interested in US rules, or PANS-OPS circling criteria for the rest of the world). In other words: you need to stay within a given distance of the ...

1

I live in Moss Beach next to KHAF. Specifically, they want the VFR traffic over land because of the Fitzgerald Marine Reserve to the NW of 30. There's a huge pack of seals w/ cubs on the beach, so they'd rather keep the noise over the residential areas. You wouldn't want to send IFR traffic over that land though, not with Montara Mountain to the N and it ...

1

It’s because of the marine sanctuary. 99% of the time it’s Runway 30, and there are noise abatement procedures (pdf) for the east side traffic pattern as well.

1

No. And it possibly would be very dangerous to attempt to do so. Approach procedures are designed the way they are based upon airspace surveys by the FAA. In general, if it was feasible to circle, the plate would be published with circling minimums and procedures. The lack there of generally indicates conflicts, be it obstacle and terrain clearances, air ...

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