Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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9
votes
2answers
409 views

What should I do if I intercept the glideslope before reaching the final approach fix?

On several of the ILS and RNAV LPV approaches in my area (and notably the ones I expect for my checkride), I consistently intercept the GS at 0.1-0.2nm before the FAF. An example: I am flying at ...
0
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0answers
34 views

All approaches at airport NA for Alternate planning. Does that mean the same as Airport NA for Alternate if VFR landing is planned?

Jeppesen will use the term "NA" in the "For Filing as Alternate" table if all the available approaches at the given airport are not available. For FAA charts, a pilot will know ...
3
votes
3answers
256 views

Is flying direct to a navaid considered a leg with track guidance?

When I design SID or Missed approach procedure with a typical sequence of initial legs like "Climb to 5000 feet on R-123 ABC VOR/DME, turn left/right direct to ABC VOR/DME", the regulation ...
4
votes
2answers
94 views

Where a Contact Approach is conducted there must be a published Instrument Approach to that airport. Why is this?

The following is required in order for a pilot to conduct a "Contact Approach:" Pilot must request it from ATC; Reported ground visibility must be at least one mile; The pilot must remain ...
5
votes
2answers
389 views

How do I fly direct to the VOR on a VOR missed approach?

Below is the Truth or Consequences VOR-A Approach in New Mexico, USA. The Missed Approach procedure for this approach requires that you do a left climbing turn to 8300 feet direct to the VOR. My ...
5
votes
1answer
122 views

Why is there a "-D" circling-only approach at an airport that does not have corresponding -A, -B, and -C approaches?

There are three instrument approaches at SEE (as of 17 June 2021): RNAV (GPS) RWY 09L RNAV (GPS) RWY 17 LOC-D The two RNAV approaches are straight-in to runways 09L and 17, respectively. The LOC-D ...
0
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2answers
187 views

Is it possible to file for a flight level ABOVE an Airway altitude limitation (for high en route airways)?

I'm just curious if it's ever possible to file for, and/or fly, an altitude that is above an airway restriction. Say if the airway has an altitude restriction of FL410 or less. Is it ever possible to ...
7
votes
2answers
223 views

What should the Attitude Indicator be reading when in straight and level flight?

I recently replaced the vacuum instruments in my plane, a Piper PA-28-180, to a GI-275 Primary Flight Display (PFD). This plane is being used for training at my local flight club. Since the new ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

How should this ODP be flown at KELP?

The KELP (El Paso) Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP) says: Rwy 4, 8R: climbing right turn heading 120° and ELP R-150 to 9000, then proceed on course. Rwy 22, 26L: climbing left turn heading 120° and ...
2
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2answers
119 views

Why does this holding pattern have both minimum and maximum altitudes published?

Reference the VOR-A Approach to Stellar Airpark (P19), in Chandler, Arizona (shown below): When JAROD INT is used for missed approach holding the published procedure calls for the aircraft to climb to ...
3
votes
1answer
253 views

What is the reason for KSFO PRM approaches being decommissioned?

In the latest terminal procedures packet dated April 22nd all San Francisco PRM approaches have been deleted. I haven't seen any notice from the FAA on the decommissioning and am curious what the ...
0
votes
3answers
214 views

Does a hold-entry count as a hold for instrument currency?

So in looking at the instrument currency requirements for the FAA (6 approaches, holds, intercepting & tracking courses), I'm having difficulty nailing down what constitutes a hold. Based on AIM 5-...
5
votes
4answers
380 views

Can I fly a practice LNAV approach with an iPad?

I'm doing training for an instrument rating, and I'm thinking I'd like to do some solo VFR cross country flying and do some practice instrument approaches. The C152 I'll be flying doesn't have a GPS ...
8
votes
1answer
754 views

Instrument Approaches which do not have a FAF

Most instrument approaches denote the Final Approach Fix (FAF) as the start of the final approach segment terminating in either the Missed Approach Point (MAP) for non-precision approaches or a ...
0
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0answers
35 views

When to turn onto the initial heading on ODP [duplicate]

I'm asking about the slight turn off of runway heading on Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODPs) that are sometimes textual or graphical and simply say "Climb heading 305 degrees...," but ...
3
votes
2answers
156 views

Why is this Instrument Approach NA for certain radials, yet it depicts a feeder route for those radials?

The RNAV (GPS) 28 at Tampa Intl (KTPA) says Procedure NA for arrivals on PIE VORTAC radials 356 CW 157 That seems to mean the approach is not available for anyone generally northeast of the PIE ...
6
votes
0answers
102 views

Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

When to use feeder route

The following section is from Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA): If a feeder route to an IAF begins at a fix located along the route of flight prior to reaching the holding fix, and clearance for ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

How does one differentiate a "fly by" from a "fly over" waypoint?

I am referring more to Terminal Area Procedures (SID, STAR, Approach), rather than en route waypoints, airways etc. How do I know if such a waypoint is a "fly over" or not? Especially for ...
4
votes
1answer
148 views

How do I find the historical arrival procedure GOLDN6 for SJC that is no longer valid?

I don’t know exactly when this procedure disappeared. It was used in 2013, but not sure how much longer. It was used primarily by SEA to SJC flights.
-1
votes
1answer
155 views

Is the procedure turn mandatory at non towered airports? [duplicate]

Here is instrument VOR-A approach at Eagle Lake. If I am coming from the north, it looks to me a big waste to make a procedure turn. On the other hand there is nobody there to approve straight-in ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

During an LPV or GLS final approach, can the extension of the aircraft's cross-section line intersect with the Y or X OCS surfaces?

I am studying Obstacle Clearance Surface construction using FAA's Performance Base Navigation manual 8260.58B as my guide. I am confused about the rules concerning aircraft's permitted altitude in ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Can I fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) if I can't maintain the minimum speed for it?

I fly a single-engine airplane not capable of more than 120 KIAS. I'd love to fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) into my local airport (US), but want to make sure I fully understand the STAR ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Why is Transition Altitude fixed but Transition Level is not?

In Jeppesen approach plates we see that the Transition Altitude of the aerodrome is fixed but the Transition Level is not fixed and is given by ATC. What is the reason for this?
1
vote
1answer
83 views

How does a VOR or a VORDME affect the coding decision between CF or IF-TF respectively?

I was reading of the following case in ARINC 424-17 spec. Unfortunately the image is copyrighted and I can't paste it here, so here is a low(er) quality image of mine replicating the situation: The ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Why is mid point RVR given?

I cannot understand why mid point RVR is issued and what's the significance of it
1
vote
1answer
199 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
-3
votes
1answer
140 views

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? [closed]

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? I tried to look for information about it, but I did not figure out why a pilot would specifically do it three times?
0
votes
1answer
168 views

Is this an accurate method to showing how the correct Decision Altitude/Height for an approach has been determined?

Here's my method of summarising how the decision altitude/height for an approach was determined: ...
2
votes
1answer
953 views

What does the * (asterisk) next to radio and nav aid frequencies on Jeppesen charts refer to?

For Bournemouth, all radio frequencies and LOC IBMH are marked with an asterisk - * Many other airports also have these markings, such as: Southampton, Alderney, Jersey, Guernsey, Exeter... However, ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

What is the difference between an RNAV and a GPS approach? [duplicate]

How does the FAA decide to name an approach an "RNAV" approach or a "GPS" approach? Is it because for RNAV approaches, there is the option to use something besides GPS like an ...
37
votes
2answers
7k views

What do pilots landing on aircraft carriers do when the ship is not visible due to weather?

Say an aircraft takes off of a carrier to do a mission somewhere, and upon returning to the carrier the pilot comes to find that a thick layer of fog has formed just above the surface of the water in ...
5
votes
1answer
233 views

What’s the grey altitude depicted in the profile view on Jeppesen charts?

What’s the altitude depicted in grey in the profile view? Why there are some approaches that this isn’t depicted and some are?
4
votes
1answer
472 views

Why are some airports not allowed as IFR alternates, even if conditions there are VFR?

Why are some airports disqualified for use as an alternate (as listed in a approach procedure for that airport (A N/A)), when there is a provision in part 91 that an airport without an instrument ...
0
votes
1answer
123 views

What is implied about altitude and the VDP by this Visual Flight Segment arrow in the profile view example in the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide?

This is out of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide. The arrow for the visual segment is depicted as being level flight. Is that what is intended to be conveyed? If so, how would you know what ...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

What is this small number on the top right of an IAP?

I've looked in the instrument procedures handbook, and I cannot locate a reference for what this 5-digit number on the top right above the approach name is. What is this number, and what does it mean?...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Are DME arcs coded in the CIFP data file?

I use a git project (https://github.com/rstory1/parseCifp) to transfer the FAA CIFP formatted file into a database, but noticed that DME arcs don't seem to be carried over. Looking into the FAACIFP18 ...
1
vote
1answer
268 views

When outbound from an IAF on an approach to a procedure turn, may the pilot choose whether to use time or distance?

I was trained that if a fix to be flown over and then outbound for an approach is off-airport, then fly out for 1 minute prior to making a procedure turn. If it is over the airport, then fly outbound ...
7
votes
1answer
570 views

Why is a right pattern the standard for a hold?

Why are right turns the standard hold turning direction? Why not left? Is there a reason or is it arbitrary?
7
votes
2answers
192 views

When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
9
votes
4answers
5k views

What should a pilot flying IFR in IMC and on final, do if the vacuum system fails?

Talking about small aircraft here, assuming the pilot is stable and ready to land, they’re flying IFR and the visibility is nonexistent, but that’s alright because he’s currently IFR! But then the ...
3
votes
1answer
187 views

How does CDI scaling transition from terminal to approach sensitivity?

I read in the AIM that WAAS vector modes will provide a linear course width of +/-1NM prior to the FAF and then provide a fixed width of +/-0.3NM to the point where an ILS splay would be 0.3NM and ...
4
votes
4answers
615 views

Is Turn and slip indicator a good back-up for the attitude indicator?

I was reading my Aircraft general knowledge book, and noticed something peculiar that was written. The book described that the turn and slip indicator works as a back-up in case of a malfunctioning ...
1
vote
1answer
221 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
0
votes
2answers
157 views

Is there a manual which describes the algorithmic procedure on which the Vertical Navigation Guidance is based?

I am interested in the methods implemented by Flight Management Systems in order to calculate a trajectory path of vertical navigation guidance (VNAV), which takes into consideration the legs of the ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Is there a database from which I can retrieve the Expected Crossing Altitudes of a Departure or Arrival Procedure?

I am stuyding FAA's Coded Instrument Flight Procedures (CIFP) file which uses ARINC 424 digital format to code its data. I noticed that only mandatory crossing altitudes and speeds are included in the ...
3
votes
1answer
317 views

Which instruments are assigned to Pilot Flying and Pilot Not Flying in the various flight stages?

Is there a document which highlights the responsibilities of the Pilot Flying and the Pilot Not Flying? Specifically, I want to find out what instruments are assigned to whom in all the stages of ...
6
votes
2answers
425 views

Procedure turn/hold required on this approach?

I am an instrument student nearing my checkride. I recently flew the VOR-A approach into KLOL as a practice approach, using ROBUD as the IAF. I was wondering if the charted hold at MOBOH is required ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

What is meant by "Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later" in FAR/AIM 5-3-8?

In FAR/AIM, 5-3-8. Holding part, There is a sentence that says (b) Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. I got to know that the word 'over' is for parallel or ...
2
votes
0answers
98 views

Why would it be logical to call clearance delivery prior to CTAF during an instrument approach?

I am quoting this directly from the FAA's Instrument Procedures Handbook publication. "The communication strip provided near the top of FAA approach charts gives flight crews the frequencies that ...