Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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0answers
42 views

How do procedure designers calculate Minimum Enroute Altitudes?

When the designers of instrument flight procedures design a new procedure, I understand that they use certain manuals, such as ICAO's Doc29 or FAA's TERPS and PBN (8260.58), in order to construct ...
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22 views

Is there an Instrument Flight Procedures database in digital format such as ARINC 424 for Germany?

I am aware that Eurocontrol has an online repository for charts related to Europe's Instrument Flight Procedures. However, I am trying to find these data coded in a digital format such as ARINC 424 or ...
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1answer
80 views

Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
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47 views

Is airport's magnetic variation value used for terminal procedure design?

I am studying how instrument flight procedures are coded to ARINC-424 format, and since I was curious about the method used to determine the outbound/inbound magnetic courses, I checked the section ...
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34 views

What does this line in Minimum Sector Altitude mean?

This is from the AIP Australia ENR 1.5-7 and I need some help interpreting it for my IREX please. In instances where the 25NM MSA has been divided into sectors, and the appropriate 25NM Sector ...
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71 views

When does the mandatory minimum climb gradient during an Instrument Departure Procedure end?

While studying FAA's Instrument Procedure Handbook, I noticed these minimum performance requirements for obstacle clearance, when a SID or ODP is absent for a particular runway: -- Cross the ...
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1answer
97 views

What should a pilot do upon reaching a Missed Approach Fix when holding instructions are not given?

Typically, Missed Approach Procedures end with a hold at the Missed Approach Fix. This is written in the textual procedures as something like "direct ABC VOR and hold." The graphical section also ...
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1answer
278 views

What is an obstacle identification surface and why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?

What is an obstacle identification surface? Why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?
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1answer
93 views

Where does the factor 1.3 for Vapp come from?

The approach speed Vapp is usually given as 1.3 * Vs0, or 1.3 times the stall speed in landing configuration. Why 1.3? What created a consensus of 1.3 * Vs0 as the generally accepted textbook ...
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2answers
111 views

Is there a way to code Minimum Enroute Altitude using ARINC 424 file format?

I am studying ARINC 424 file format, and I have noticed that there is not any reserved space for coding Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA), as far as Instrument Flight Procedures are concerned. I find ...
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2k views

Why is autolanding ILS a thing, but not autotakeoffing ITS? [duplicate]

In this answer to the question of why zero-visibility landings are legal and routine but not zero-visibility takeoffs, the poster makes the following point: When an aircraft lands in near zero ...
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3answers
139 views

How to reverse course when there is no published course reversal?

Coming from the SW on the RNAV RWY 15 KONO, how do I align myself with the final approach course? There is only one IAF and no published course reversal. Is it up to me how I get established inbound?...
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1answer
128 views

Does the glide slope flag detect percent of modulation (80%)?

Please advise if the glideslope flag validates that the received frequency is being modulated at nominal 80% or 40% for a localizer.
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45 views

Ambiguous mention of NAVAIDs with duplicate names in FAA's CIFP file (ARINC-424 18 format)

I am studying FAA's Coded Instrument Flight Procedures (CIFP) dataset (link), coded in ARINC-424 18 format, and I noticed that navaids are coded for the purposes of an IFP simulation only by their ...
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95 views

When to turn during missed approach when MAP not identifyable

Not a duplicate of When to go missed on a non-precision approach? please read carefully before duplicating this contains some subtle points. Reposting after clarifications that emphasise this is a ...
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3answers
391 views

When do I execute a missed approach on a LOC approach when I can't identify the MAP?

According to AIM 5.4.21(b): When an early missed approach is executed [...] fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the MAP at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning ...
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1answer
283 views

What are the specific side step minimums for an approach?

This question piques my curiosity a bit on this subject. In regards to circling approaches the AIM 5-4-19 states that a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument approach procedure which serves ...
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2answers
212 views

What is the most effective way for a VFR pilot to scan the instruments during manoeuvres?

May I ask your opinion on what is the best and most effective pattern for a VFR pilot to scan their instruments during manoeuvres?
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1answer
125 views

How much difference in heading/bearing between consecutive legs is “officially” considered a turn?

While examining FAA's TERPS manual (Order 8260.3D) and PBN manual (Order 8260.58A), I noticed two seemingly contradictory statements. TERPS 8260.3D Chapter 14. Departure Routes, 14-3-4 . Construct ...
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1answer
38 views

What are early/inside and late/outside turns (see, e.g., PBN Manual Order 8260.58A) and when do pilots perform them?

While studying FAA's PBN Manual (Order 8260.58A), I came across the concept of early/inside and late/outside turn construction (Section 5-3. Turning Departures). For each of the possible cases, it ...
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3answers
278 views

Do any aircraft have a “self-contained ILS”?

The ILS is an invaluable aid to pilots, especially those operating to/from the many airports where poor weather is common (low-visibility operations would be completely impossible without an ILS); ...
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1answer
246 views

Why does obstacle clearance area splay outward instead of being a rectangle?

I am having trouble figuring out the logic behind the way that obstacle clearance areas are constructed. Take, for example, a departure procedure where Initial Climb Area is defined in TERPS (section ...
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2answers
365 views

What does it mean to fly a procedure turn?

So, I'm flying IFR to Newport (KONP) for the ILS RWY 16. There's an aircraft on the approach, so I'm cleared direct BUHRS at 5000' to enter the hold as published. I get to BUHRS, I turn outbound on ...
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63 views

What indicated altitude should I hold at after missed approach at KTVL airport

Assume I'm planning on conducting the GPS RWY 18 approach at KTVL (Lake Tahoe airport) and the current temperature is -40C. If I execute a missed approach and proceed to the holding fix (HETRY), at ...
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1answer
169 views

Substitute Suitable RNAV system for Inop Radar on approach “requiring” Radar

Assuming my aircraft's navigation equipment is a "Qualified/Suitable RNAV System," as defined by AC 90-108, is it legal for me to fly the LDA Y Rwy 19 IAP to DCA with ATC Radar out of service? Here ...
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5answers
4k views

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally “maneuver at will” in actual IMC?

In the US, is there a way for a pilot to legally "maneuver at will" in actual IMC? Let's say you want to practice a series of reversing 360-degree turns and not have to communicate every change in ...
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2answers
119 views

PA/APV Glidepath Descent and Obstacle Clearance Slope's lowest point determination

I am studying the US Terminal Instrument Procedures manual (TERPS) and as I was skimming through the guidelines about Sloping Obstacle Clearance Surface, I came across the image below from section 2-1-...
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3answers
484 views

What are the “parts” of a SID procedure?

In the ARINC 424 (downloadable from this link), the following information about SIDs procedures is given in the section 5.7 Route Type (RT TYPE): As you can see, it appears to me that a procedure is ...
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2answers
355 views

Anybody know the reason for the ‘Star Wars’ themed STARs into KATL?

There are new RNAV STARs for arrival into Atlanta Class Bravo for KATL. Does anybody know the reason a Star Wars theme was chosen for waypoint names eg TYFTR, WOKIE, NWHPE, etc?
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1answer
2k views

Is GLS (GBAS landing system) an RNAV approach?

PBN which is contrast to conventional navigation consists of RNAV and RNP. And I know that general RNAV approach of IAP has up to 4 minima such as LPV, LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LP. And I know that GLS ...
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3answers
947 views

Does a pilot follow the PAPI lights in the same way in all categories of aircraft?

Since there are different dimensions of aircraft in various approach categories, I wonder what changes pilots in different aircraft have to make when following the PAPI lights. I know that 3° (for ...
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4answers
1k views

What is the maximum rate of descent in an instrument approach?

What is the maximum rate of descent approved in an instrument approach procedure non-precision? Basically what is the maximum rate of descent (Fpm) that I use during the approach?
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2answers
401 views

Categories of aircraft (A,B,C,D): Is it possible for an airplane to move into a different category?

Categories are defined for the Vat (Speed at threshold) which is Vso multiplied by 1.3, or Vsldg multiplied by 1.23 . Since these speeds are related to the weight of the aircraft is it possible for an ...
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2answers
1k views

How do I determine which radial intercept angle to use?

I'm studying for the (EASA) Instrument Rating exam and I found several questions about radial intercept angles in sample exams but nothing in the books I've studied and my flight instructor doesn't ...
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0answers
251 views

How do I use the “Inoperative Components or Visual Aids Table” when more than one component is inop?

I can't fully seem to understand this sentence: If more than one component is inoperative, each minimum is raised to the highest minimum required by any single component that is inoperative Can ...
7
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1answer
207 views

Why is there a need for a Top Altitude in FAA's SIDs?

I am examining some of the FAA's SID charts and, as far as I can deduce, each SID provides information concerning the altitude when it is necessary and, if not changed by the controller, each ...
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0answers
34 views

Is FAA's Order 8260.58A complementary to the TERPS manual as far as SID design is concerned?

I am studying FAA's United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) to learn how a SID is designed and what kind of rules and constraints one has to take into consideration. I am ...
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3answers
306 views

Should I inform ATC about minor deviations to maintain VFR while on practice instrument approaches?

When talking to approach control for the purpose of performing practice instrument approaches in VMC with a safety pilot, the pilot (and safety pilot) is required to "maintain VFR." However, the pilot ...
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1answer
110 views

Why do some IAPs lack an Intermediate Fix and/or include other fixes between Final Approach Fix (FAF) and Intermediate Fix (IF)?

I have noticed that some Initial Approach Procedures (IAP) do not mention an Intermediate Fix, but they do include at least one fix before the Final Approach Fix. Take, for example, this IAP of the ...
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2answers
135 views

Must an instrument approach plate be visible during the approach?

Is there any legal requirement to display the approach plate for an IFR approach? Typically it's briefed as part of the descent checks and then kept on display - but I'm struggling to find any legal ...
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1answer
94 views

What is the technical name for the “time boxes” on an instrument approach plate?

Some instrument approach plates include a list of groundspeeds and times from the FAF to the MAP. What is the real name for these time boxes?
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68 views

Why are some US STAR fixes/waypoints included in FAA's legacy files but not in FAA's published STAR procedures?

I have noticed that some US STAR procedures include (slightly) different number of waypoints, depending on which source material is consulted. Take for example the CAMRN4 STAR and its corresponding ...
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2answers
196 views

How to interpret the published altitudes for each of US STAR procedures?

I have been studying the STAR procedures, as published by FAA, and I am trying to understand the way that the altitudes are defined for each fix/route. Take, for example, CAMRN4 of JFK. I see the MEA ...
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2answers
402 views

Does TRACON airspace override Class B airspace in terms of control authority when controlling approach or departure procedures?

This is a simple schematic description of Class Airspace. My understanding is that Class B has strict rules, specific lower and upper altitude limits and requires clearance to enter. However, I have ...
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1answer
241 views

Can I fly a “Contact Approach” to this airport?

In order to request and receive a clearance to conduct a "Contact Approach" the airport, among other requirements, must have a published instrument approach (IAP) and be reporting at least 1 mile ...
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1answer
564 views

Can I use radar service instead of DME or GPS for this ILS approach?

At the top of this approach chart for KDNN in the briefing section, it is stated that "Simultaneous operation of I-DNN and GQO DME required." If my aircraft is not RNAV/GPS or DME equipped can I fly ...
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2answers
368 views

How does an API (air position indicator) work?

I was looking for WW2 aircraft indicators and I found one navigation equipment called API (air position indicator). But I couldn't find how it works exactly????
2
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1answer
383 views

Under FAR Part 121, is it mandatory to execute a missed approach when unable to land within the touchdown zone?

If the crew of an aircraft operating under FAR Part 121 and conducting an instrument approach determines, as they begin their descent from the MDA/DA/DH, that they will be unable to touchdown within ...
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2answers
1k views

What are SIDS and STARs?

I’ve been exploring the FMC(flight management computer) on the PMDG 777 and noticed that under the route section you can insert VIA and TO points. From what I’ve learnt this is where you would insert ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the final approach fix altitude for this localizer approach?

As I'm looking at this approach chart, I see that the glideslope intercept altitude is at 1400 feet MSL. However, for the localizer approach, I believe we stay at 1400 feet MSL until RIZER, which we ...