55

My experience is circa 1990s, but I can offer some perspective on US fixed wing operations. Besides TACAN and ASR for non-precision approaches, there are (were) 3 precision instrument approach options available: Precision Approach Radar (PAR), Instrument Landing System (ILS, or “Bullseye”) Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS). PAR: This consists of both ...


20

It is the year followed by the day of the year of the last ammendment to the chart. If there have been no changes to the chart since it was first issued, this space is blank. In this case the chart was revised on the 171st day of 2019. If you look at the bottom left hand portion of the chart, the date shows the last time the procedure was revised e.g.—...


14

Although I can’t detail fixed wing operations at sea, many countries operating helicopters use an ELVA procedure, an Emergency Low Visibility Approach. Most vessels operating aircraft will have a radar to provide a SCA (ship controlled approach) or if the helicopter has a radar it will be able to fly its own HCA (helicopter controlled approach). Assuming the ...


12

The Lakeland approach you show does not have a FAF (Final Approach Fix) because there is no defined point (fix), where you are established inbound and start to descend. In this case, the FAF is given by the FAP (Final Approach Point): FINAL APPROACH POINT− The point, applicable only to a nonprecision approach with no depicted FAF (such as an on airport VOR),...


11

According to the FAA's Instrument Procedures Handbook, chapter 3 (p. 3-16): Pilots may have noticed that minimum crossing altitudes and airspeed restrictions appear on some STARs. These expected altitudes and airspeeds are not part of the clearance until ATC includes them verbally. A STAR is simply a published routing; it does not have the force of a ...


10

If you’re flying low and slow, in practice you’re not going to spend much time on a SID or STAR unless you lose comms. ATC would rather vector one plane (you) off the procedure so the dozen jets and turboprops behind you going twice as fast can stay on it. Traffic is light enough now (late 2020) that if you specifically tell them you want it for the practice,...


6

This does exist, and is used by US military aircraft. It's called a Self-contained Approach (SCA) or Independent Precision Radar Approach (IPRA). The primary user of these approaches is Air Force Special Operations Command on aircraft like the MC-130 and AC-130. Regulatory guidance is contained in the AFI 11-202v3 AFSOC Sup, section 7.4, and operational ...


6

There is a little bit of a misunderstanding in your premise. There is a difference between an alternate airport and a diversion airport. An alternate airport is your listed optional destination for the purposes of filing a flight plan. A diversion airport is the airport to which you head when you can not land at your original destination. They may be one in ...


5

Your confusion may stem from the way you are viewing the instruction not to use it for arrival on the radials 356 to 157. If you were arriving on the 356 Radial of the PIE VORTAC, your course/track (and/or heading in calm winds) would be 176°. If you were arriving on the 157 Radial of the PIE VORTAC, your course/track (and/or heading in calm winds) would be ...


4

Beginning 2NM prior to reaching the final approach fix of an activated approach, the GPS will smoothly taper down the CDI scale from 1-NM full-scale deflection (from the center) to 0.3-NM at full-deflection over that 2-NM flight distance and reach a scale of 0.3-NM as the final approach fix is reached. AIM Page 1-1-25 "When within 2 NM of the Final ...


4

A flyover waypoint will have a circle drawn around it on a chart, whereas a fly-by waypoint will not. (Easy to remember: the circle looks like the O in Over) The symbols for a fly-by and a flyover waypoint in aeronatutial maps and charts can be differenciated by the circle surrouning flyover waypoints. https://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Waypoint


3

To perform an ILS CAT I approach, at least the touchdown zone RVR sensor must be operational. For CAT II, you need the touchdown zone and midfield sensors, and for CAT III you need all three. As per your NOTAM, if only the stopend RVR sensor is out of service, it should be possible to perform CAT I and CAT II approaches (assuming those are available for that ...


3

The question is flawed because it presumes that you are flying a published instrument approach procedure in uncontrolled airspace without an IFR clearance. Looking at the VFR sectional you can see that there is a shaded magenta border around this airport that signifies Class E airspace, (controlled airspace) with a floor of 700' above the surface. You ...


3

I found your quoted text in Section 5-4-6 of the AIM. You quote paragraphs b and c of the section. I will break down paragraphs a, b, and c using examples. Each paragraph is discussing a situation in which a pilot has been cleared to a holding fix (perhaps by clearance delivery, i.e. the last fix in the flight plan) and has been "cleared ... approach&...


3

I have some trouble understanding how the procedure designers take into consideration the traffic flow from neighboring arrival procedures We don't. We only concern ourselves with terrain and obstacle clearance. Doc 8168 Vol. II I-2-1-1 refers. Deconfliction is an ATM responsibility, covered in Doc 4444.


2

Part 135 pilot: I think there is the practical and legal answer here. The legal answer is yes you must execute a missed approach. That's why the regulation specifically uses the word "continuously." If at any point you realize it's not going to work, you must go missed. However, if this realization comes late in the flare and you make the ...


2

[Modifying per Michael Hall's comments] If the question is "do you have to fly the full distance indicated in the hold?", the answer is no. (But if it's just about timing vs. distance then ¯_(ツ)_/¯.) I realize this is old, but since it's currently the top hit on google for the question "do you have to fly the distance shown on a depicted hold&...


2

That would be acceptable to me, but probably more information than you need to give. If you have a transponder, we'll give you a squawk code (and perhaps ask for an ident as well) and radar identify you that way. We will then call "radar contact" and advise where we think you are ("two-eight miles northwest of Podunk VOR"). If you don't ...


2

It means that this frequency is not always available (not always staffed). From the Introduction to Jeppesen Navigation Charts: 8 - Indicates the service is part time. And further below: Navaid boxes include the navaid name, identifier, Morse code, and frequency. A letter "D" indicates DME capability with an asterisk indicating part time.


2

The point of flying on QNH is to keep you from flying into terrain, which is at a constant altitude above sea level, so TA is fixed. Once you are high enough that terrain can’t be a problem and you only have to worry about hitting other planes, everyone can transition to QNE. However, because TL must be physically above TA, the difference between QNH and QNE ...


2

I generally agree with Dean F's answer regarding the issue of a sharp turn. A turn requiring too much of a heading change might take the aircraft outside of designed protected airspace. However, to be a bit more specific you can refer to the language shown below from FAA Order 8260.3E with respect to your question: An arrival from the north (radial 356, ...


2

The OCS is the edge of the safe flight 'corridor.' It defines a safe volume of airspace for the approach. Since it's normal to have obstacles off to the side of the approach path the OCS typically rises as you move away from the approach centerline. Your Case 1 is the most correct description of an aircraft flying the approach. The green 'floor' normally ...


2

They don't, necessarily. A holding pattern is a way for air traffic control to slow down an aircraft when an airport does not have enough capacity to meet the number of inbound aircraft (essentially, a traffic congestion). It can also be used in other situations, for example when the weather is too bad for an aircraft to land, and they need to wait for ...


1

I do it all the time. You can fly VFR with any device or no device. A couple of things that I’ve noticed. If you request a VFR practice approach and they approve it, they’ll fit you into the traffic flow just like IFR traffic. They may give you vectors to fit faster traffic into the flow—which is great practice. If you just fly the RNAV and don’t tell them ...


1

This is USA information. The summary: determine the obstacle clearance surfaces, add the required obstacle clearance buffers to those surfaces, adjust DA for glide slope angle and aircraft speed if not already above the minimum due to obstacle clearance. The procedures are all calculated in true altitude, not indicated altitude. Aircraft that fly IFR in the ...


1

First; you have to understand that ARINC 424 is an industry standard. It is not regulatory. The regulatory documents are published by RTCA (and EUROCAE in the EU). The basic database coding requirements of it are generally well accepted and used by the industry as those are essential to its primary function of interoperability. But there's a lot of ...


1

It is (or was - I'm not sure) relevant because it is limiting: The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. If reported and relevant, the mid point and stop end RVR are also controlling. The minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 125 m or the RVR required for the touch-down zone if less, and 75 m for the stop-end. For aeroplanes equipped with a roll-out ...


1

The grey areas are the minimum descent altitude (MDA) for each approach segment. Below those altitudes there are hazards in those segments. When you conduct the approach you should be aware of those altitudes and take action if you get too close to them.


1

This is extracted from the RNAV (GPS) RWY 23 of WESTERN NEBRASKA RGNL/WILLIAM B HEILIG FIELD (BFF) in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. A VDP (Visual Descent Point) is only used in conjunction with an MDA (Minimum Descent Altitude). Do not mistake this for a DA (Decision Altitude). If visual contact with the runway environment is not made once a pilot reaches MDA, the ...


1

In a 2018 publication, "A Treatise on the Holding Pattern:Expelling the Myths and Misconceptions of Timing and Wind Correction", the complete mathematical solution of the generalized holding pattern problem was finally solved. The results are completely analytic and are valid for any wind direction and wind speed up to 99.99% of the aircraft true airspeed. ...


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