13

The Lakeland approach you show does not have a FAF (Final Approach Fix) because there is no defined point (fix), where you are established inbound and start to descend. In this case, the FAF is given by the FAP (Final Approach Point): FINAL APPROACH POINT− The point, applicable only to a nonprecision approach with no depicted FAF (such as an on airport VOR),...


12

JERIT is the FAF for the LOC approach, as indicated by the Maltese cross. However, the FAF for the ILS approach is not JERIT; it is the Glide Slope Intercept Point (at 2000 ft indicated altitude) shown by the lightning bolt symbol, which in this particular approach happens to be at the same location as published for JERIT. Keep in mind, however, that the ...


11

Well, one reason would be that apparently when maintenance crews work on a VOR for signal calibration etc. they may take down the Morse code identification but still leave the signal alive while calibration is underway. Signal integrity and accuracy could be affected during the maintenance/calibration period but a pilot may not know this unless they attempt ...


9

Essentially this question boils down to, what is the definition & reference for "0" pitch? "Level flight" would be a problematic answer, because as Ron Beyer notes, your deck angle for level flight varies with airspeed (among other things). With the old attitude indicators, one could set the airplane symbol to whatever you wanted, so ...


9

Personally I have no expectations whatsoever. Sometimes the student (or instructor) requests multiple holds and they end up only doing one, and sometimes it's the opposite. My general technique is to say "Hold over ABCDE as published and advise ready to exit the hold," which lets you tell me when you are done doing whatever you need to be doing. If ...


8

"The fact that the suffix is -D implies the existence of LOC-A, LOC-B, and LOC-C approaches at SEE." Actually there is a subtelty: According to Order 8260.19 (or FSIMS 404.g.2), for terminal procedures: The alphabetical suffix for circling procedures must not be duplicated at airports with identical city names within one state. Regardless of the ...


7

My technique would be to make a climbing left turn to the northwest and dial the OBS (omni bearing selector) until the CDI (course deviation indicator) is centered and showing a course direct to the VOR. If you have an RMI (radio magnetic indicator) you could use this to go directly to the VOR as you're making your left climbing turn. I definitely would not ...


7

According to the AIM, you should not interpolate these values. You should use the next higher RVR instead: 5-4-20 Approach and Landing Minimums a. Landing Minimums. The rules applicable to landing minimums are contained in 14 CFR Section 91.175. TBL 5-4-1 may be used to convert RVR to ground or flight visibility. For converting RVR values that fall between ...


6

I see that if a specific course is not required, the aircraft will turn direct to the navaid on any course which is suitable with its performance. But the aircraft always have track guidance regarding the navaid. In the earlier paragraph you stated: "...most of the time I have to assign a specific course..." Is it fair to presume that you only ...


6

Your confusion may stem from the way you are viewing the instruction not to use it for arrival on the radials 356 to 157. If you were arriving on the 356 Radial of the PIE VORTAC, your course/track (and/or heading in calm winds) would be 176°. If you were arriving on the 157 Radial of the PIE VORTAC, your course/track (and/or heading in calm winds) would be ...


6

Identification serves three purposes, to check that the transmitter is actually on you have tuned the correct frequency, and are picking correct signal the navaid is serviceable modern avionics are actually displaying the ident of the naviad on screens. So if you tune in a VOR or ILS for example, the system actually listens for the morse code and displays ...


6

The first time you pass over the holding fix is the entry. Each additional time you pass over the holding fix completes one turn. The first turn is often not a complete racetrack, e.g. a teardrop or parallel entry, but it still counts as a turn. Most importantly, such a turn qualifies as a hold for maintaining currency or for checkrides (per my DPE). You do ...


5

In the US, there are no regulations prohibiting you from using an iPad for navigation while flying VFR. There are also no regulations specifying what equipment you must use for a practice approach. The key to this is that it is a practice approach. Therefore, it is flown VFR. Even if you were an IFR-rated pilot in an IFR aircraft under the hood/foggles, your ...


5

Yes, there are many civilian or joint-use airports where ASR approaches are available. PAR approaches are less common; some are available at joint-use airports but the majority are at Naval or Marine Corps Air Stations, with the rest at Air Force Bases and Army Airfields. At some airports, the civilian radar approach control can provide an ASR approach while ...


4

Beginning 2NM prior to reaching the final approach fix of an activated approach, the GPS will smoothly taper down the CDI scale from 1-NM full-scale deflection (from the center) to 0.3-NM at full-deflection over that 2-NM flight distance and reach a scale of 0.3-NM as the final approach fix is reached. AIM Page 1-1-25 "When within 2 NM of the Final ...


4

The direction your thoughts have taken is absolutely correct. While we can all understand the simple expedient of aligning the airplane symbol with the horizon, the practice is incorrect when referring to actual pitch attitude. It's possible, but unlikely that an uncomplicated design like a PA-28 have a 0 deg pitch attitude in 'normal' straight and level ...


4

In the Center environment, at a non-towered airport, if you're cleared for a specific approach, that's what is being protected, including circling, and the missed approach. There is no provision for a pilot to change the approach without contacting ATC. Also, controllers do not clear for "circle to land", or any other runway "landing" ...


4

There are 2 methods to use whilst in-flight. Both start with a "max drift" calculation which is pretty easy to do: $$\text{max drift} = {60 \over \text{TAS}} \times \text{wind speed}$$ Therefore, for the most part, in many typical GA aircraft you're looking at about 2/3 the windspeed. I prefer the simpler "clock" method. Now the "...


4

If you ask ATC to do one turn in holding, as you say in your question, to my knowledge there is no specific guidance (in the ATC Order 7110.65 or the AIM, etc.) identifying pilot or controller expectations. So, in the absence of clear and unambiguous information, I would recommend telling them exactly what you want to do (i.e., just the entry or the entry ...


3

The entry of a hold is sufficient for the holding procedures task on the instrument rating practical test in the US and for execution of an instrument approach procedure that begins with a hold, so it follows that it would also be the appropriate standard of completion for currency purposes regarding the required holding procedure. I think the text you ...


3

One other thing I would add to this is you aren't following a CDI which on an LNAV approach provides your lateral guidance from GPS. The CDI scales down for approaches so it's more sensitive. Following the iPad doesn't give you this. So while perfectly legal VFR, I don't really see a lot of training value in this, since it really doesn't simulate doing an ...


3

So that it keeps you under the shelf of the adjoining bravo airspace and because the decent gradient may be steep enough to require an upper limit. As discussed here: The instrument approach procedure Holding Pattern In Lieu Of Procedure Turn (HILPT) is designed to facilitate alignment with the final approach course. The descent gradient from the HILPT ...


3

They didn’t use SOIA / PRM everyday pre covid. In fact, even though it was officially decommissioned recently, it’s been several years (2017 maybe EARLY 2018) since NorCal approach has even staffed the PRM scopes or run SOIA Ops. They would only need to staff it when the weather sucks. When a pilots are able to see each other, they are running sideby visual ...


3

I have some trouble understanding how the procedure designers take into consideration the traffic flow from neighboring arrival procedures We don't. We only concern ourselves with terrain and obstacle clearance. Doc 8168 Vol. II I-2-1-1 refers. Deconfliction is an ATM responsibility, covered in Doc 4444.


3

I generally agree with Dean F's answer regarding the issue of a sharp turn. A turn requiring too much of a heading change might take the aircraft outside of designed protected airspace. However, to be a bit more specific you can refer to the language shown below from FAA Order 8260.3E with respect to your question: An arrival from the north (radial 356, ...


3

[Modifying per Michael Hall's comments] If the question is "do you have to fly the full distance indicated in the hold?", the answer is no. (But if it's just about timing vs. distance then ¯_(ツ)_/¯.) I realize this is old, but since it's currently the top hit on google for the question "do you have to fly the distance shown on a depicted hold&...


3

If you are above all the published altitudes for pre-FAF fixes you can intercept the GS but you must remain above the published minimum altitudes as apposed to remaining on glide slope. Approaches may also have defined intercept altitudes for the glide slope. This article explains why quite nicely; What this means to pilots is that on some approaches, ...


3

Ditch the E6B and get a Jeppessen CR3 circular computer. The wind correction computer on the back uses concentric circular discs only, no slidey bit, so it's easy to manipulate with one hand. You'll have to locate your pencil dot that you use to mark the wind direction and speed on the wind disc in your mind if you're only using one hand, but you can get ...


3

Use the minimum visibility for the next entry in the table above your RVR. In your case, 1/2 mile. This is the safe rule, and in aviation the safest choice is usually the best. It also has the advantage that you can't be accused of breaching the regulations, which might happen if you use any value less than 1/2. The only alternative is to attempt to find an ...


3

Can we reverse the guidance from the transmitter? Can a Localizer Backcourse signal be reversed (at the site antenna)? From a technical standpoint it's entirely possible, but both beams, front and back, are reversed at the same time. Conceptually this is obtained by reversing the order of the individual antennas of the localizer array, the leftmost antenna ...


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