11

Autoland exists at least in part because a pilot can't safely hit (the right part of) the runway (at the right speed and attitude) without visual references, so a lot of precision electronic guidance equipment is needed, and then even more equipment to ensure the first equipment is working correctly. In contrast, the sky is much bigger than the runway. It's ...


5

If the approach doesn't contain a published course reversal (ie PT barb or Hold-In-Lieu), the approach must be flown straight in. In this case, you will either get vectors-to-final or you will get cleared via one of the feeder routes.


5

The general duties of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM), also called Pilot Not Flying (PNF), are e.g. outlined in the following section of the Boeing 737 NG FCOMv1 (NP.11.2 Normal Procedures - Introduction, emphasis mine): Crew Duties Preflight and postflight crew duties are divided between the captain and first officer. Phase of flight ...


5

If you start the procedure at ROBUD and your clearance does not include "cleared for straight in approach", then you are expected to do a procedure turn in the hold. In real life the first thing to do in such situation would be to query the controller "confirm we are cleared for straight in approach", they are very likely to forget it also. In my opinion, ...


4

The text is written that way to take into account the various type of holding entries. In case of a parallel or teardrop entry, the outbound leg starts after passing over the fix. In all other cases the outbound leg start after passing abeam the fix, following a turn that starts over the fix. Case 1: Established in a holding pattern So when established in ...


4

You don't need the radar altimeter / reverse glide slope system, at all. The energy management required and the trimming are not easy and are in fact unsafe (you need to keep climbing at the best climb rate, in case of say birds). All you need is lateral guidance. Once you are wheels off, you are wheels off, continue the climb via the SID, for example, and ...


4

A VFR pilot shouldn't really be "scanning" the instruments in the sense that an IFR pilot does; he should be scanning the sky for traffic (see my first answer) while using his peripheral vision to maintain attitude. Yes, he should periodically (and briefly) check the instruments to make sure nothing is amiss, but then go back to scanning for traffic. I ...


4

There is no definite answer to this question. If you are far away from the beacon radials are far away from each other and thus small intercept angle would be insufficient to reach desired track in feasible time. Also, if you are, say, five miles away from the beacon intercept angle of thirty degrees would be acceptable for C172 but an overkill for ...


4

Is it true that a Turn and slip indicator is a valid back-up for the attitude indicator? Partially, but it would need to be used in conjunction with one or more other instruments if the Artificial Horizon is inoperable. Change in the DI and/or compass will indicate a turn. Change in altitude on an altimeter will indicate a climb or descent. Usefulness of ...


4

The most common killer of inadequately trained pilots who fly into clouds is a spiral dive, caused by the aircraft entering a steep bank without the pilot realizing it or understanding the direction of turn. Eventually the aircraft is destroyed due overspeed or excess G-load. A magnetic compass is generally useless whenever an aircraft is banked and ...


4

It's called "partial panel" flying and if you ever advance to a commercial license, you will have to demonstrate proficiency at partial panel during training and on the commercial check ride. On my commercial check flight in the late 70s I even had to demonstrate recovery from an unusual attitude (diving spiral) on partial panel under the hood because my ...


3

It is needed for the new climb-via instruction (c. 2014). Instead of issuing different maintain altitudes to the aircraft based on the SID, direction, etc., a top altitude is charted. From the FAA AIM: SIDs will have a "top altitude;" the "top altitude" is the charted "maintain" altitude contained in the procedure description or assigned by ATC. Related:...


2

I will have to answer my own question, since I have noticed that in FAA's PBN Manual it states: PBN 8260.58A 1-2-5c . Turn parameters. For OEA construction, a turn is indicated when the course change exceeds the alignment tolerance of 0.03 degrees. So, at least as far as route design is concerned, the alignment threshold for turn indication is 0.03 ...


2

Well, I’m not an FAA guy so I can’t find the relevant FAR quote, but going more general: ICAO Doc 8161 Vol 1 - Aircraft Operations I-4-6-1 6.1.4 Note 2 In the case of a missed approach with a turn at an altitude/height, when an operational need exists, an additional protection is provided for the safeguarding of early turns. When it is not possible, a ...


2

No, you can go missed anytime you feel you cannot complete the approach you are currently flying successfully. This includes anytime you are flying the final approach segment before reaching the VDP, if there is one, and all the way to the MAP at MDA. A failure of a required piece of equipment needed to fly the approach properly would be a mandatory reason ...


2

KSFO has sidestep minima for ILS/LOC 28R to 28L but not from ILS/LOC 28L to 28R. It also has a sidestep from ILS/LOC 19L to 19R but no ILS at all for 19R itself. The latter is probably the more normal case for sidesteps: giving a second runway (probably one normally only used for departures) lower minima than circling without needing to install and ...


2

Obstacle Identification Surfaces apply to departures and the portion of an non-precision IAP beyond the Visual Descent Point. If you are in the clouds, you should never penetrate the OIS on departure. On arrival, the VDP assures obstacle clearance with a normal approach to landing. ILS only approaches do not have a VDP depicted so there is no OIS to ...


2

Both sims allow you to do a review of your flight where you can see both plan views and vertical profiles of the flight to analyze the results. This can be especially useful when analyzing the results of attitude instrument flying like A and B patterns, etc. CloudAhoy does allow integration of flights from X-Plane for review as well. ATC is a bit better ...


2

My 2014 AIM 5-4-5 Instrument Approach Charts says: The ILS glide slope is intended to be intercepted at the published glide slope intercept altitude. This point marks the PFAF and is depicted by the “lightning bolt” symbol on U.S. Government charts. Intercepting the glide slope at this altitude marks the beginning of the final approach segment and ...


2

For this answer: Hard altitude requirement - a fixed altitide which an airplane must be at. (eg. 7000ft) Soft altitude requirement - a window of altitudes for the aircraft to be at (eg. abv. 3500ft, between 9000ft and 12000ft) Using a 757 for all examples unless specified otherwise. A simple FMS may simply assume and use the minimum of a soft requirement ...


2

This NOTAM is a Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAM which is used to amend published Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP). That means this NOTAM is effectively amending the procedure as the FAA hasn't had the opportunity to change the procedure yet. This is probably due to a new obstruction that has been placed in the decent path. Perhaps a new cell phone ...


1

I programmed a virtual FMS for testing of new airways and STARs, and I completely agree with the comment left by @MikeBrass. Ultimately, there is no standard for how FMS systems complete this task as long as they come to the same result. It is very simple trigonometry and other, high school level, math concepts. The FMS knows the 3D coordinates for the ...


1

The clip doesn't show it, but you must be looking at an RNAV approach chart for 20R. The ILS charts for 20R show the holding pattern in the plates. Since RNAV states "Radar Required" if the pilot doesn't get further instructions he/she should immediately ask for them.


1

ICAO Doc 8168 "Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations - Volume I - Flight Procedures" states under 2.1.3 Types of SID: Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV. To answer your question: RNAV/RNP SIDs are considered procedures with track guidance. The better your tracking is the smaller ...


1

In terminal areas with relatively low traffic levels, it may be simpler for ATC to let each flight climb or descend at their discretion, with verbal restrictions when an actual conflict appears. There is no point in trying to optimize these procedures because they're already pretty much optimal for the few flights that use them. However, in busy terminal ...


1

Eurocontrol does offer the whole thing as well – albeit not for free as the FAA does. Check out https://www.eurocontrol.int/service/european-ais-database for more information.


1

1.3 Vso is not a universal rule even for the same plane. First is extra weight, which requires higher AOA for adequate lift at the same speed, or greater speed at the same AOA. Approach a little faster if heavy. Next is CG. If CG is near limits, a little extra speed will help aerodynamic trim as you slow down. Finally, there is weather. Gusting winds or ...


1

It's in the Altitude/Minimum Altitude data field: 5.30 Altitude/Minimum Altitude Definition/Description: The Altitude/Minimum Altitude field indicates the reference altitude associated with (1) Enroute Airways (MEA, MFA or other minimum altitudes as defined by source), (2) holding pattern path of Holding Pattern record, (3) altitudes at fixes ...


1

As the name suggests, MEA is coded for enroute segments lik ethe airways (ARINC permits this). In so far as Instrument Approaches are concerned, the templates takes into account vertical clearances in Primary and secondary areas and then arrives at safe heights at each segment. Geometry of primary and secondary areas and the clearance therein depends on ...


1

It's a RNAV approach. You just fly to PIYID waypoint and that's all. I think all those reversals very useful when there was no RNAV and there was no other reliable way to establish on the final approach course unless you had VOR's and NDB's not at the airport to assist with that. Now it does not make sense. Why to fly more miles if you can fly this approach ...


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