45 votes
Accepted

What programming languages are used for equipment onboard aircraft?

There are no language recommendations or requirements, other than what is sensible given the verification requirements in the various standards (e.g., DO-178B/C). For the highest design assurance ...
  • 566
37 votes
Accepted

Declaring an emergency: How should you report fuel remaining?

There is no standard because there's no standard emergency. The response to "Say fuel onboard" (or the way the question is phrased) depends on who cares most about the answer. Fuel Remaining (in ...
  • 67.8k
31 votes
Accepted

Why are most helipads in São Paulo blue coated and identified by a "P"?

According to the Rules for Heliports in Sao Paulo, the P means that it is private heliport. H for public Heliports, M is for military. Hospitals use the letter H on a red cross, also when they are ...
  • 76.5k
30 votes

What is the correct phraseology for declaring a fuel emergency?

(This is very closely related to this question, and see this one too.) At least in the US, cutting into fuel reserves isn't an emergency by itself. But assuming that things have gone beyond "minimum ...
  • 70.9k
18 votes

What is the correct phraseology for declaring a fuel emergency?

ICAO According to an IFALPA Briefing Leaflet of 2012 "Amendment 36 to ICAO Annex 6 Part I" The pilot-in-command shall advise ATC of a minimum fuel state by declaring MINIMUM FUEL when, having ...
16 votes
Accepted

Are there any ICAO restrictions on naming a taxiway?

Per the Runway Safety HANDBOOK, First Edition 2014: 2.4 Taxiway Naming Convention A simple and logical method for designating the taxiways should be developed. The following general guidelines should ...
  • 10.9k
15 votes
Accepted

Are "Tally-ho" and "no joy" acceptable ATC terms for civil operations?

As a private pilot, I have heard "Tally-ho" and other pseudo (British?) military phrases used when talking to ATC. I understand "Tally-ho" to be equivalent to "target(s) in sight" or "inbound" or ...
  • 398
14 votes

Are "Tally-ho" and "no joy" acceptable ATC terms for civil operations?

No, they aren't considered acceptable although you do hear them from time to time. Neither term is in the P/CG and the AIM 4-2-1 says: Good phraseology enhances safety and is the mark of a ...
  • 70.9k
12 votes
Accepted

What is the maximum interception angle for ILS when on radar vectoring?

45 degrees. 8.9.3.6 Aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or a series of headings calculated to close with the final approach track. The final vector shall enable the ...
12 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to split a NOTAM in two messages in case it is too long to fit in a single message?

Multi-part NOTAMs seem to be part of ICAO standard, as far as googling reveals. I can’t seem to find a definitive reference though. An example - and from experience a relatively reliable one - for a ...
  • 4,542
11 votes
Accepted

What is the correct use of the verb "to leave," for exiting the runway?

The correct term is to vacate a runway. The term is used several times in the ICAO Manual of Radiotelephony (Doc 9432), including the following example (among many): 4.9 After landing Unless ...
10 votes

Do companies based in non-English-speaking countries require intra-cockpit procedural communication to be performed in English?

This is common in many international airlines. Lufthansa Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) dictates that all flight procedural communication (checklists, standard callouts, etc.) are done in ...
  • 76.5k
9 votes

Can an aerodrome in class G airspace be controlled?

An airport in class G airspace can have an operating control tower. This is a case of a towered airport in uncontrolled airspace. The airspace is uncontrolled but tower communication must be ...
  • 14.5k
9 votes
Accepted

Can European (or more generally, non-US) airspace users airfile IFR flight plans?

Sure you can. This is from ICAO Doc 4444: 4.4.2.2.1 A flight plan to be submitted during flight should normally be transmitted to the ATS unit in charge of the FIR, control area, advisory area or ...
8 votes
Accepted

What is the name for a flight crew that includes extra members for a longer flight?

A crew that consists of the basic required cockpit crew for the aircraft plus relief crew for long flights is called an "augmented flight crew." As far as I know, this designation is used by ICAO, the ...
  • 19.1k
8 votes

What is the minimum radio and navigation equipment for required for VFR and IFR certified aircraft?

In the US, this in in 14 CFR 91.205, Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. There's a lot of detail so you can check ...
  • 70.9k
8 votes

When replying to ATC, callsign first or last?

The standard procedure for a pilot: 1. Who do I want to talk to? 2. Who am I? 3. Where am I? (not necessarily needed after initial contact) 4. What do I want? ...
  • 29.3k
8 votes

Can two opposite localizers to a single runway be on simultaneously?

ICAO Annex 10 Volume 1 has the answer: 3.1.2.7 At those locations where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway, an interlock shall ensure that only the localizer serving ...
7 votes

Which countries allow pilots to fly over the age of 65 for International Part 135 Operations?

Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Senegal, and Ukraine According to a 2006 ICAO report (mentioned also in this presentation) (emphasis mine), Nine ...
7 votes

Are "Tally-ho" and "no joy" acceptable ATC terms for civil operations?

NO. Not an acceptable term. As stated earlier by others - the term has no official recognition and would only serve to confuse. Only a tiny (and rapidly diminishing) number across the globe ...
7 votes

What is the ICAO equivalent of /G in a flight plan?

I have a GNS-530W, which is identical to your unit except with a bigger screen and I file ICAO with a G, B, and S, which are GNSS/GPS, LPV, AND VOR/ILS, respectively, to indicate the equipment I have ...
  • 3,628
7 votes

Why does DME colocated with VOR require more separation?

The change appears to be clarifying that if the 15 NM distance determination is based on ground distance, for example the aircraft has passed a fix which is known to be farther than 15 NM from the VOR,...
  • 11.8k
6 votes
Accepted

Can an aerodrome in class G airspace be controlled?

Well, sort of. In Class G airspace you often find ATZs. This is airspace 2nmi radius to 2,000ft around an aerodrome that is controlled by the aerodrome so take-off and landings. They are often not ...
5 votes
Accepted

Where can the FAA versus ICAO official filed differences be found?

The link you provide is for an amendment of the US AIP, not the entire document. The entire document is available here: (link) You will have to look at section GEN 1.7 (starts at PDF page 57).
5 votes

Which countries allow pilots to fly over the age of 65 for International Part 135 Operations?

Quote from the source: Under international aviation regulations, there must be at least one pilot under 60 in the cockpit at all times, and pilots over 65 cannot hold the captain position. ...

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