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62

Hard C sounds too much like K. Ch (Charlie) will not be confused with K (Kilo). And soft C sounds too much like S (Sierra).


31

ICAO is a phonetic alphabet, so it's all about sounds. English language doesn't have a distinct sound for singular letter "C". You're proposing "Carl", but it's pronounced kɑɹl̩ - with K. Other option would be "cent", but this one is pronounced sɛnt - with S. "Ch" as in Charlie (ˈtʃɑːli) is the only C that sounds (tʃ) distinctively and can be recognized as "...


30

ICAO Class F airspace is a bit of an odd duck (and the US FAA is apparently not the only agency that thinks so - from a quick check on Wikipedia it seems more jurisdictions ignore class F than implement it. They only mention Class F as being in use in Germany and the UK). From a functional/regulatory standpoint Class F is a sort of hybrid between "Class E" ...


28

You recall correctly. That document is ICAO SARPs Annex 11 § 2.6: Where the ATS airspaces adjoin vertically, i.e. one above the other, flights at a common level would comply with requirements of, and be given services applicable to, the less restrictive class of airspace. In applying these criteria, Class B airspace is therefore considered less ...


24

For the same reason we use niner for nine. The phonetic alphabet took a lot into consideration when they were choosing words including how words are pronounced with different accents. "Charlie" like all the other words was likely chosen due to its unique pronunciation across dialects. It is also a nice short two syllable word.


23

It helps to know the objective of both ICAO and IATA to understand when which code is used. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is a UN-body which focusses on international harmonization of civil aviation regulations. ICAO codes are used for "official" purposes such as Air Traffic Control; E.g. flight plans use ICAO codes for airports and ...


18

ICAO is the International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of United Nations. It was created after the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) of 1944 was ratified in 1947. The purpose of ICAO is according to the convention: "WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to ...


15

Class F airspace is often used in the UK as a kind of "GA airway." It designates preferred paths with a advisory ATC service that GA traffic can use. For example, there is a class F route defined between the north west of England and the Isle of Man. Having a preferred route and an ATC service makes sense for that route as its an expanse of open water. It ...


11

Nice question. There are several ways how to get these information. http://www.fallingrain.com/: free to use, no registration needed. World database of the airports and waypoints. From these information you could easily make DB for waypoints. EUROCONTROL EAD (https://www.ead.eurocontrol.int/eadcms/eadsite/index.php.html): free to use, registration needed. ...


11

Under the rules of ICAO Annex 1, Personnel Licensing, you don't need an ATP License to fly as second in command (SIC) on a commercial aircraft required to be operated with a co-pilot. A commercial pilot license (CPL) is sufficient to be SIC on an aircraft that requires to be operated by more than a single pilot. And since 2006 ICAO have defined a Multi ...


11

I'm a newbie pilot, but I wanted to give the obvious example that crossed my mind when I read your question. In the UK GA world we have to, for example, call up to say we're on final approach. Finals can be a pretty busy time for the pilot, and at any kind of busy GA airport you're likely to have something along the lines of the following discussion: (Note ...


11

Note that the article says that No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot At that point of time there were a number of radio controlled aircraft which could be flown without a pilot on board (for example, the RP series aircraft and OQ-2 Target drone, of which thousands were made). The authors of convention most probably had these in mind when ...


11

Yes they can. There was an attempt to allow one to pass over a country freely with the Freedoms of the Air however this is not a blanket thing and not everyone partakes. ....As of the summer of 2007, 129 countries were parties to this treaty, including such large ones as the United States of America, India, and Australia. However, Brazil, Russia, ...


11

How is airspace in the Persian Gulf determined? The map you see is for Flight Information Regions (FIR's), that's different from sovereign airspaces. Sovereign airspace by international law "corresponds with the maritime definition of territorial waters as being 12 nautical miles out from a nation's coastline. Airspace not within any country's territorial ...


10

ICAO and FAA CAT III definitions A CAT III operation is a precision approach at lower than CAT II minima. Sub-categories are listed below. A category III A approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height or a decision height lower than 100ft (30m) and a runway visual range not less than 700ft (200m). A category III B ...


10

Precision Approaches (PA), as you mention, have specific performance requirements, one of which is how "good" the vertical position measurement must be during an approach. In the case of a PA, ground systems either directly measure the aircraft's vertical position on the glide path (Precision Approach Radar in the case of parallel approaches), or provide a ...


9

ICAO publishes and maintains 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. They pertain to all matters in aviation and provide the framework for national legislation in each of the member countries in the form of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP). In addition to the 19 Annexes, ICAO also produces more detailed guidance in the form of Procedures for Air ...


9

The new Boeing 737 MAX is based on the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, which it will replace. Also note that 737 MAX is still under development and is scheduled to release in 2017. Update: (Source) The first 7 is omitted and the suffix is now an M for Max, e.g. B37M for the Boeing 737 MAX 7. Wikipedia has complete list of ICAO codes here. ICAO ...


9

This may sound obvious, but you should probably ask ATC. In the sentence given it specifies that you should line up behind the Landing B757, not the Going Around B757. This sounds pedantic, but the situation has changed. The chances are the ATC is still expecting you to be the next aircraft on the tarmac, but if you're in any doubt whatsoever, do not put ...


9

The main advantages of text based ATC over voice based communication are Earlier messages can be recalled Messages can be printed Messages can be read by automated systems, allow clearances to be loaded into the FMS No inaudible messages due to radio static noise or simultaneous transmission Time saving and frequency congestion reduction when transmitting ...


9

The downloadable comprehensive PDF (icao.int) only has one listing for the 747-8. Compared to the website search function: My speculation is that the website search accommodates someone searching for "BBJ" in different ways (why, I don't know), or the database needs cleaning up. As you can see, two of the three are the same. And judging by the actual ...


8

I use the National Flight Data Center at http://nfdc.faa.gov I had to write them a letter explaining why I wanted the data (http://fplan.sf.net) and they provided me with a login. Now, every 56 days, they send me an email telling me there's an update available. Bad news: they recently switched from a flat file to some unbelievably convoluted xml format ...


8

As a simple anwer, no, it is not always required. ICAO Annex 6 4.3.4.3 Destination alternate aerodromes For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome shall be selected and specified in the operational and ATS flight plans, unless: a) the duration of the flight and the ...


8

Let me give you a brief description of all the authorities you mentioned (as far as I know them). I hope this will help you and answers your question. ICAO - The International Civil Aviation Organization is was founded to set up international standards in aviation. When international air travel became more and more present (1947) there was a need have ...


8

You're right that two airports can share the same 3-letter code, but they're not necessarily IATA codes (they could actually be FAA identifiers, or just locally assigned codes). In implementing Otto the Autopilot in our chat room, for commands like !!weather JFK, I needed to find a way to reliably convert IATA codes to ICAO codes. I ended up using the same ...


8

In this answer I'll assume you are analysing ADS-B data on 1090 MHz, which is the defacto global standard. I am less familiar with the ADS-B on UAT (987 MHz) which is used in addition to 1090MHz in the USA, but I assume the same logic applies. There are no ICAO addresses assigned to TIS-B targets. If an aircraft has an ICAO-address which is detected by ...


8

ICAO is headquartered in Montreal because that was the result of a vote by the founding members (PICAO is Provisional ICAO): Why was Montreal selected? While insisting on the excellent hospitality offered since of the beginnings of PICAO by the federal, provincial and municipal authorities, the delegates described Montreal like a roundabout of the ...


8

The best I can find is a ATC radar screen used in a dated report (appears to be a report by the Hong Kong Civil Aviation Department in 2000). It shows the FIR regions and waypoints of near Hong Kong, Hainan island and Vietnam: Here is a dated enroute chart of Hong Kong in 1996. I'm not sure if the waypoint names will be useful for your further search: How ...


8

This is a photo from the 1954-1955 Hong Kong Civil Aviation Department Annual Report Maybe too late to post, but I just want to share it on the internet as a record.


8

I don't know the exact ICAO phraseology, but it certainly seems to describe an aircraft that has two engines combined to a single driveshaft. Soloy has trademarked the 'Dual Pac', a pair of turboprops driving a single shaft through a gearbox. All of the Soloy aircraft there use this powerplant. The Fairey Gannet was a (super cool) anti-submarine aircraft ...


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