Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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Why is flap retraction done in stages?

After takeoff and upon achieving positive climb, why is flap retraction done in stages? For example, in the Airbus there are characteristic speeds after which flaps can be retracted (S and F speeds) ...
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12 votes
4 answers
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Are there any/many US airports (with instrument approaches) still without RNAV approaches?

GPS approaches being so trivially easy to establish and maintain, are there any/many US airports with instrument approaches which do not have at least one RNAV approach?
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11 votes
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When should I slow to approach speed?

When do I have to slow to approach speed in order to qualify for a particular category? Specifically, if I want/need cat A minima, what is the exact point at which I need to be at 90 kt (or less)? I’d ...
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What does "Procedure NA" mean, when applied to a VOR sector?

In the RNAV-A IAP for KGAI there's a note "Procedure NA for arrival on EMI VORTAC airway radials 151 CW 269". It appears that arriving from any airway radial to EMI would have the NoPT (of ...
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Why does the surface-level Class E airspace at SIT/PASI (Sitka Alaska) extend so far to the northwest?

The August 1992 Final Rule "Terminal Airspace Reconfiguration" (page 38963, Federal Register Volume 57 No 167, August 27 1992) (link to pdf of entire issue opening to this page) stated that ...
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4 votes
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What instrument approaches can be flown with just a single VOR receiver?

I've been getting ready to do a series of streaming sessions on Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 that demonstrate the extreme limits of IFR capability. With stuff like the G1000, the Cessna 172 will ...
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2 votes
2 answers
225 views

Is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach?

As written before, is baro-VNAV the only possible source of vertical guidance on LNAV/VNAV approach? I read somewhere that SBAS is also a possible source, but in that case wouldn’t it be a LPV ...
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Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures?

Generally speaking, which assumes a greater (steeper) minimum climb or descent angle – approach procedures or departure procedures? Which would typically require a larger extent of airspace protected ...
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9 votes
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734 views

ILS Approach, when can you descend on the glide path?

The following quote is from G. Bristol’s book, Ace the Technical Piloting Interview: You can descend on the glide path when You have been cleared for the ILS procedure. You have captured the ...
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1 vote
3 answers
293 views

Glideslope reliable height and PAPI usage

First of all, which height can we rely on glideslope indication? From what I know, we can trust and use glideslope to Decision Height, not even below Decision Height. If we use glideslope even passing ...
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Holding entry is counted as a one turn holding?

If I ask ATC 'request direct to ABCDE waypoint and one turn holding', do they expect me to do the teardrop entry or parallel entry if I need to and fly the whole holding pattern after that? Or ...
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Can a Localizer Backcourse signal be reversed (at the site antenna)?

Can the two Localizer Backcourse signals (90Hz and 150 Hz) be reversed (at the site antenna) eliminating reverse needle sensing when flying a Localizer Backcourse approach? If so, are there any ...
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12 votes
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What specific hazard is the practice of identifying an ILS LOC by Morse code trying to prevent?

This question got me wondering about the practice of tuning a navigation frequency, selecting it on the audio panel, and then identifying it by listening to the three letter Morse code signal. I know ...
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5 votes
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If RVR equipment is inoperative what visibility should be used for an approach where the RVR minimum is 1800 ft?

At KSLC (Salt Lake City International Airport) the ILS minimum RVR for runway 34L is 1800 ft. If the RVR equipment is inoperative and RVR is not reported how do you determine the minimum visibility ...
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4 votes
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What is the best way to determine wind correction angle?

As a new instrument student, I would like to know the best and efficient way to determine a rough wind correction angle. Calculating it with help of the e6b or other ways is often good to do before ...
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1 answer
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Are there any U.S. airports that offer GCA (PAR/ASR) approaches?

Are there any U.S. Civilian or Joint-Use (military/civilian) airports that currently offer either/both a PAR (Precision Approach Radar) or an ASR (Airport Surveillance Radar) Ground Controlled ...
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3 votes
2 answers
744 views

As a private, non-instrument rated pilot, can I log an instrument approach with a CFI (not a CFII) on board?

I’m a US based private pilot building time toward the instrument rating. A CFI flies with me as safety pilot for simulated instrument conditions. They are not a CFII yet. If I fly a XC under the hood ...
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2 votes
2 answers
210 views

For KPDX LOC 21 approach, how is the procedure turn performed when entering from the east?

On the Portland, Oregon Loc 21 approach.... Let's say I was east at CARBY (not shown) and traveling on a northwest heading to CREAK (about 280 or so). CREAK is on the approach plate and an IAF/IF. I ...
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3 votes
0 answers
116 views

Why would an airport have a "Z" approach unless there's also a "Y" of the same type?

Napa Airport (KAPC) has an ILS Z 1 approach, but no ILS Y 1. See here. Why isn't this just the ILS 1? The naming rule described in the IPH, referenced here, doesn't explain why this would happen.
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9 votes
2 answers
1k views

What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
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1 vote
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All approaches at airport NA for Alternate planning. Does that mean the same as Airport NA for Alternate if VFR landing is planned?

Jeppesen will use the term "NA" in the "For Filing as Alternate" table if all the available approaches at the given airport are not available. For FAA charts, a pilot will know ...
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3 votes
3 answers
281 views

Is flying direct to a navaid considered a leg with track guidance?

When I design SID or Missed approach procedure with a typical sequence of initial legs like "Climb to 5000 feet on R-123 ABC VOR/DME, turn left/right direct to ABC VOR/DME", the regulation ...
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5 votes
2 answers
113 views

Where a Contact Approach is conducted there must be a published Instrument Approach to that airport. Why is this?

The following is required in order for a pilot to conduct a "Contact Approach:" Pilot must request it from ATC; Reported ground visibility must be at least one mile; The pilot must remain ...
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5 votes
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469 views

How do I fly direct to the VOR on a VOR missed approach?

Below is the Truth or Consequences VOR-A Approach in New Mexico, USA. The Missed Approach procedure for this approach requires that you do a left climbing turn to 8300 feet direct to the VOR. My ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why is there a "-D" circling-only approach at an airport that does not have corresponding -A, -B, and -C approaches?

There are three instrument approaches at SEE (as of 17 June 2021): RNAV (GPS) RWY 09L RNAV (GPS) RWY 17 LOC-D The two RNAV approaches are straight-in to runways 09L and 17, respectively. The LOC-D ...
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0 votes
2 answers
251 views

Is it possible to file for a flight level ABOVE an Airway altitude limitation (for high en route airways)?

I'm just curious if it's ever possible to file for, and/or fly, an altitude that is above an airway restriction. Say if the airway has an altitude restriction of FL410 or less. Is it ever possible to ...
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7 votes
2 answers
462 views

What should the Attitude Indicator be reading when in straight and level flight?

I recently replaced the vacuum instruments in my plane, a Piper PA-28-180, to a GI-275 Primary Flight Display (PFD). This plane is being used for training at my local flight club. Since the new ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How should this ODP be flown at KELP?

The KELP (El Paso) Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) says: Rwy 4, 8R: climbing right turn heading 120° and ELP R-150 to 9000, then proceed on course. Rwy 22, 26L: climbing left turn heading 120° and ...
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3 votes
2 answers
188 views

Why does this holding pattern have both minimum and maximum altitudes published?

Reference the VOR-A Approach to Stellar Airpark (P19), in Chandler, Arizona (shown below): When JAROD INT is used for missed approach holding the published procedure calls for the aircraft to climb to ...
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4 votes
2 answers
782 views

What is the reason for KSFO PRM approaches being decommissioned?

In the latest terminal procedures packet dated April 22nd all San Francisco PRM approaches have been deleted. I haven't seen any notice from the FAA on the decommissioning and am curious what the ...
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1 vote
3 answers
1k views

Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
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5 votes
4 answers
646 views

Can I fly a practice LNAV approach with an iPad?

I'm doing training for an instrument rating, and I'm thinking I'd like to do some solo VFR cross country flying and do some practice instrument approaches. The C152 I'll be flying doesn't have a GPS ...
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8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Instrument Approaches which do not have a FAF

Most instrument approaches denote the Final Approach Fix (FAF) as the start of the final approach segment terminating in either the Missed Approach Point (MAP) for non-precision approaches or a ...
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3 votes
2 answers
234 views

Why is this Instrument Approach NA for certain radials, yet it depicts a feeder route for those radials?

The RNAV (GPS) 28 at Tampa Intl (KTPA) says Procedure NA for arrivals on PIE VORTAC radials 356 CW 157 That seems to mean the approach is not available for anyone generally northeast of the PIE ...
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7 votes
0 answers
213 views

Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
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2 votes
1 answer
506 views

When to use feeder route

The following section is from Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA): If a feeder route to an IAF begins at a fix located along the route of flight prior to reaching the holding fix, and clearance for ...
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2 votes
1 answer
804 views

How does one differentiate a "fly by" from a "fly over" waypoint?

I am referring more to Terminal Area Procedures (SID, STAR, Approach), rather than en route waypoints, airways etc. How do I know if such a waypoint is a "fly over" or not? Especially for ...
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4 votes
1 answer
173 views

How do I find the historical arrival procedure GOLDN6 for SJC that is no longer valid?

I don’t know exactly when this procedure disappeared. It was used in 2013, but not sure how much longer. It was used primarily by SEA to SJC flights.
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-1 votes
1 answer
172 views

Is the procedure turn mandatory at non towered airports? [duplicate]

Here is instrument VOR-A approach at Eagle Lake. If I am coming from the north, it looks to me a big waste to make a procedure turn. On the other hand there is nobody there to approve straight-in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
110 views

During an LPV or GLS final approach, can the extension of the aircraft's cross-section line intersect with the Y or X OCS surfaces?

I am studying Obstacle Clearance Surface construction using FAA's Performance Base Navigation manual 8260.58B as my guide. I am confused about the rules concerning aircraft's permitted altitude in ...
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6 votes
2 answers
3k views

Can I fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) if I can't maintain the minimum speed for it?

I fly a single-engine airplane not capable of more than 120 KIAS. I'd love to fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) into my local airport (US), but want to make sure I fully understand the STAR ...
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1 vote
1 answer
119 views

Why is Transition Altitude fixed but Transition Level is not?

In Jeppesen approach plates we see that the Transition Altitude of the aerodrome is fixed but the Transition Level is not fixed and is given by ATC. What is the reason for this?
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1 vote
1 answer
118 views

How does a VOR or a VORDME affect the coding decision between CF or IF-TF respectively?

I was reading of the following case in ARINC 424-17 spec. Unfortunately the image is copyrighted and I can't paste it here, so here is a low(er) quality image of mine replicating the situation: The ...
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0 votes
1 answer
227 views

Why is mid point RVR given?

I cannot understand why mid point RVR is issued and what's the significance of it
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1 vote
1 answer
459 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
157 views

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? [closed]

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? I tried to look for information about it, but I did not figure out why a pilot would specifically do it three times?
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0 votes
1 answer
253 views

Is this an accurate method to showing how the correct Decision Altitude/Height for an approach has been determined?

Here's my method of summarising how the decision altitude/height for an approach was determined: ...
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2 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does the * (asterisk) next to radio and nav aid frequencies on Jeppesen charts refer to?

For Bournemouth, all radio frequencies and LOC IBMH are marked with an asterisk - * Many other airports also have these markings, such as: Southampton, Alderney, Jersey, Guernsey, Exeter... However, ...
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0 votes
0 answers
42 views

What is the difference between an RNAV and a GPS approach? [duplicate]

How does the FAA decide to name an approach an "RNAV" approach or a "GPS" approach? Is it because for RNAV approaches, there is the option to use something besides GPS like an ...
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  • 4,153
37 votes
2 answers
8k views

What do pilots landing on aircraft carriers do when the ship is not visible due to weather?

Say an aircraft takes off of a carrier to do a mission somewhere, and upon returning to the carrier the pilot comes to find that a thick layer of fog has formed just above the surface of the water in ...
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