Questions tagged [instrument-procedures]

Procedures for navigating based on cockpit instruments rather than visual references outside the cockpit.

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3
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3answers
161 views

Can I fly a practice LNAV approach with an iPad?

I'm doing training for an instrument rating, and I'm thinking I'd like to do some solo VFR cross country flying and do some practice instrument approaches. The C152 I'll be flying doesn't have a GPS ...
8
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1answer
371 views

Instrument Approaches which do not have a FAF

Most instrument approaches denote the Final Approach Fix (FAF) as the start of the final approach segment terminating in either the Missed Approach Point (MAP) for non-precision approaches or a ...
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0answers
35 views

When to turn onto the initial heading on ODP [duplicate]

I'm asking about the slight turn off of runway heading on Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODPs) that are sometimes textual or graphical and simply say "Climb heading 305 degrees...," but ...
3
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2answers
130 views

Why is this Instrument Approach NA for certain radials, yet it depicts a feeder route for those radials?

The RNAV (GPS) 28 at Tampa Intl (KTPA) says Procedure NA for arrivals on PIE VORTAC radials 356 CW 157 That seems to mean the approach is not available for anyone generally northeast of the PIE ...
6
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0answers
79 views

Why do GPS Copter Approaches require a slower final approach speed than conventional Copter Approaches?

AIM 10-1-2 says helicopter instrument approaches are designed with a maximum speed of 90 KIAS. However, it specifically exempts the final segment on GPS helicopter approaches, saying the maximum speed ...
2
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1answer
80 views

When to use feeder route

The following section is from Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA): If a feeder route to an IAF begins at a fix located along the route of flight prior to reaching the holding fix, and clearance for ...
2
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1answer
79 views

How does one differentiate a “fly by” from a “fly over” waypoint?

I am referring more to Terminal Area Procedures (SID, STAR, Approach), rather than en route waypoints, airways etc. How do I know if such a waypoint is a "fly over" or not? Especially for ...
2
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1answer
98 views

How do I find the historical arrival procedure GOLDN6 for SJC that is no longer valid?

I don’t know exactly when this procedure disappeared. It was used in 2013, but not sure how much longer. It was used primarily by SEA to SJC flights.
-1
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1answer
151 views

Is the procedure turn mandatory at non towered airports? [duplicate]

Here is instrument VOR-A approach at Eagle Lake. If I am coming from the north, it looks to me a big waste to make a procedure turn. On the other hand there is nobody there to approve straight-in ...
1
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1answer
69 views

During an LPV or GLS final approach, can the extension of the aircraft's cross-section line intersect with the Y or X OCS surfaces?

I am studying Obstacle Clearance Surface construction using FAA's Performance Base Navigation manual 8260.58B as my guide. I am confused about the rules concerning aircraft's permitted altitude in ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Can I fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) if I can't maintain the minimum speed for it?

I fly a single-engine airplane not capable of more than 120 KIAS. I'd love to fly a STAR (standard terminal arrival route) into my local airport (US), but want to make sure I fully understand the STAR ...
0
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1answer
62 views

Why is Transition Altitude fixed but Transition Level is not?

In Jeppesen approach plates we see that the Transition Altitude of the aerodrome is fixed but the Transition Level is not fixed and is given by ATC. What is the reason for this?
1
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1answer
68 views

How does a VOR or a VORDME affect the coding decision between CF or IF-TF respectively?

I was reading of the following case in ARINC 424-17 spec. Unfortunately the image is copyrighted and I can't paste it here, so here is a low(er) quality image of mine replicating the situation: The ...
0
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1answer
58 views

Why is mid point RVR given?

I cannot understand why mid point RVR is issued and what's the significance of it
1
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1answer
102 views

Can Instrument Approaches be carried out when RVR is not given for the full runway length? (Approach Ban)

Bristol Airport (EGGD) has the following NOTAM in place: INSTRUMENTED RVR RWY 27 STOPEND OUT OF SERVICE Would aircraft be allowed to continue approaches into Bristol? If so, would the touchdown and ...
-3
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1answer
131 views

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? [closed]

Why do airplanes circle three times in a holding pattern? I tried to look for information about it, but I did not figure out why a pilot would specifically do it three times?
0
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1answer
135 views

Is this an accurate method to showing how the correct Decision Altitude/Height for an approach has been determined?

Here's my method of summarising how the decision altitude/height for an approach was determined: ...
2
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1answer
483 views

What does the * (asterisk) next to radio and nav aid frequencies on Jeppesen charts refer to?

For Bournemouth, all radio frequencies and LOC IBMH are marked with an asterisk - * Many other airports also have these markings, such as: Southampton, Alderney, Jersey, Guernsey, Exeter... However, ...
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0answers
32 views

What is the difference between an RNAV and a GPS approach? [duplicate]

How does the FAA decide to name an approach an "RNAV" approach or a "GPS" approach? Is it because for RNAV approaches, there is the option to use something besides GPS like an ...
37
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2answers
7k views

What do pilots landing on aircraft carriers do when the ship is not visible due to weather?

Say an aircraft takes off of a carrier to do a mission somewhere, and upon returning to the carrier the pilot comes to find that a thick layer of fog has formed just above the surface of the water in ...
5
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1answer
145 views

What’s the grey altitude depicted in the profile view on Jeppesen charts?

What’s the altitude depicted in grey in the profile view? Why there are some approaches that this isn’t depicted and some are?
3
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1answer
289 views

Why are some airports not allowed as IFR alternates, even if conditions there are VFR?

Why are some airports disqualified for use as an alternate (as listed in a approach procedure for that airport (A N/A)), when there is a provision in part 91 that an airport without an instrument ...
0
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1answer
84 views

What is implied about altitude and the VDP by this Visual Flight Segment arrow in the profile view example in the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide?

This is out of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide. The arrow for the visual segment is depicted as being level flight. Is that what is intended to be conveyed? If so, how would you know what ...
15
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1answer
2k views

What is this small number on the top right of an IAP?

I've looked in the instrument procedures handbook, and I cannot locate a reference for what this 5-digit number on the top right above the approach name is. What is this number, and what does it mean?...
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0answers
35 views

Are DME arcs coded in the CIFP data file?

I use a git project (https://github.com/rstory1/parseCifp) to transfer the FAA CIFP formatted file into a database, but noticed that DME arcs don't seem to be carried over. Looking into the FAACIFP18 ...
1
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1answer
198 views

When outbound from an IAF on an approach to a procedure turn, may the pilot choose whether to use time or distance?

I was trained that if a fix to be flown over and then outbound for an approach is off-airport, then fly out for 1 minute prior to making a procedure turn. If it is over the airport, then fly outbound ...
6
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1answer
372 views

Why is a right pattern the standard for a hold?

Why are right turns the standard hold turning direction? Why not left? Is there a reason or is it arbitrary?
7
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2answers
169 views

When to start descent entering a racetrack under NORDO?

Scenario: I am flying in IMC, and communications fail completely. IMC persists up until destination, where I will be conducting the following instrument approach: I am flying direct to ZUNAD from the ...
9
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4answers
5k views

What should a pilot flying IFR in IMC and on final, do if the vacuum system fails?

Talking about small aircraft here, assuming the pilot is stable and ready to land, they’re flying IFR and the visibility is nonexistent, but that’s alright because he’s currently IFR! But then the ...
3
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1answer
97 views

How does CDI scaling transition from terminal to approach sensitivity?

I read in the AIM that WAAS vector modes will provide a linear course width of +/-1NM prior to the FAF and then provide a fixed width of +/-0.3NM to the point where an ILS splay would be 0.3NM and ...
4
votes
4answers
533 views

Is Turn and slip indicator a good back-up for the attitude indicator?

I was reading my Aircraft general knowledge book, and noticed something peculiar that was written. The book described that the turn and slip indicator works as a back-up in case of a malfunctioning ...
1
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1answer
186 views

What are the implications of Visual Descent Angle Not Authorized (VDA NA)?

On some non-precision approach plates, there is a VDA/TCH mark. My understanding of it is information-only. If you pass its starting fix at the charted altitude and maintain the given descent angle, ...
0
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2answers
150 views

Is there a manual which describes the algorithmic procedure on which the Vertical Navigation Guidance is based?

I am interested in the methods implemented by Flight Management Systems in order to calculate a trajectory path of vertical navigation guidance (VNAV), which takes into consideration the legs of the ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Is there a database from which I can retrieve the Expected Crossing Altitudes of a Departure or Arrival Procedure?

I am stuyding FAA's Coded Instrument Flight Procedures (CIFP) file which uses ARINC 424 digital format to code its data. I noticed that only mandatory crossing altitudes and speeds are included in the ...
3
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1answer
250 views

Which instruments are assigned to Pilot Flying and Pilot Not Flying in the various flight stages?

Is there a document which highlights the responsibilities of the Pilot Flying and the Pilot Not Flying? Specifically, I want to find out what instruments are assigned to whom in all the stages of ...
5
votes
2answers
364 views

Procedure turn/hold required on this approach?

I am an instrument student nearing my checkride. I recently flew the VOR-A approach into KLOL as a practice approach, using ROBUD as the IAF. I was wondering if the charted hold at MOBOH is required ...
6
votes
3answers
838 views

What is meant by “Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later” in FAR/AIM 5-3-8?

In FAR/AIM, 5-3-8. Holding part, There is a sentence that says (b) Outbound leg timing begins over/abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. I got to know that the word 'over' is for parallel or ...
2
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0answers
97 views

Why would it be logical to call clearance delivery prior to CTAF during an instrument approach?

I am quoting this directly from the FAA's Instrument Procedures Handbook publication. "The communication strip provided near the top of FAA approach charts gives flight crews the frequencies that ...
0
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1answer
222 views

Does the term track guidance apply only to conventional procedures?

In ICAO's 8160 "Aircraft Operations" manual there is a term called "track guidance", for which I can not find any clear definition. A few examples: Departure Procedures 3.1 3.1.1 There are ...
1
vote
2answers
84 views

How do designers determine the altitude profiles of neighboring procedures for deconfliction purposes?

I am interested in studying ICAO's Continuous Climb Operations design strategy, however I have some trouble understanding how the procedure designers take into consideration the traffic flow from ...
2
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0answers
96 views

How do procedure designers calculate Minimum Enroute Altitudes?

When the designers of instrument flight procedures design a new procedure, I understand that they use certain manuals, such as ICAO's Doc29 or FAA's TERPS and PBN (8260.58), in order to construct ...
1
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1answer
257 views

Is there an Instrument Flight Procedures database in digital format such as ARINC 424 for Germany?

I am aware that Eurocontrol has an online repository for charts related to Europe's Instrument Flight Procedures. However, I am trying to find these data coded in a digital format such as ARINC 424 or ...
3
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1answer
528 views

Are there any IFR training plugins / addons for Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane?

I am an IFR student, looking for software/plugins/add-ons/extensions to either Microsoft Flight Simulator or X-Plane to enhance the IFR training experience. Specifically, I was wondering if there was ...
1
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0answers
108 views

Is airport's magnetic variation value used for terminal procedure design?

I am studying how instrument flight procedures are coded to ARINC-424 format, and since I was curious about the method used to determine the outbound/inbound magnetic courses, I checked the section ...
4
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1answer
842 views

When does the mandatory minimum climb gradient during an Instrument Departure Procedure end?

While studying FAA's Instrument Procedure Handbook, I noticed these minimum performance requirements for obstacle clearance, when a SID or ODP is absent for a particular runway: -- Cross the ...
3
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1answer
254 views

What should a pilot do upon reaching a Missed Approach Fix when holding instructions are not given?

Typically, Missed Approach Procedures end with a hold at the Missed Approach Fix. This is written in the textual procedures as something like "direct ABC VOR and hold." The graphical section also ...
2
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1answer
2k views

What is an obstacle identification surface and why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?

What is an obstacle identification surface? Why would a pilot intentionally penetrate it during an ILS approach?
6
votes
1answer
778 views

Where does the factor 1.3 for Vapp come from?

The approach speed Vapp is usually given as 1.3 * Vs0, or 1.3 times the stall speed in landing configuration. Why 1.3? What created a consensus of 1.3 * Vs0 as the generally accepted textbook ...
2
votes
2answers
309 views

Is there a way to code Minimum Enroute Altitude using ARINC 424 file format?

I am studying ARINC 424 file format, and I have noticed that there is not any reserved space for coding Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA), as far as Instrument Flight Procedures are concerned. I find ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is autolanding ILS a thing, but not autotakeoffing ITS? [duplicate]

In this answer to the question of why zero-visibility landings are legal and routine but not zero-visibility takeoffs, the poster makes the following point: When an aircraft lands in near zero ...