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69

It's not duct tape. It's speed tape. Speed tape is an aluminum pressure-sensitive tape used to do minor repairs on aircraft and racing cars. It is used as a temporary repair material until a more permanent repair can be carried out. Probably just got a bit of a gap around the cowling or perhaps a loose fastener or two. It's common practice for sealing ...


45

For one, the early 737s had a design flaw which allowed the rudder to reach a hard-over position, and get stuck there. Boeing initially dragged their feet in rectifying this, so it took a number of accidents before this design flaw was corrected. This is a major contributor to the high number of fatalities in the early operational years. To have a more ...


43

Position lights are only visible in certain sectors (see image). The red and green lights on the wings are not supposed to be visible from behind. Image source: Learn to fly


41

Fully permitted according to this Configuration Deviation List for the A320: One fairing may be partly or completely missing. There are more posts about this occurring. As Noah Krasser points out, it looks fairly dodgy to observant passengers. This is the "Master" list, i.e. the safe and approved baseline. Some airlines may have changes in their own ...


41

In flight mode the stick commands a load-factor. Which means it will be impossible to flare the aircraft, because as you pull on the stick, you'll be commanding a positive g-load. Because of this the Airbus has a flare mode which activates at 50' RA. At 50' the pitch angle is stored (memorized). At 30' the aircraft commands a 2° nose down (it takes 8 ...


40

If there is a problem on-board and the crew is unsure about the condition of the aircraft, the triangle indicates what window should be used to inspect flaps, slats or engines or look out for icing. This saves important time in case of an emergency, as the crew doesn't has to search the right window to look out. For example if there is a failure of the ...


38

Disabling the protections can technically be achieved. I say technically because there is not one scenario that Airbus has envisioned that would require the pilots to deliberately go into direct-law. The imposed limit in the question is something called alpha-protection -- a protection against pulling back too much that the plane stalls. Stalling is bad. ...


37

There are many factors that would increase the business cost for taking an operation across the Atlantic/borders: ETOPS Crew accommodation overseas Acquiring airport slots in Europe Aircraft cycles (two flights for one destination) Cruise speed (being 10-12% slower is huge over long distances) Geography, especially latitude. I will focus on the sixth point,...


35

See Page 9 of TCDS A.064 ANNEX - Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 - Special Conditions TCDS A.064 ANNEX - Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 - Special Conditions EQUIVALENT SAFETY FINDING E-2107: Passenger Extension to 180 APPLICABILITY: A320 REQUIREMENTS: JAR 25.807 ADVISORY MATERIAL: N/A ...


35

There are three position lights. Red, Green and White. The red and green ones are placed on the wings and should be visible from the front and side up to an angle of ±110 degrees from the longitudinal axis. The white light is usually placed on the tail (or trailing edge of the wings) and should be visible from behind the aircraft, 70 degrees to either side. ...


35

The white marks make it easy to see if the trim wheel is moving, which would be tricky if it was entirely black. But wouldn't the pilot always know if they was spinning the trim wheel? Remember that the autopilot can also adjust the trim, which might not be obvious to the pilot. The visual marks make it easy for the pilots to see what the autopilot is doing....


32

You're right. But it's not because of the slats. It's because of what the plane is doing when the slats are being used. The slat position is used in some system logic because it's indicative of a takeoff and approach. For example, on the MD-11 the engine ignition is automatically put into continuous mode when the slats are operated, because that's ...


32

The answer is no, not totally, but it would really slow things down. I don't think anybody knows the precise answer because only flat water ditchings seem to result in the airplane stopping in the water in one piece (such as 1549 and a similar one in Malaysia) and flat water incidents (like Malaysia and some airport overruns) are usually in shallows where ...


31

Yes indeed, the fan blades are loose and rattle in their sockets when the fan is freewheeling in the wind. Once the engine is running, centrifugal forces will make sure they do not rattle any longer. The base of the fan blades have a shape like a fir tree, and they slide into sockets on the fan disk with a loose fit. When the fan is spinning slowly, they ...


30

In the event of a water evacuation, there is a line associated with each overwing exit that is extended, and clips to that yellow bracket, as a guide to get everyone out on the wing. From Wikipedia, these are for overwing exits. The use of overwing exits in a ditching varies from airline to airline. On aircraft fitted with overwing exits, there is ...


30

From Flight Training International: Airbus A320 Type Rating The Airbus A320 family of jet airliners consists of five aircraft: the A318, A319, A320, A321 jet airliners and ACJ business jet. Only one type rating is required to fly these Airbus aircraft, as they have similar flight decks. To earn a type rating for these Airbus ...


30

You're right. The aft no. 3 fixed window has a reusable retainer with 2 rows of fasteners- one for holding the window glass and another for attaching to the fuselage, as can be seen in this PPG document- this is the two rows of fasteners in the image. A320 aft window, image from Cockpit Windows Technical Data from PPG Aerospace My guess is that there was ...


29

Raw numbers like this are more-or-less useless. You would have to plot the accidents against the year to even begin to have something reasonable. You also need to remove non-airframe accidents like: under-full-control crashes like controlled flight into terrain (pilot screwups have nothing to do with the airframe, and account for a lot of accidents) weather-...


29

Was it anything to be concerned No Should I have brought it to the notice of the airline crew? Yes, but not because it is a safety issue. Tell them so they can deal with it to give the next passenger a nicer experience. What is happening is no different than a glass of ice water sitting on your kitchen counter. The warmer side of the glass (the outside)...


28

I'm going to simplify and assume that jets and cars burn the same fuel, and output the same exhaust, CO2, NOx and all. I'm going to compare only short-haul flights against cars. According to Wikipedia, an A-320-NEO does 1.95L/100km per seat. Assuming flying at 80% capacity, that gives us 2.4L/100km per seat. According to The Car Guide, a 2019 Honda Civic ...


27

The only reason for your flight to operate at such low altitude is because it is cheaper for them to do so. As you said it is due to weather, other route/altitude may not be available. They can cancel the flight but that is likely to be costly. They may have to find accomodation for you and crew until they can put you to the next flight. Sub-optimal flight ...


26

The conversation may have been about fuel pumps or fuel transfer valves but the flight attendant was probably told that as a simple explanation - it would not have been the real cause. Aircraft have multiple systems to pump fuel, transfer, and pipe it so no single failure will affect normal operation. For example, pumps have automatic bypass valves so ...


26

I used the playback function of Flightradar24 for the 18th at 23:00 UTC, and the amount of traffic above 10,000' (filtering by altitude) seemed very normal compared to other days. I'm baffled as to why they flew so low, but I can address your fuel question in some detail. The difference in fuel consumption is ~693 kg of fuel, and would cost an extra ~$415, ...


25

If you need precise values, you need to provide much more detail. Fuel consumption is affected by many parameters; see this answer for more detail. For a precise estimate it will be best to employ a simulation software; see the answers to this question for more detail. If you are just interested in a general estimate, the venerable Breguet equation will ...


25

There are several advantages, here are a few: Design costs are lower for a family of aircraft; major parts of the aircraft are the same in the family. A family of aircraft share the same type certificate. This means it is cheaper for the manufacturer to certify a family of aircraft. Within a family of aircraft, pilots can operate all aircraft with no or ...


25

Yes there will be a delay, but the delay caused by the control loop is really tiny. I've seen position control loops run successfully and stable at a couple of hundred Hz for simulator motion systems, and the time delay is just one iteration frame = less than 10 msec. And as @ymb1 correctly points out, if we deflect any control surface the end position is ...


25

When aircraft are stretched, they usually just receive extra fuselage plugs on both sides of the wing: wing redesigns are incredibly expensive and take a long time. So the longer aircraft has a higher empty weight, and due to the unchanged wing design the fuel capacity remains the same - this reduces range. The aircraft is fuel limited. Conversely, if ...


23

It would appear that the aircraft you flew was D-AGWR, a A319 with MSN (Manufacturer Serial Number) 4285 delivered in April 2010 (hence fairly new). There is a switch at the bottom of the overhead panel, next to the seat belt sign, slightly right of the middle. Flip it and they will extinguish. The functionality is a bit more complicated than it would ...


22

Likely they are tethering points for emergency exit ropes. The Boeing 737-800 has the same type of hooks. See top row from the water evacuation procedures: (Image source)


22

The image of the recovered "black box" is showing the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). The data is stored in the cylindrical housing that was relatively undamaged in the crash. The housing consists of a stainless steel outer shell to withstand impact forces. Beneath it is a layers of high temperature insulation to protect the data storage from post crash fire....


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