50

That's where the analogue/backup compass is stowed. The compartment can be opened downward if you ever need to use the compass, as seen in this image:


44

Position lights are only visible in certain sectors (see image). The red and green lights on the wings are not supposed to be visible from behind. Image source: Learn to fly


36

There are three position lights. Red, Green and White. The red and green ones are placed on the wings and should be visible from the front and side up to an angle of ±110 degrees from the longitudinal axis. The white light is usually placed on the tail (or trailing edge of the wings) and should be visible from behind the aircraft, 70 degrees to either side. ...


35

The white marks make it easy to see if the trim wheel is moving, which would be tricky if it was entirely black. But wouldn't the pilot always know if they was spinning the trim wheel? Remember that the autopilot can also adjust the trim, which might not be obvious to the pilot. The visual marks make it easy for the pilots to see what the autopilot is doing....


28

I'm going to simplify and assume that jets and cars burn the same fuel, and output the same exhaust, CO2, NOx and all. I'm going to compare only short-haul flights against cars. According to Wikipedia, an A-320-NEO does 1.95L/100km per seat. Assuming flying at 80% capacity, that gives us 2.4L/100km per seat. According to The Car Guide, a 2019 Honda Civic ...


27

The only reason for your flight to operate at such low altitude is because it is cheaper for them to do so. As you said it is due to weather, other route/altitude may not be available. They can cancel the flight but that is likely to be costly. They may have to find accomodation for you and crew until they can put you to the next flight. Sub-optimal flight ...


26

I used the playback function of Flightradar24 for the 18th at 23:00 UTC, and the amount of traffic above 10,000' (filtering by altitude) seemed very normal compared to other days. I'm baffled as to why they flew so low, but I can address your fuel question in some detail. The difference in fuel consumption is ~693 kg of fuel, and would cost an extra ~$415, ...


21

The A320 and 737 have very different flight control architectures. The 737 has physical cables that transmit pilot (or autopilot) input directly to the hydraulic actuators. This was common in the 1960's when the airplane was first designed. This means that the airplane handling comes down to the aerodynamics and the pilot input. The 737 MAX presented an ...


20

The 737 was originally designed to be a smaller aircraft serving more regional routes. The original JT8D low-bypass turbofans easily fit under the wings, and allowing the plane to sit lower to the ground made it easier for the plane to operate at smaller airports without support equipment. Passengers could use the built-in air stairs and the cargo bay was ...


16

Both are in taxiing SOP. The reason is in case the spoilers were accidentally left extended on the flight before (or during a maintenance check before the flight by the line engineers). If that's the case, then pressing MAX while taxiing before checking the flight controls (spoilers included) will engage the full RTO brakes and surprise the crew, injure a ...


16

It was because they could get there faster on a "TEC route." IFR flights are subject to congestion management at the ARTCC level, which means they have to wait their turn in line to be allowed into the airspace. That used to be done with holds (and still is in many other countries), but the US will slow down aircraft, reroute them or even delay takeoff to ...


13

It depends on what you mean by "environmentally friendly." Just for an example, let's consider a 1000 mile trip. An A320 burns about 5 gallons of fuel per seat per hour, and with 150 seats this comes to 750 gallons per hour. A 1000 mile flight will take about 2.5 hours, so this comes to 12.5 gallons per seat, or 1875 gallons total. This means that 2 seats ...


11

The A320 saw entry into service on 18 April 1988 with Air France. About a year later Flight International covered the dispatch topic. For British Airways – whose initial acquisition of the A320 was through the British Caledonian takeover, and not an order – the problems weren't with the plane, but with the Boeing culture that had to adapt. Otherwise there ...


10

It means that both Flight Directors are engaged: Flight Director (FD) Engagement The FDs are engaged automatically whenever the FMGC powers up. Ground Engagement The symbol "1FD2" appears on both PFDs. No FD bars appear on the PFDs. The PFD displays FD orders when a mode is active on the corresponding axis. The FCU windows display ...


10

The quoted explanation about "fail operational" and "fail passive" is correct, in that "fail operational" means the system will continue to function after an failure, and "fail passive" means the system will not misbehave after an failure. The exact number of autopilots required to make this work, however, is debatable; and much depends on how you define it....


9

Short answer: This is very normal because the outer wing is thinner. The warm fuel (which is warmed by the IDG) is not always returned to outer/inner tanks. Some explanation is needed wrt the circulation function on the A320. Excerpts below will be denoted (M) and (F), for maintenance and flight manuals, respectively. The FADEC controls the fuel return ...


9

The 737 Max had short landing gear. Since the engines need to have a minimum ground clearance, this meant that the new larger engines had to be repositioned further forwrd and higher on the wing. The repositioned engine along with the new engine nacelle shape meant it had different flying characteristics at high angles of attack (eg due to airflow). Thus ...


9

Here's an answer for the B737, from own work compiled from several public sources. The A320 and other airliners are very similar. The air conditioning packs are Air Cycle Machines (ACM) which remove heat from air through a reverse Brayton cycle. Hot compressed air is cooled and then expanded, which drops the outflow temperature to a temperature cold enough ...


9

While not specific to an A320, nor a make/model of automobile, these averages may help put your question into perspective. How any of it relates to "environmentally friendly" is purely subjective. "...the average fuel consumption in 2017 was 34 pax-km per L (2.94 L/100 km [80 mpg‑US] per passenger)..." from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


8

They're starting the chronometer. This chronometer is displayed on the navigation display. It lets them keep track of the time limit they are allowed to operate at takeoff thrust. The limit is 5 minutes normally extended to 10 with an engine failure. After this, they must reduce power to the maximum continuous thrust setting (MCT). There is also a time ...


8

This is a so called aspirated TAT sensor, optional on the Airbus. Air is being drawn through aspirated TAT sensors to ensure that they correctly indicate the temperature even when the aircraft is not moving. Normal TAT sensors develop a bias when the aircraft is static. This video gives a nice explanation.


7

As per the A320 flight manual (§127.20 p3), the maximum permitted total pitch alteration in normal law depends upon speed, aircraft mass, CoG, and other factors: Pitch Attitude Limitation: Pitch attitude is limited to: 30º nose up in conf 0 to 3 (progressively reduced to 25º at low speed) 25º nose up in conf FULL (progressively reduced ...


6

Please read the entire answer to understand the matter even if the answer goes a bit beyond the question. On the A320 wings you have panels that may open upward and that could be used to fulfill 3 different functions: ground spoilers, speed brakes, roll spoilers. The outer panels are used in addition to the ailerons for roll function, that is helping the ...


6

The A320 has an emergency gear extension handle to deploy the landing gear by gravity in case of electrical, hydraulic, or mechanical failure. To force the landing gear to extend, one of the crew must pull the emergency gear extension handle up, then turn it clockwise three turns. The cutoff valve then shuts down hydraulics to the landing gear system and ...


6

Overall, the two very different methods of transportation have surprisingly similar amounts of emissions. The exact circumstances make each better in some scenarios, but overall airplanes are slightly better for the environment for a 2-person trip. Expert Sources The general question here about cars vs planes has been studied in great depth by experts, so ...


6

Not being able to sell seats on the last row would (in Lufthansa's case) theoretically mean a 3.3% loss of revenue: LH setup for A320neo is 180 seats, 6 seats in last row. But, only theoretically, because seat occupancy rate for Lufthansa Group was 81.4% (2018). It is very unlikely that all of the flights operated with A320neo would fly 100% fully booked. ...


6

FreeMan - Commercial jet aircraft wheels are installed with a single nut on the axle, like a wheel hub on a car. The commercial jet aircraft axle is a few inches in diameter and is hollow. The wheel bearings are tapered, and while the axle nut is being tightened the wheel is spun ih the normal direction of rotation. A higher initial torque is applied to the ...


6

Areas on the airplane with ice protection have it for important reasons: Ice on the wing/empennage disrupts airflow, adding drag and making it more susceptible to stalling. Ice on an engine cowl lip can disrupt flow into the engine, causing stability issues. If it dislodges it can damage the engine. Ice in the pitot/static system prevents the air data ...


6

You can find the amount of unusable fuel in the EASA Type Certificate Data Sheet. Here is an example table for the A320-200 from that document: In general, the cockpit displays will always show the amount of usable fuel only. This is mandated e.g. by EASA CS 25.1337: (b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be means to indicate to the flight-crew members, ...


6

There is a pushbutton on the overhead panel in the hydraulics section to manually deploy the RAT: 5 RAT MAN ON pb The flight crew may extend the RAT at any time by pressing the RAT MAN ON pushbutton. Note: The RAT extends automatically if AC BUS 1 and AC BUS 2 are lost. (refer to 1.24.20). (A320 FCOM - Hydraulics - Controls and Indicators) ...


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