61

It's called 'toe-in' and it's done basically to match the local airflow which is slightly divergent (heading outboard along the underside of the wing). If the engines were mounted exactly parallel to the fuselage, they would be moving slightly obliquely through the local airflow and therefore incurring extra unnecessary drag. Another view of a 777 showing ...


32

This is a basic physics question, involving Newton's third law of motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.) When a centrally mounted engine applies force to turn the rotor, the equal and opposite reaction creates torque on the fuselage. With a tip jet, the force is applied by the jet shooting its exhaust perpendicular to the blade,...


30

Trim pitch "wheels" as you describe date back to the time when turning that wheel actually pulled on steel cables that were connected to the hinge mechanism for the control surface itself. This mechanical/manual system was a simple and robust method of manually trimming the aircraft and was very widely used before electronic/fly-by-wire control systems were ...


19

While the other answers are correct they are missing a key point: Because it was certified that way When an aircraft is certified with particular equipment, changing that can be difficult and may require the filing of a MAJOR REPAIR AND ALTERATION form. Its likely cheaper for Boeing to keep the trim wheels the way they are. The common 737 type certificate ...


11

Think of the aircraft engine as one isolated system and the rotor as another isolated system. In its simplest terms, torque is the force required to move mass in a circular motion. Torque is caused by the engine providing power to the rotor shaft which moves the mass of the blades. The torque is the interaction of the stationary engine trying to move the ...


9

The leading edge of the horizontal stab on jets is driven up and down for trim using a very large acme thread style screw jack. The Cessna 180/185 family and the Piper Cub/Super Cub/Pawnee family also do nearly the exact same thing, just with much smaller cable operated screw jacks. The early jets using jackscrew driven stabs included electric motors but ...


9

The function of the form is to act as a throttle stop when the part is in the position shown in the picture. It prevents full movement of the throttle when canopy is not securely closed and sealed. When the canopy is closed, the latch is moved by pushing the bottom part of the latch towards the outside of the plane. This moves the throttle stop out of way ...


8

Think of 2 scenarios: in one you are holding a rocket shaped projectile that is inert and you throw this projectile using your arm. In the second scenario you hold a real rocket, which is then launched. In the first scenario you throw the projectile, and you have to counter the twisting motion of your arm because your arm is imparting a force. In the ...


7

There are many factors going into the sizing of elevators, and they are all interconnected with other considerations such as CG envelope, static margin, flight controls, etc. Here are some factors that will influence up-sizing the elevators. Usually, the minimum elevator sizing is determined by low speed requirements: Ability to perform early rotation in ...


6

This statement is using "plane" in the mathematical-geometric sense, which is of course very confusing when we talk about a part of a "plane" in the "flying machine" sense. So, a "one-plane" thrust vectoring nozzle can only move up and down or left and right (typically up and down). So, this gives you pitch control using the thrust, without requiring ...


5

One big reason is to make room for external stores such as fuel, weapons and electronics packs. A low-wing design must have longer and therefore heavier and bulkier undercarriage if ground access to the underwing hard points is to be adequate. Also, the upper surface of a high wing is larger and cleaner, providing better lift over the fuselage and reducing ...


5

By inclined, do you mean that the conventional (taildragger) landing gear configuration angles the propeller? If that is in fact your question, know that the propeller is not “inclined” in flight any more than a tricycle landing gear aircraft. Straight and level is basically (very roughly) the same between the P-40 and the SR-22. And, P-factor is only ...


5

Yes, the Su-34 does technically include a food ration warmer, a "sanitary container", and some room that allows for sleeping. However, all three are much less impressive than the terms might suggest: The food ration warmer is not a microwave. It's just a small can heater: There is also some dedicated room for extra cans. The "sleeping room" is just a bit ...


4

Most supersonic aircraft have points where the cross-section suddenly changes, such as the fuselage nose, the wing root leading edge or the wing trailing edge. The points of sudden change produce sharp changes in air pressure, i.e. loud sonic booms. Concorde was one example. By designing the plane's cross-section to vary smoothly from end to end, the ...


4

Short answer: Yes. Maximum speed is correlated with wing loading. A high wing loading shifts all speeds up. A flying wing will always have a lower wing loading in comparison to a conventional design when payload, range and landing speed of both are identical. So you will start at a disadvantage. Due to the high lever arm of the conventional tail, the ...


3

@George already gave a correct answer, but I'll expand it a bit and show the source. Indeed, the lower load limit is for trans- and supersonic flight (formally M > 0.85) and the higher limit is for subsonic conditions. The AoA redline at 15° also relates to M > 0.85. At subsonic speeds, the max AoA is 26°. I can only speculate why it is not shown on the ...


3

Ejection of the tipjet exhaust streams in different directions creates a reactive torque on the rotor. This causes the rotor to spin up until aerodynamic drag exactly opposes the jet reaction. So in a way you can say that tipjet helicopters cancel the rotor torque through aerodynamic drag. But no torque is applied to the rotor through the rotor hub. Its ...


2

Trapezoidal wings have advantages and disadvantages: Better performance than delta wings at transonic speed Good stealth performances Flaps can be easily used. drag reducing better Lift/Drag ratio than delta wings The problem is that they stall at much lower angles of attack than delta wings. Edit:this problem is overcome using leading edge,LERX,and/or ...


2

Does joystick position control bank angle rather than directly controlling aileron/spoileron deflection in some Airbus aircraft? To complement @Bianfable's answer, in Normal Law Flight Mode, Airbus FBW families (including A220) command roll rate via lateral stick position up to the artificial spiral stability limit of 33 deg bank (for A220 it's 30 deg). ...


2

The line that is at the 9 G's is limit of maximum amount of G's( 9) until 0.85Mach (that is subsonic speed) and the lower line@7.5 is the limit for supersonic flight.


2

I'm not sure what you mean by 'payload capacity'. Airplanes have what's termed a 'useful load' which is the maximum combined weight of the passengers, baggage and cargo, and useable fuel. If you wanted to increase useful load, you would have to make the airframe and all systems aboard the airplane which constitute useful load lighter. This does have the ...


2

Ilyushin Il-80 Source: Wikipedia The "canoe" is thought to house "advanced" satellite communications equipment. This is a classified aircraft though, so there isn't a lot of publicly available information on exactly what other equipment might be contained in that hump.


1

Shock waves form where air can no longer "get out of the way" and begins to compress. Sweeping the wing effectively increases the chord and reduces the rate of wing thickness increases as airflow moves across it, essentially making the body longer and more "streamlined". Instead of running into a steep hill and compressing, it can flow over a more gently ...


1

"Lock-on" just refers to a unit receiving multiple different response signals in response to its interrogation broadcasts, scanning for the signal it's looking for, and when it finds the signal who's encoding matches its channel selection, it starts to process that signal and ignores all others. It's locked on to that signal.


1

“What is the maximum height for deploying a parachute?” Probably somewhere in the neighborhood of 60,000 feet MSL. I have no citation for this opinion. Based on what I have seen and experienced, there will be some limiting factors that will not make a parachute effective beyond that. As a matter of fact, a better plan would be to fly the plane as long as ...


1

Not for large passenger aircraft. Single engine failure flies on. 2 engine failure? I'd rather have a (shielded) 3rd engine, perhaps doubling as a very robust APU. Probability of a major structural failure in a commercial aircraft is not high enough. Both pilots incapacitated, same. Saving people from a loss of control due to spatial disorientation or ...


1

Yes, it is possible and variable-incidence wings have been used. The only production example was the Vought F-8 Crusader, used primarily by the US Navy. It had a variable-incidence wing, which tilted nose-up by about 7 degrees to give increased lift for takeoff. The conventional solution of a lengthened nose undercarriage was deemed impractical for the ...


1

Yes. Angle of Attack is included in the Lift formula. Lift generally increases with angle of attack in a linear fashion until AOA reaches stall. This is why it is not a good idea to fly at too high an AOA. Better to increase Velocity. Lift increases with Velocity squared. The Navy Vought F-8 Crusader had a "variable incidence wing" that was raised to a ...


1

No, there is neither a toilet nor a kitchen on an SU-34. The first picture in your post is of the "relief tube", which the crew can urinate into. It's not a toilet, though, and can't handle feces. There is a small area behind the crew seats just big enough for one person to stretch their legs, which can be used to store food if the crew so desires. It even ...


1

The answer is no. The SU-34 is a tactical jet with ejection seats. There is no room for such amenities. Most fighter type aircraft only have a relief tube of the type in your upper photo.


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