Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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1answer
108 views

When outbound from an IAF on an approach to a procedure turn, may the pilot choose whether to use time or distance?

I was trained that if a fix to be flown over and then outbound for an approach is off-airport, then fly out for 1 minute prior to making a procedure turn. If it is over the airport, then fly outbound ...
6
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1answer
112 views

Why is a right pattern the standard for a hold?

Why are right turns the standard hold turning direction? Why not left? Is there a reason or is it arbitrary?
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24 views

What is considered to be a approved deviation in an ILS beam during a CAT3 approach?

For category 3 approaches, the airport has to transition to LVP mode. In this mode- the holding points are taken back a little bit and the runway surroundings are clear. My question is- Is there a ...
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2answers
117 views

When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
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4answers
4k views

What should a pilot flying IFR in IMC and on final, do if the vacuum system fails?

Talking about small aircraft here, assuming the pilot is stable and ready to land, they’re flying IFR and the visibility is nonexistent, but that’s alright because he’s currently IFR! But then the ...
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0answers
22 views

How does WAAS CDI scaling transition during an LPV approach?

I read in the AIM that WAAS vector modes will provide a linear course width of +/-1NM prior to the FAF and then provide a fixed width of +/-0.3NM to the point where an ILS splay would be 0.3NM and ...
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4answers
254 views

Is Turn and slip indicator a good back-up for the attitude indicator?

I was reading my Aircraft general knowledge book, and noticed something peculiar that was written. The book described that the turn and slip indicator works as a back-up in case of a malfunctioning ...
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1answer
123 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
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2answers
139 views

Is there a manual which describes the algorithmic procedure on which the Vertical Navigation Guidance is based?

I am interested in the methods implemented by Flight Management Systems in order to calculate a trajectory path of vertical navigation guidance (VNAV), which takes into consideration the legs of the ...
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0answers
29 views

Is there a database from which I can retrieve the Expected Crossing Altitudes of a Departure or Arrival Procedure?

I am stuyding FAA's Coded Instrument Flight Procedures (CIFP) file which uses ARINC 424 digital format to code its data. I noticed that only mandatory crossing altitudes and speeds are included in the ...
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1answer
140 views

Which instruments are assigned to Pilot Flying and Pilot Not Flying in the various flight stages?

Is there a document which highlights the responsibilities of the Pilot Flying and the Pilot Not Flying? Specifically, I want to find out what instruments are assigned to whom in all the stages of ...
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2answers
213 views

Procedure turn/hold required on this approach?

I am an instrument student nearing my checkride. I recently flew the VOR-A approach into KLOL as a practice approach, using ROBUD as the IAF. I was wondering if the charted hold at MOBOH is required ...
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2answers
204 views

What is meant by “Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later” in FAR/AIM 5-3-8?

In FAR/AIM, 5-3-8. Holding part, There is a sentence that says (b) Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. I got to know that the word 'over' is for parallel or ...
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0answers
94 views

Why would it be logical to call clearance delivery prior to CTAF during an instrument approach?

I am quoting this directly from the FAA's Instrument Procedures Handbook publication. "The communication strip provided near the top of FAA approach charts gives flight crews the frequencies that ...
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1answer
73 views

Does the term track guidance apply only to conventional procedures?

In ICAO's 8160 "Aircraft Operations" manual there is a term called "track guidance", for which I can not find any clear definition. A few examples: Departure Procedures 3.1 3.1.1 There are ...
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1answer
51 views

How do designers determine the altitude profiles of neighboring procedures for deconfliction purposes?

I am interested in studying ICAO's Continuous Climb Operations design strategy, however I have some trouble understanding how the procedure designers take into consideration the traffic flow from ...
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0answers
80 views

How do procedure designers calculate Minimum Enroute Altitudes?

When the designers of instrument flight procedures design a new procedure, I understand that they use certain manuals, such as ICAO's Doc29 or FAA's TERPS and PBN (8260.58), in order to construct ...
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1answer
125 views

Is there an Instrument Flight Procedures database in digital format such as ARINC 424 for Germany?

I am aware that Eurocontrol has an online repository for charts related to Europe's Instrument Flight Procedures. However, I am trying to find these data coded in a digital format such as ARINC 424 or ...
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1answer
374 views

Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
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0answers
86 views

Is airport's magnetic variation value used for terminal procedure design?

I am studying how instrument flight procedures are coded to ARINC-424 format, and since I was curious about the method used to determine the outbound/inbound magnetic courses, I checked the section ...
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0answers
78 views

What does this line in Minimum Sector Altitude mean?

This is from the AIP Australia ENR 1.5-7 and I need some help interpreting it for my IREX please. In instances where the 25NM MSA has been divided into sectors, and the appropriate 25NM Sector ...
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1answer
487 views

When does the mandatory minimum climb gradient during an Instrument Departure Procedure end?

While studying FAA's Instrument Procedure Handbook, I noticed these minimum performance requirements for obstacle clearance, when a SID or ODP is absent for a particular runway: -- Cross the ...
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1answer
148 views

What should a pilot do upon reaching a Missed Approach Fix when holding instructions are not given?

Typically, Missed Approach Procedures end with a hold at the Missed Approach Fix. This is written in the textual procedures as something like "direct ABC VOR and hold." The graphical section also ...
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1answer
1k views

What is an obstacle identification surface and why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?

What is an obstacle identification surface? Why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?
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1answer
328 views

Where does the factor 1.3 for Vapp come from?

The approach speed Vapp is usually given as 1.3 * Vs0, or 1.3 times the stall speed in landing configuration. Why 1.3? What created a consensus of 1.3 * Vs0 as the generally accepted textbook ...
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2answers
224 views

Is there a way to code Minimum Enroute Altitude using ARINC 424 file format?

I am studying ARINC 424 file format, and I have noticed that there is not any reserved space for coding Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA), as far as Instrument Flight Procedures are concerned. I find ...
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2answers
2k views

Why is autolanding ILS a thing, but not autotakeoffing ITS? [duplicate]

In this answer to the question of why zero-visibility landings are legal and routine but not zero-visibility takeoffs, the poster makes the following point: When an aircraft lands in near zero ...
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3answers
243 views

How to reverse course when there is no published course reversal?

Coming from the SW on the RNAV RWY 15 KONO, how do I align myself with the final approach course? There is only one IAF and no published course reversal. Is it up to me how I get established inbound?...
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1answer
195 views

Does the glide slope flag detect percent of modulation (80%)?

Please advise if the glideslope flag validates that the received frequency is being modulated at nominal 80% or 40% for a localizer.
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53 views

Ambiguous mention of NAVAIDs with duplicate names in FAA's CIFP file (ARINC-424 18 format)

I am studying FAA's Coded Instrument Flight Procedures (CIFP) dataset (link), coded in ARINC-424 18 format, and I noticed that navaids are coded for the purposes of an IFP simulation only by their ...
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0answers
193 views

When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
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3answers
934 views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
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1answer
751 views

What are the specific side step minimums for an approach?

This question piques my curiosity a bit on this subject. In regards to circling approaches the AIM 5-4-19 states that a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument approach procedure which serves ...
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2answers
394 views

What is the most effective way for a VFR pilot to scan the instruments during manoeuvres?

May I ask your opinion on what is the best and most effective pattern for a VFR pilot to scan their instruments during manoeuvres?
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1answer
167 views

How much difference in heading/bearing between consecutive legs is “officially” considered a turn?

While examining FAA's TERPS manual (Order 8260.3D) and PBN manual (Order 8260.58A), I noticed two seemingly contradictory statements. TERPS 8260.3D Chapter 14. Departure Routes, 14-3-4 . Construct ...
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1answer
44 views

What are early/inside and late/outside turns (see, e.g., PBN Manual Order 8260.58A) and when do pilots perform them?

While studying FAA's PBN Manual (Order 8260.58A), I came across the concept of early/inside and late/outside turn construction (Section 5-3. Turning Departures). For each of the possible cases, it ...
3
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4answers
497 views

Do any aircraft have a “self-contained ILS”?

The ILS is an invaluable aid to pilots, especially those operating to/from the many airports where poor weather is common (low-visibility operations would be completely impossible without an ILS); ...
8
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1answer
396 views

Why does obstacle clearance area splay outward instead of being a rectangle?

I am having trouble figuring out the logic behind the way that obstacle clearance areas are constructed. Take, for example, a departure procedure where Initial Climb Area is defined in TERPS (section ...
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2answers
730 views

What does it mean to fly a procedure turn?

So, I'm flying IFR to Newport (KONP) for the ILS RWY 16. There's an aircraft on the approach, so I'm cleared direct BUHRS at 5000' to enter the hold as published. I get to BUHRS, I turn outbound on ...
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0answers
64 views

What indicated altitude should I hold at after missed approach at KTVL airport

Assume I'm planning on conducting the GPS RWY 18 approach at KTVL (Lake Tahoe airport) and the current temperature is -40C. If I execute a missed approach and proceed to the holding fix (HETRY), at ...
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1answer
242 views

Substitute Suitable RNAV system for Inop Radar on approach “requiring” Radar

Assuming my aircraft's navigation equipment is a "Qualified/Suitable RNAV System," as defined by AC 90-108, is it legal for me to fly the LDA Y Rwy 19 IAP to DCA with ATC Radar out of service? Here ...
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5answers
4k views

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally “maneuver at will” in actual IMC?

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC? Let's say you want to practice a series of reversing 360-degree turns and not have to communicate every change in ...
2
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2answers
227 views

PA/APV Glidepath Descent and Obstacle Clearance Slope's lowest point determination

I am studying the US Terminal Instrument Procedures manual (TERPS) and as I was skimming through the guidelines about Sloping Obstacle Clearance Surface, I came across the image below from section 2-1-...
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3answers
1k views

What are the “parts” of a SID procedure?

In the ARINC 424 (downloadable from this link), the following information about SIDs procedures is given in the section 5.7 Route Type (RT TYPE): As you can see, it appears to me that a procedure is ...
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2answers
565 views

Anybody know the reason for the ‘Star Wars’ themed STARs into KATL?

There are new RNAV STARs for arrival into Atlanta Class Bravo for KATL. Does anybody know the reason a Star Wars theme was chosen for waypoint names eg TYFTR, WOKIE, NWHPE, etc?
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1answer
3k views

Is GLS (GBAS landing system) an RNAV approach?

PBN which is contrast to conventional navigation consists of RNAV and RNP. And I know that general RNAV approach of IAP has up to 4 minima such as LPV, LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LP. And I know that GLS ...
5
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3answers
1k views

Does a pilot follow the PAPI lights in the same way in all categories of aircraft?

Since there are different dimensions of aircraft in various approach categories, I wonder what changes pilots in different aircraft have to make when following the PAPI lights. I know that 3° (for ...
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5answers
2k views

What is the maximum rate of descent in an instrument approach?

What is the maximum rate of descent approved in an instrument approach procedure non-precision? Basically what is the maximum rate of descent (Fpm) that I use during the approach?
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2answers
819 views

Categories of aircraft (A,B,C,D): Is it possible for an airplane to move into a different category?

Categories are defined for the Vat (Speed at threshold) which is Vso multiplied by 1.3, or Vsldg multiplied by 1.23 . Since these speeds are related to the weight of the aircraft is it possible for an ...
8
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2answers
3k views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...