23

Your scenario isn't really realistic, the turn coordinator and the AI are almost always on different sources of power to protect against this very event. The TC is almost always electrically driven because it gives an alternate source of information. A loss of an instrument or even a whole suite of instruments is something instrument rated pilots train for,...


16

GdD’s answer is accurate (up vote). My answer will be more step by step. The first thing you should do is recognize the issue. That might not be immediately easy depending on your aircraft and it’s electronics suite. If there is no visual and auditory alert, you will have to wait for the gyros to wind down to a certain extent. Immediately announce to ...


5

There is no definite answer to this question. If you are far away from the beacon radials are far away from each other and thus small intercept angle would be insufficient to reach desired track in feasible time. Also, if you are, say, five miles away from the beacon intercept angle of thirty degrees would be acceptable for C172 but an overkill for ...


5

The general duties of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM), also called Pilot Not Flying (PNF), are e.g. outlined in the following section of the Boeing 737 NG FCOMv1 (NP.11.2 Normal Procedures - Introduction, emphasis mine): Crew Duties Preflight and postflight crew duties are divided between the captain and first officer. Phase of flight ...


5

If you start the procedure at ROBUD and your clearance does not include "cleared for straight in approach", then you are expected to do a procedure turn in the hold. In real life the first thing to do in such situation would be to query the controller "confirm we are cleared for straight in approach", they are very likely to forget it also. In my opinion, ...


4

It's called "partial panel" flying and if you ever advance to a commercial license, you will have to demonstrate proficiency at partial panel during training and on the commercial check ride. On my commercial check flight in the late 70s I even had to demonstrate recovery from an unusual attitude (diving spiral) on partial panel under the hood because my ...


4

The most common killer of inadequately trained pilots who fly into clouds is a spiral dive, caused by the aircraft entering a steep bank without the pilot realizing it or understanding the direction of turn. Eventually the aircraft is destroyed due overspeed or excess G-load. A magnetic compass is generally useless whenever an aircraft is banked and ...


4

Is it true that a Turn and slip indicator is a valid back-up for the attitude indicator? Partially, but it would need to be used in conjunction with one or more other instruments if the Artificial Horizon is inoperable. Change in the DI and/or compass will indicate a turn. Change in altitude on an altimeter will indicate a climb or descent. Usefulness of ...


4

The text is written that way to take into account the various type of holding entries. In case of a parallel or teardrop entry, the outbound leg starts after passing over the fix. In all other cases the outbound leg start after passing abeam the fix, following a turn that starts over the fix. Case 1: Established in a holding pattern So when established in ...


3

It is needed for the new climb-via instruction (c. 2014). Instead of issuing different maintain altitudes to the aircraft based on the SID, direction, etc., a top altitude is charted. From the FAA AIM: SIDs will have a "top altitude;" the "top altitude" is the charted "maintain" altitude contained in the procedure description or assigned by ATC. Related:...


2

Obstacle Identification Surfaces apply to departures and the portion of an non-precision IAP beyond the Visual Descent Point. If you are in the clouds, you should never penetrate the OIS on departure. On arrival, the VDP assures obstacle clearance with a normal approach to landing. ILS only approaches do not have a VDP depicted so there is no OIS to ...


2

My 2014 AIM 5-4-5 Instrument Approach Charts says: The ILS glide slope is intended to be intercepted at the published glide slope intercept altitude. This point marks the PFAF and is depicted by the “lightning bolt” symbol on U.S. Government charts. Intercepting the glide slope at this altitude marks the beginning of the final approach segment and ...


2

Both sims allow you to do a review of your flight where you can see both plan views and vertical profiles of the flight to analyze the results. This can be especially useful when analyzing the results of attitude instrument flying like A and B patterns, etc. CloudAhoy does allow integration of flights from X-Plane for review as well. ATC is a bit better ...


2

This NOTAM is a Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAM which is used to amend published Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP). That means this NOTAM is effectively amending the procedure as the FAA hasn't had the opportunity to change the procedure yet. This is probably due to a new obstruction that has been placed in the decent path. Perhaps a new cell phone ...


2

For this answer: Hard altitude requirement - a fixed altitide which an airplane must be at. (eg. 7000ft) Soft altitude requirement - a window of altitudes for the aircraft to be at (eg. abv. 3500ft, between 9000ft and 12000ft) Using a 757 for all examples unless specified otherwise. A simple FMS may simply assume and use the minimum of a soft requirement ...


2

Buy one of the devices that gives you GPS plus AHARS, and make sure that it’s calibrated with ForeFlight and your iPad on EVERY FLIGHT. THen in the bizarre situation that your vacuum AND electric fail simultaneously you can STILL land using just your iPad. Oh... and for sure check this by flying an approach with an instructor and failing ALL instruments to ...


1

This is a total shot in the dark. And, I have no citations for this. I always assumed that the a left-hand traffic pattern and a right-hand hold for a missed approach put the aircraft on the same side of the extended runway centerline. Presumably, this would be a more “protected” side of the airspace. Since standard traffic patterns for fixed wing aircraft ...


1

It depends on what you filed in your flight plan. To what point were you cleared? The key word in AIM 6-4-1,a.3. is “ When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins”. (c) Leave clearance limit. (1) When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to ...


1

You can descend from 4300' to 2600' as soon as you pass ZUNAD, as long as you remain in the protected airspace of the hold at ZUNAD. It is the same situation if you were "Cleared for an approach" in a non-radar environment.


1

I programmed a virtual FMS for testing of new airways and STARs, and I completely agree with the comment left by @MikeBrass. Ultimately, there is no standard for how FMS systems complete this task as long as they come to the same result. It is very simple trigonometry and other, high school level, math concepts. The FMS knows the 3D coordinates for the ...


1

ICAO Doc 8168 "Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations - Volume I - Flight Procedures" states under 2.1.3 Types of SID: Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV. To answer your question: RNAV/RNP SIDs are considered procedures with track guidance. The better your tracking is the smaller ...


1

In terminal areas with relatively low traffic levels, it may be simpler for ATC to let each flight climb or descend at their discretion, with verbal restrictions when an actual conflict appears. There is no point in trying to optimize these procedures because they're already pretty much optimal for the few flights that use them. However, in busy terminal ...


1

Eurocontrol does offer the whole thing as well – albeit not for free as the FAA does. Check out https://www.eurocontrol.int/service/european-ais-database for more information.


1

The clip doesn't show it, but you must be looking at an RNAV approach chart for 20R. The ILS charts for 20R show the holding pattern in the plates. Since RNAV states "Radar Required" if the pilot doesn't get further instructions he/she should immediately ask for them.


1

The difference between APPROACH minimums, and ALTERNATE minimums: APPROACH minimums are stated on each approach plate, for instance, 200 ft. ceiling with 3 mi. visibility. It's a real-time minimum, because it only affects whether or not you can begin that particular instrument approach. On arrival, you check the airport's weather (METAR, for instance) ...


1

1.3 Vso is not a universal rule even for the same plane. First is extra weight, which requires higher AOA for adequate lift at the same speed, or greater speed at the same AOA. Approach a little faster if heavy. Next is CG. If CG is near limits, a little extra speed will help aerodynamic trim as you slow down. Finally, there is weather. Gusting winds or ...


1

It's in the Altitude/Minimum Altitude data field: 5.30 Altitude/Minimum Altitude Definition/Description: The Altitude/Minimum Altitude field indicates the reference altitude associated with (1) Enroute Airways (MEA, MFA or other minimum altitudes as defined by source), (2) holding pattern path of Holding Pattern record, (3) altitudes at fixes ...


1

As the name suggests, MEA is coded for enroute segments lik ethe airways (ARINC permits this). In so far as Instrument Approaches are concerned, the templates takes into account vertical clearances in Primary and secondary areas and then arrives at safe heights at each segment. Geometry of primary and secondary areas and the clearance therein depends on ...


1

The "other case" is the flyover. If you arrive at a VOR on a certain course and are requested to leave on another course. In this case you take the difference of these two courses divide it by three. Thats your intercept angle to the outbound radial. if its more than 15, its gonna be 15. (Example you arrive on a course 180° (from the north) and you're asked ...


1

Revisions are made to improve traffic flow, adjust for infrastructure(eg local airport change in number of flights or nav beacon decommissioned), simplify procedures for pilots and ATC, or address some other routing conflict or safety issue. This is why IFR charts and terminal procedures are only valid for two months. For example there is a victor airway ...


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