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14 votes

Can a pilot use their GPS/FMS to fly a VOR or NDB approach?

In the US they can (Effective: May 26, 2016). This change allows for the use of a suitable RNAV system as a means to navigate on the final approach segment of an instrument approach procedure (IAP) ...
JScarry's user avatar
  • 7,464
12 votes
Accepted

Approach plate does not require DME, but DME used in the published missed?

DME can be used in the published missed, but does not have to be. There are other ways to identify the missed approach fix. The missed approach instructions are: MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 1500 ...
J W's user avatar
  • 16.6k
12 votes

How can a pilot fly a descent angle of 4° in an A320?

You're in luck: the Airbus A320 flight director has a special mode for exactly this: TRK/FPA (track and flight path angle): (image source) When you are on final approach, press the HDG V/S - TRK FPA ...
Bianfable's user avatar
  • 56.5k
11 votes
Accepted

Why is an approach that relies on both LOC and PAPI not considered a precision approach?

I think you're overlooking the primary reason pilots fly instrument approaches: the conditions do not permit flight by visual reference. The fact that a PAPI provides vertical guidance is more or ...
egid's user avatar
  • 23.3k
10 votes
Accepted

If DME is required, why have non-DME minima?

Conceivably the I-ETI DME transponder could be out of service, preventing you from identifying YOCUB (unless you have a second VOR or GPS), but you could still identify BASSO on the CHS DME for the ...
pericynthion's user avatar
  • 4,640
9 votes

Can I circle to a different runway if cleared for an instrument approach without circling minimums?

Intro This is a bit of an odd situation, but they have a good reason for doing what they did. First of all, each instrument approach is designed to be a stand-alone procedure, and the designers ...
Lnafziger's user avatar
  • 59k
9 votes
Accepted

Can a pilot use their GPS/FMS to fly a VOR or NDB approach?

No, you still have to monitor the underlying NAVAID. You just have to read further in that same section of the AIM. Reference the most recent edition of the AIM, which has Change 3 dated April 27, ...
Talon's user avatar
  • 106
9 votes
Accepted

When to go missed on a non-precision approach?

Non precision MAP fixes are identified in a number of ways: Fixes identified by additional terrestrial Navaids eg intersections between the localizer and radial directions from other Navaid beacons ...
Romeo_4808N's user avatar
  • 74.1k
8 votes
Accepted

Does having lead-in lights in sight allow descent below MDA?

No, you may not descend below MDA having only the lead-in lights in sight. Reference FAA Order 6850.2b, "Visual Guidance Lighting Systems", page 1-3 through 1-5. According to this order, the ...
Steve V.'s user avatar
  • 23.3k
7 votes

Were there ever instrument approach procedures utilizing only Four Course Range Navigation?

Yes such approaches have existed. As early as 1944 the North America Low Frequency Radio Range (aka Four-Course Range and Adcock Range) network was quite developed. There are several approach plates ...
mins's user avatar
  • 74.7k
7 votes

Does a Tower controller need to see an aircraft on final to give landing clearance?

The FAA's ATC orders cover this for the US. Note that controllers can use radar instead of visual contact: 3−10−7. LANDING CLEARANCE WITHOUT VISUAL OBSERVATION When an arriving aircraft ...
Pondlife's user avatar
  • 71.8k
7 votes
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What is the difference between ILS and VOR/DME?

Which one is better for carrying out approaches? An ILS approach is more precise for two reasons: The ILS localizer is more sensitive than a VOR radial, therefore providing more accurate lateral ...
Bianfable's user avatar
  • 56.5k
7 votes
Accepted

Why did autopilot switch to CWS P on a LNAV/VNAV approach, and why didn't it reduce descent rate to comply with CDU alts when VNAV was re-engaged?

That behavior, VNAV switching off and going into ALT HOLD or even CWS PITCH, can happen when the VNAV "gets lost" and no longer can draw a vertical path from where it is to its End-of-...
Ralph J's user avatar
  • 51.8k
6 votes

Why is this Instrument Approach NA for certain radials, yet it depicts a feeder route for those radials?

Your confusion may stem from the way you are viewing the instruction not to use it for arrival on the radials 356 to 157. If you were arriving on the 356 Radial of the PIE VORTAC, your course/track (...
Dean F.'s user avatar
  • 16.5k
5 votes
Accepted

Was it ever possible to land big commercial jets from the missed approach point during non-precision approach?

Possible? Yes, depending. Advisable? That's a matter of opinion. I suspect most these days would probably say no unless you did a circling maneuver to another runway. And then many (most?) would say ...
Terry's user avatar
  • 39.2k
5 votes

Crossing mid-field on a circling approach

During an IFR Circling approach, in IFR conditions, there is no pattern. You own the airspace and can fly anywhere you want, unless it is restricted by a published circling procedure. (example: no ...
Mike Sowsun's user avatar
  • 37.8k
5 votes
Accepted

In Jeppesen Approach charts, what does D2.8, D3.8 mean?

The points D1.0, D2.8, D3.8 and D9.5 all refer to DME distances in units of nautical miles. In this case there is only one DME for this approach: the Mumbai VOR/DME (BBB). You would fly this approach ...
Bianfable's user avatar
  • 56.5k
4 votes
Accepted

When an alternate minimum applies, does it change MDA or DA?

From the FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook, section 6-4: "The 600-2 and 800-2 rules, or any exceptions, only apply to flight planning purposes, while published landing minimums apply to the actual ...
Brian's user avatar
  • 1,388
4 votes

Why do some non-precision approaches have stepdown fixes after the final approach fix?

Take a look at KPRB VOR Rwy 19: There is a stepdown fix after the final approach fix. Now look at the terrain around the airport. You can see a bunch of small hills around the FAF. In order to ...
JScarry's user avatar
  • 7,464
4 votes
Accepted

What does this A320 FCTM quote about cold weather and non-precision approaches mean?

I am not sure which part you don't understand, but here is my attempt to explain in more laymen terms. Short version: When it is too cold, a certain mode for flying non-precision approaches using the ...
kevin's user avatar
  • 39.8k
4 votes

How to fly LOC approach when IAF is a specific DME from LOC, but LOC has no DME?

You have a few different points here but the short version is: IWA is a VORTAC and I-IWA is a localizer, i.e. they're different navaids. DME is available from IWA and it's optional but not required ...
Pondlife's user avatar
  • 71.8k
4 votes

What is the maximum rate of descent in an instrument approach?

ICAO Doc 8168 stipulates that for a non-CDFA non-precision approach, the aircraft should not exceed 15% gradient when descending from FAF to MDA. 1.7.4 Stepdown descent The third technique ...
RunawayPilot's user avatar
4 votes

Why was Air India flight 101 in 2018 cleared for the ILS at EWR?

The simple answer is that ATC cleared them because they could. The crew had advised a low fuel situation and no one in their right mind was going to tell them to play musical chairs with all the ...
Juan Jimenez's user avatar
3 votes

What's a stepdown fix in a non-precision approach procedure?

From the FAA's Pilot/Controller Glossary: STEPDOWN FIX − A fix permitting additional descent within a segment of an instrument approach procedure by identifying a point at which a controlling ...
Pondlife's user avatar
  • 71.8k
3 votes
Accepted

What are "ground-based navigation systems which provide vertical guidance" and how do they compare to altimeters?

They mean an ILS - Instrument Landing System. An ILS consist of: A localizer component, which tells the angle between the aircraft's position and the extended runway centerline. In short, it tells ...
kevin's user avatar
  • 39.8k
3 votes

Why do some non-precision approaches have stepdown fixes after the final approach fix?

To address the part of the question why does it so happen that some stepdown fixes are after the final approach fix rather than let the final approach fix be the "stepdown" fix of an approach? The ...
Ralph J's user avatar
  • 51.8k
3 votes

How to calculate the vertical profile for a LOC only approach?

I built a calculator to help with these types of calculations. https://my.rockymountainflight.com/canpa You can input the icao identifier for an airport. I pull up the current METAR for you. You input ...
Tom Nunamaker's user avatar

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