14

DME is "Distance Measuring Equipment". It tells you how far you are from the equipment transmitting the signal. This is often co-located with a VOR, or at an airport. turn heading 180 degrees to LGA 2.5 DME So, this means turn due south and continue until you are 2.5 nautical miles from LGA. At this point you're instructed to turn left on to a heading of ...


13

Let's treat the "normal" and "lost communication" cases separately. Fly assigned heading for RADAR vectors to assigned route. Climb and maintain 10000 or ATC assigned lower altitude. Expect filed altitude 10 minutes after departure. The essence of this is that on departure, responsibility for navigation rests with the air traffic controllers, not the ...


10

There can be many reasons. Flights taking off one after another: have different destinations have different weight and balance have difference in wings and wingtips have pilots with difference in skills got different takeoff directions by ATC are trying to avoid wake turbulence Off all the reasons I mentioned above, perhaps wake turbulence might be playing ...


7

It means, don't file that transition yourself. ATC may assign it, but it's their option to assign it or leave you on what you filed.


7

The ROUTING is DHP 322 radial to WINCO. So that's the course line that you'd intercept when so instructed. There is no reason to actually start at DHP, and since you'll be flying the heading off the runway, the leg from the field to DHP in the Garmin is immaterial. You can expect that they'll either clear you to WINCO, or (for a non-RNAV aircraft, most ...


6

I believe I have found the answer to my own question, while examining the records of a meeting held by FAA concerning this subject ( source ). It clearly states: [ AERONAUTICAL CHARTING FORUM Instrument Procedures GroupMeeting 17- 02 –October 24, 2017 ] When ATC crossing altitude restrictions require a climb gradient on a SID, it is proposed to ...


6

The short answer is yes, a commercial pilot can make a decision when to turn. To clarify a few points though, there really isn't such a thing as a "published vector". If a departure procedure with heading were to be published it would then become a Standard Instrument Departure, or SID. True, some SIDs will specify radar vectors, but this simple tells ...


5

I cannot speak for all of General Aviation (GA), but throughout the IFR portion of my flying career I have generally used SIDs wherever available. NOTE: This choice of using SIDs was not always mine, as ATC will often include a SID in a clearance unless requested otherwise. A pilot has two opportunities to avoid SID's if so desired: firstly, when filing the ...


5

The categories are actually approach categories that are also used for departures. From the AIM, 5−4−7. Instrument Approach Procedures Aircraft approach category means a grouping of aircraft based on a speed of VREF, if specified, or if VREF is not specified, 1.3 VSO at the maximum certified landing weight. VREF, VSO, and the maximum certified ...


5

Top Altitude is the initial climb altitude for a 'climb via SID' instruction, unless otherwise is stated. TOP ALTITUDE– In reference to SID published altitude restrictions the charted "maintain" altitude contained in the procedure description or assigned by ATC. Initial climb altitude/level is not directly related to the MEA. It has more to do with radar ...


5

A Boeing 737 uses a Flight Management System (FMS, see this question for details: What's the difference between FMS and FMC?). This FMS takes inputs from multiple navigation sources/sensors, including inertial, radio, and GPS. One part of this system is the CDU (Control and Display Unit, actually there are two installed), which is one of the interfaces ...


4

The definition of standard minimum visibility for departure is found in CFR §91.175 Takeoff and landing under IFR. f) Civil airport takeoff minimums. This paragraph applies to persons operating an aircraft under part 121, 125, 129, or 135 of this chapter. (1) Unless otherwise authorized by the FAA, no pilot may takeoff from a civil airport ...


4

No, planes are not assigned a specific climb angle by the tower upon takeoff - the tower will not instruct an aircraft to "climb at FPA 4 degrees" or "climb at 1200 feet/min". Separation is achieved primarily by lateral distance. If there is a risk of collision (e.g. an aircraft has just taken off, and the landing aircraft executes a go-around), ATC will ...


4

Referring to the takeoff pitch angle differences, they are often due to aircraft characteristics or situational things, like potential wake turbulence, or known obstacles. Planes have different speeds for best climb, and that will result in different take off angles. consider an F-18 putting out full afterburners on takeoff. That pilot could go straight up, ...


4

Depending on certain factors, you can accept a SID clearance knowing that you cannot make the required climb gradient with one engine inoperative (OEI). The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) 5-2-8 ODP and SIDs states this: ODPs and SIDs assume normal aircraft performance, and that all engines are operating (AEO). Development of contingency ...


4

Some old aircraft (737 Classic comes to mind) don't allow arming LNAV/NAV AFDS mode on the ground, as you normally have to be at least 400ft above ground (ICAO PANS OPS says 396ft) before making turns more than 15 degrees, at which point you would engage LNAV. I guess the regulation takes old aircraft into account. On the newer aircraft, you can arm LNAV/...


4

You are not getting anything wrong, I think you are simply overthinking something that isn’t actually important. The 30nm distinction is somewhat arbitrary, and presumably captures most arrival and departure procedures. There is nothing magical or binding in this number, and there is nothing pilots will do differently when flying a published route or ...


3

It is needed for the new climb-via instruction (c. 2014). Instead of issuing different maintain altitudes to the aircraft based on the SID, direction, etc., a top altitude is charted. From the FAA AIM: SIDs will have a "top altitude;" the "top altitude" is the charted "maintain" altitude contained in the procedure description or assigned by ATC. Related:...


3

It depends what you mean by 'flying a SID'. If it is just following the procedure without violation of VFR (i. e. you are above VFR weather minimums for a given airspace, you maintain your own separation from traffic, don't violate ATC clearances, don't enter controlled airspace without a clearance etc.) - yes, it's perfectly legal. You can fly any route you ...


3

In Europe and I suspect the FAA has a similar rule, if you are flying commercially, you're allowed to fly the SID...but you need to have performance documentation on the specific airport with the specific A/C, engines and runway which will give you your climb gradient single engine and an escape route to follow in case of Engine failure. Most major company ...


3

Although this is an RNAV procedure, it's a hybrid that requires instructions from ATC to get to DEEZZ. It would be the responsibility of ATC to get aircraft to proper altitudes before reaching the sections with higher MEAs. DEEZZ is 30 miles from JFK and procedures for every runway take departing aircraft away from it, so aircraft should have plenty of time ...


3

To your first question, some SIDs exist to provide a basic set of information that will almost always be given as part of a clearance, rather than a path to fly. This allows a controller to not have to state that part of the clearance verbally, saving time and confusion. On the Bellevue Three Departure from KRNT, the departure is as follows: Climb ...


3

"File what you want, fly what you get." There's no way to know for sure what clearance ATC will give you until you actually call them. If you're departing from an airport that you know well then you may be able to make an educated guess but that won't help if the winds change, an incident closes a runway, or any number of other things happen to invalidate ...


2

A standard arrival procedure (STAR) will have multiple entry fixes (called "transitions" because that's where you transition from the en route phase to the terminal phase) that converge on a single fix for which the STAR is named, usually with one or more (optional) holds along the way that ATC can use to maintain separation. There may be more shared fixes ...


2

I am not an FAA controller or instrument rated but since you don't have an answer yet I will give it a shot. If someone has a better answer please post: Arrival: IFR routes that start at radius about 30-50 NM from the airport. This is where airplanes usually start their descent. This can be controlled by en route or TRACON ATC. Approach: An IFR route ...


2

I think another good procedure to help understand this is the BLUES6. It is used at some of the same airports and also requires vectors to CSX, but it's defined by the following lines: D0106 ND N3845099W09021395CSX BLUES6.ENL BLUES SIX D0106 NW N3825120W08909324ENL So why is this one defined by the ND and NW lines? It's because all of the ...


2

There is another limitation apart from the 250/10,000 one, according to ICAO Annex 11 Chapter 5 Appendix 4: Speed limitations applicable to both IFR and VFR aircraft: — 250 knots below 10 000 ft ASL; and — 200 knots below 3 000 ft AGL within 10 NM of a controlled airport. So within 10 NM and below 3,000 ft AGL of the controlled airport, you are not ...


2

The definitive reference for this stuff is the TERPS, and it says that the ICA can extend to 10NM(!). See 14-1-6(b): Length. The ICA length is normally 2 NM, measured from the ICAB to the ICAE along RCL extended. It may be less than 2 NM in length for early turns by publishing a climb gradient. The ICA may be extended beyond 2 NM to maximum length ...


2

Geographical location of Changi airport Singapore is on the Straits of... Singapore. This straits is the southern continuation of the Straits of Malacca, both form an international maritime road between Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, on a par with Suez and Panama. (Source) To add to the bustle, the Changi Naval Base, opened in 2004, is a mere 2 km East ...


2

In that context, "engagement" refers to transfer of control of the airplane to the autopilot. Transport aircraft will generally have a limitation that forbids autopilot engagement on departure below, say, 500 or 600 ft. Once it's engaged in NAV mode, the A/P needs a bit of time to sort itself out and start turning to follow the LNAV guidance. So the ...


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