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62

Hard C sounds too much like K. Ch (Charlie) will not be confused with K (Kilo). And soft C sounds too much like S (Sierra).


45

Preflight Planning Let's say that you're on approach to a remote airport to refuel, with 1-2 hours of fuel remaining in your aircraft. ... The nearest airport is 3-4 hours away... First of all, it looks as if the pilot has already broken several regulations in order to end up in this situation. He either didn't file an alternate, or if he did ...


32

ICAO is a phonetic alphabet, so it's all about sounds. English language doesn't have a distinct sound for singular letter "C". You're proposing "Carl", but it's pronounced kɑɹl̩ - with K. Other option would be "cent", but this one is pronounced sɛnt - with S. "Ch" as in Charlie (ˈtʃɑːli) is the only C that sounds (tʃ) distinctively and can be recognized as "...


30

ICAO Class F airspace is a bit of an odd duck (and the US FAA is apparently not the only agency that thinks so - from a quick check on Wikipedia it seems more jurisdictions ignore class F than implement it. They only mention Class F as being in use in Germany and the UK). From a functional/regulatory standpoint Class F is a sort of hybrid between "Class E" ...


28

It helps to know the objective of both ICAO and IATA to understand when which code is used. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is a UN-body which focusses on international harmonization of civil aviation regulations. ICAO codes are used for "official" purposes such as Air Traffic Control; E.g. flight plans use ICAO codes for airports and ...


28

You recall correctly. That document is ICAO SARPs Annex 11 § 2.6: Where the ATS airspaces adjoin vertically, i.e. one above the other, flights at a common level would comply with requirements of, and be given services applicable to, the less restrictive class of airspace. In applying these criteria, Class B airspace is therefore considered less ...


24

For the same reason we use niner for nine. The phonetic alphabet took a lot into consideration when they were choosing words including how words are pronounced with different accents. "Charlie" like all the other words was likely chosen due to its unique pronunciation across dialects. It is also a nice short two syllable word.


21

ICAO is the International Civil Aviation Organization, a specialized agency of United Nations. It was created after the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) of 1944 was ratified in 1947. The purpose of ICAO is according to the convention: "WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to ...


21

There is plenty of room between the request to land, and declaring an emergency to sort things out. After all, if the runway is closed, the tower isn't too busy. It would probably go something like this: ATIS: Runway 12 is closed. Pilot: Foobar approach, N12345. Tower: N12345 go ahead. Pilot: Foobar approach, we are having some technical difficulties, ...


16

If you already declared an emergency all bets are off, and you must do whatever is required to save the vehicle. There can be no talk about being 'permitted' or even 'cleared' to land if an emergency has been declared. ICAO Annex 2 2.3.1 Responsibility of pilot-in-command The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or ...


16

The allocation of waypoint names is actually handled by each country's individual aviation authority. This means that there are actually duplicates in different countries or regions. The ICAO has made at least two attempts to remove the duplicates and make the names globally unique, one in 2010 and another in 2018. Despite these efforts, there are still over ...


15

Class F airspace is often used in the UK as a kind of "GA airway." It designates preferred paths with a advisory ATC service that GA traffic can use. For example, there is a class F route defined between the north west of England and the Isle of Man. Having a preferred route and an ATC service makes sense for that route as its an expanse of open water. It ...


12

Nice question. There are several ways how to get these information. http://www.fallingrain.com/: free to use, no registration needed. World database of the airports and waypoints. From these information you could easily make DB for waypoints. EUROCONTROL EAD (https://www.ead.eurocontrol.int/eadcms/eadsite/index.php.html): free to use, registration needed. ...


12

How is airspace in the Persian Gulf determined? The map you see is for Flight Information Regions (FIR's), that's different from sovereign airspaces. Sovereign airspace by international law "corresponds with the maritime definition of territorial waters as being 12 nautical miles out from a nation's coastline. Airspace not within any country's territorial ...


12

As already said in HiddenWindshield's answer, the five letter intersection codes do not have to be unique worldwide. I thought it might be interesting to see how many times these codes are actually being re-used. Using my current navigation database (AIRAC 2006), I made a search for how many times each code is used. The following histogram shows how many ...


11

Under the rules of ICAO Annex 1, Personnel Licensing, you don't need an ATP License to fly as second in command (SIC) on a commercial aircraft required to be operated with a co-pilot. A commercial pilot license (CPL) is sufficient to be SIC on an aircraft that requires to be operated by more than a single pilot. And since 2006 ICAO have defined a Multi ...


11

ICAO and FAA CAT III definitions A CAT III operation is a precision approach at lower than CAT II minima. Sub-categories are listed below. A category III A approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height or a decision height lower than 100ft (30m) and a runway visual range not less than 700ft (200m). A category III B ...


11

I'm a newbie pilot, but I wanted to give the obvious example that crossed my mind when I read your question. In the UK GA world we have to, for example, call up to say we're on final approach. Finals can be a pretty busy time for the pilot, and at any kind of busy GA airport you're likely to have something along the lines of the following discussion: (Note ...


11

Note that the article says that No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot At that point of time there were a number of radio controlled aircraft which could be flown without a pilot on board (for example, the RP series aircraft and OQ-2 Target drone, of which thousands were made). The authors of convention most probably had these in mind when ...


11

Yes they can. There was an attempt to allow one to pass over a country freely with the Freedoms of the Air however this is not a blanket thing and not everyone partakes. ....As of the summer of 2007, 129 countries were parties to this treaty, including such large ones as the United States of America, India, and Australia. However, Brazil, Russia, ...


10

Precision Approaches (PA), as you mention, have specific performance requirements, one of which is how "good" the vertical position measurement must be during an approach. In the case of a PA, ground systems either directly measure the aircraft's vertical position on the glide path (Precision Approach Radar in the case of parallel approaches), or provide a ...


10

Section 4.9.1.1 of ICAO PANS-ATM-Doc 4444 Air Traffic Management defines LIGHT, MEDIUM & HEAVY aircraft for the purpose of wake separation: 4.9.1 Wake turbulence categories of aircraft 4.9.1.1 Wake turbulence separation minima shall be based on a grouping of aircraft types into three categories according to the maximum certified take-off mass as follows:...


9

ICAO publishes and maintains 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. They pertain to all matters in aviation and provide the framework for national legislation in each of the member countries in the form of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP). In addition to the 19 Annexes, ICAO also produces more detailed guidance in the form of Procedures for Air ...


9

Let me give you a brief description of all the authorities you mentioned (as far as I know them). I hope this will help you and answers your question. ICAO - The International Civil Aviation Organization is was founded to set up international standards in aviation. When international air travel became more and more present (1947) there was a need have ...


9

The new Boeing 737 MAX is based on the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, which it will replace. Also note that 737 MAX is still under development and is scheduled to release in 2017. Update: (Source) The first 7 is omitted and the suffix is now an M for Max, e.g. B37M for the Boeing 737 MAX 7. Wikipedia has complete list of ICAO codes here. ICAO ...


9

This may sound obvious, but you should probably ask ATC. In the sentence given it specifies that you should line up behind the Landing B757, not the Going Around B757. This sounds pedantic, but the situation has changed. The chances are the ATC is still expecting you to be the next aircraft on the tarmac, but if you're in any doubt whatsoever, do not put ...


9

In this answer I'll assume you are analysing ADS-B data on 1090 MHz, which is the defacto global standard. I am less familiar with the ADS-B on UAT (987 MHz) which is used in addition to 1090MHz in the USA, but I assume the same logic applies. There are no ICAO addresses assigned to TIS-B targets. If an aircraft has an ICAO-address which is detected by ...


9

The main advantages of text based ATC over voice based communication are Earlier messages can be recalled Messages can be printed Messages can be read by automated systems, allow clearances to be loaded into the FMS No inaudible messages due to radio static noise or simultaneous transmission Time saving and frequency congestion reduction when transmitting ...


9

I don't know the exact ICAO phraseology, but it certainly seems to describe an aircraft that has two engines combined to a single driveshaft. Soloy has trademarked the 'Dual Pac', a pair of turboprops driving a single shaft through a gearbox. All of the Soloy aircraft there use this powerplant. The Fairey Gannet was a (super cool) anti-submarine aircraft ...


9

The ICAO classifications have changed: (eurocontrol.int, 2017) ICAO has been reworking the approach classifications since c. 2012, because of the confusion they were causing in the PBN environment. Good news is, LPV SBAS Cat I is now (since at least 2013) a precision approach. Approaches now are two types, A and B. The approach minima are ≥250 feet and &...


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