55

My experience is circa 1990s, but I can offer some perspective on US fixed wing operations. Besides TACAN and ASR for non-precision approaches, there are (were) 3 precision instrument approach options available: Precision Approach Radar (PAR), Instrument Landing System (ILS, or “Bullseye”) Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS). PAR: This consists of both ...


23

Your scenario isn't really realistic, the turn coordinator and the AI are almost always on different sources of power to protect against this very event. The TC is almost always electrically driven because it gives an alternate source of information. A loss of an instrument or even a whole suite of instruments is something instrument rated pilots train for,...


20

It is the year followed by the day of the year of the last ammendment to the chart. If there have been no changes to the chart since it was first issued, this space is blank. In this case the chart was revised on the 171st day of 2019. If you look at the bottom left hand portion of the chart, the date shows the last time the procedure was revised e.g.—...


16

GdD’s answer is accurate (up vote). My answer will be more step by step. The first thing you should do is recognize the issue. That might not be immediately easy depending on your aircraft and it’s electronics suite. If there is no visual and auditory alert, you will have to wait for the gyros to wind down to a certain extent. Immediately announce to ...


14

Although I can’t detail fixed wing operations at sea, many countries operating helicopters use an ELVA procedure, an Emergency Low Visibility Approach. Most vessels operating aircraft will have a radar to provide a SCA (ship controlled approach) or if the helicopter has a radar it will be able to fly its own HCA (helicopter controlled approach). Assuming the ...


6

There is a little bit of a misunderstanding in your premise. There is a difference between an alternate airport and a diversion airport. An alternate airport is your listed optional destination for the purposes of filing a flight plan. A diversion airport is the airport to which you head when you can not land at your original destination. They may be one in ...


5

The general duties of Pilot Flying (PF) and Pilot Monitoring (PM), also called Pilot Not Flying (PNF), are e.g. outlined in the following section of the Boeing 737 NG FCOMv1 (NP.11.2 Normal Procedures - Introduction, emphasis mine): Crew Duties Preflight and postflight crew duties are divided between the captain and first officer. Phase of flight ...


5

If you start the procedure at ROBUD and your clearance does not include "cleared for straight in approach", then you are expected to do a procedure turn in the hold. In real life the first thing to do in such situation would be to query the controller "confirm we are cleared for straight in approach", they are very likely to forget it also. In my opinion, ...


5

The text is written that way to take into account the various type of holding entries. In case of a parallel or teardrop entry, the outbound leg starts after passing over the fix. In all other cases the outbound leg start after passing abeam the fix, following a turn that starts over the fix. Case 1: Established in a holding pattern So when established in ...


5

This does exist, and is used by US military aircraft. It's called a Self-contained Approach (SCA) or Independent Precision Radar Approach (IPRA). The primary user of these approaches is Air Force Special Operations Command on aircraft like the MC-130 and AC-130. Regulatory guidance is contained in the AFI 11-202v3 AFSOC Sup, section 7.4, and operational ...


4

It's called "partial panel" flying and if you ever advance to a commercial license, you will have to demonstrate proficiency at partial panel during training and on the commercial check ride. On my commercial check flight in the late 70s I even had to demonstrate recovery from an unusual attitude (diving spiral) on partial panel under the hood because my ...


4

The most common killer of inadequately trained pilots who fly into clouds is a spiral dive, caused by the aircraft entering a steep bank without the pilot realizing it or understanding the direction of turn. Eventually the aircraft is destroyed due overspeed or excess G-load. A magnetic compass is generally useless whenever an aircraft is banked and ...


4

Is it true that a Turn and slip indicator is a valid back-up for the attitude indicator? Partially, but it would need to be used in conjunction with one or more other instruments if the Artificial Horizon is inoperable. Change in the DI and/or compass will indicate a turn. Change in altitude on an altimeter will indicate a climb or descent. Usefulness of ...


3

Using DME only is perfectly acceptable the FAA does not actually specify how exactly to execute the procedure turn but where and at what altitude. This is covered in the AIM: 5-4-9 Procedure Turn and Hold−in−lieu of Procedure Turn. A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish the aircraft inbound on ...


2

My 2014 AIM 5-4-5 Instrument Approach Charts says: The ILS glide slope is intended to be intercepted at the published glide slope intercept altitude. This point marks the PFAF and is depicted by the “lightning bolt” symbol on U.S. Government charts. Intercepting the glide slope at this altitude marks the beginning of the final approach segment and ...


2

This NOTAM is a Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAM which is used to amend published Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP). That means this NOTAM is effectively amending the procedure as the FAA hasn't had the opportunity to change the procedure yet. This is probably due to a new obstruction that has been placed in the decent path. Perhaps a new cell phone ...


2

For this answer: Hard altitude requirement - a fixed altitide which an airplane must be at. (eg. 7000ft) Soft altitude requirement - a window of altitudes for the aircraft to be at (eg. abv. 3500ft, between 9000ft and 12000ft) Using a 757 for all examples unless specified otherwise. A simple FMS may simply assume and use the minimum of a soft requirement ...


2

This is a total shot in the dark. And, I have no citations for this. I always assumed that the a left-hand traffic pattern and a right-hand hold for a missed approach put the aircraft on the same side of the extended runway centerline. Presumably, this would be a more “protected” side of the airspace. Since standard traffic patterns for fixed wing aircraft ...


2

Buy one of the devices that gives you GPS plus AHARS, and make sure that it’s calibrated with ForeFlight and your iPad on EVERY FLIGHT. THen in the bizarre situation that your vacuum AND electric fail simultaneously you can STILL land using just your iPad. Oh... and for sure check this by flying an approach with an instructor and failing ALL instruments to ...


1

The grey areas are the minimum descent altitude (MDA) for each approach segment. Below those altitudes there are hazards in those segments. When you conduct the approach you should be aware of those altitudes and take action if you get too close to them.


1

This is extracted from the RNAV (GPS) RWY 23 of WESTERN NEBRASKA RGNL/WILLIAM B HEILIG FIELD (BFF) in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. A VDP (Visual Descent Point) is only used in conjunction with an MDA (Minimum Descent Altitude). Do not mistake this for a DA (Decision Altitude). If visual contact with the runway environment is not made once a pilot reaches MDA, the ...


1

It depends on what you filed in your flight plan. To what point were you cleared? The key word in AIM 6-4-1,a.3. is “ When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins”. (c) Leave clearance limit. (1) When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the expect ...


1

You can descend from 4300' to 2600' as soon as you pass ZUNAD, as long as you remain in the protected airspace of the hold at ZUNAD. It is the same situation if you were "Cleared for an approach" in a non-radar environment.


1

I programmed a virtual FMS for testing of new airways and STARs, and I completely agree with the comment left by @MikeBrass. Ultimately, there is no standard for how FMS systems complete this task as long as they come to the same result. It is very simple trigonometry and other, high school level, math concepts. The FMS knows the 3D coordinates for the ...


1

ICAO Doc 8168 "Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations - Volume I - Flight Procedures" states under 2.1.3 Types of SID: Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV. To answer your question: RNAV/RNP SIDs are considered procedures with track guidance. The better your tracking is the smaller ...


1

Eurocontrol does offer the whole thing as well – albeit not for free as the FAA does. Check out https://www.eurocontrol.int/service/european-ais-database for more information.


1

Basically you should not exceed 1000 feet per minute after you have passed the initial approach fix. The actual rate of descent will vary with speed, the approach angle and type of approach as well as met conditions. Please see this article.


1

Revisions are made to improve traffic flow, adjust for infrastructure(eg local airport change in number of flights or nav beacon decommissioned), simplify procedures for pilots and ATC, or address some other routing conflict or safety issue. This is why IFR charts and terminal procedures are only valid for two months. For example there is a victor airway ...


1

The difference between APPROACH minimums, and ALTERNATE minimums: APPROACH minimums are stated on each approach plate, for instance, 200 ft. ceiling with 3 mi. visibility. It's a real-time minimum, because it only affects whether or not you can begin that particular instrument approach. On arrival, you check the airport's weather (METAR, for instance) ...


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