44

There are no language recommendations or requirements, other than what is sensible given the verification requirements in the various standards (e.g., DO-178B/C). For the highest design assurance levels, the generated code must be inspected down at the op-code level to ensure no known processor gotchas are invoked. You also end up having to test every part ...


37

There is no standard because there's no standard emergency. The response to "Say fuel onboard" (or the way the question is phrased) depends on who cares most about the answer. Fuel Remaining (in minutes) This is how you report it when you declare a minimum fuel emergency, and it's most useful for approach and tower controllers to know exactly how long they ...


31

According to the Rules for Heliports in Sao Paulo, the P means that it is private heliport. H for public Heliports, M is for military. Hospitals use the letter H on a red cross, also when they are private or military hospitals. Examples are given in the pictures below. It seems that the color blue is not required by the regulations; there are various other ...


30

(This is very closely related to this question, and see this one too.) At least in the US, cutting into fuel reserves isn't an emergency by itself. But assuming that things have gone beyond "minimum fuel" and you clearly need priority for landing then you should indeed declare an emergency. The wording you mentioned seems 'weak' to me; if you do have to ...


29

The following includes the changes you allude to (which were proposed in ICAO State Letter SP 59/4.1-11/8 on June 30, 2011). Commercial Flights Per ICAO Annex 6, Part I, section 4.3.6 "Fuel Requirements," airplanes should calculate their required fuel quantity as follows (summary; see below for actual ICAO text): Taxi fuel Trip fuel (to reach intended ...


25

Indeed USA deviates from ICAO: 5.2.2.4 Zeros are not used to precede single-digit runway markings. An optional configuration of the numeral 1 is available to designate a runway 1 and to prevent confusion with the runway centerline. Source: USA AIP - GEN 1.7 Differences From ICAO SARPs 5.2.2.4 in ICAO SARPs Annex 14 (Aerodromes) is as follows (emphasis mine)...


21

ICAO Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications Vol 2 When replying, you end the message with the call sign. 5.2.1.9.2.2 PANS.— An aircraft station should acknowledge receipt of important air traffic control messages or parts thereof by reading them back and terminating the readback by its radio call sign. Note 1.— Air traffic control ...


18

ICAO According to an IFALPA Briefing Leaflet of 2012 "Amendment 36 to ICAO Annex 6 Part I" The pilot-in-command shall advise ATC of a minimum fuel state by declaring MINIMUM FUEL when, having committed to land at a specific aerodrome, the pilot calculates that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome may result in landing with less ...


17

I'm only able to find the following about bank angles, which specifically refers to turns while in a holding pattern: AIM 5-3-86.(b): (b) Make all turns during entry and while holding at: (1) 3 degrees per second; or (2) 30 degree bank angle; or (3) 25 degree bank provided a flight director system is used. NOTE- Use whichever ...


15

As far as I know, there is no directive on which language to use. You have guidelines on how to test and certify software, but as far as these guidelines are concerned, no language is preferred, it is a design choice. As of today, in my (limited) experience as an engineer/programmer, I have mostly seen that non object oriented languages are preferred, since ...


14

As a private pilot, I have heard "Tally-ho" and other pseudo (British?) military phrases used when talking to ATC. I understand "Tally-ho" to be equivalent to "target(s) in sight" or "inbound" or even in some cases "affirmative", and that's the problem. It is important to be clear and precise when communicating on the radio, however, the folks working at ...


13

My understanding is that most FAA licenses would also qualify as "ICAO Licenses" (certainly the ATP seems to as we have a bunch of US/FAA certificated ATPs acting as international captains for US airlines flying to/from ICAO member states). From a quick read I think anything from Private up meets the ICAO Annex 1 (personnel licensing) requirements. (It ...


13

No, they aren't considered acceptable although you do hear them from time to time. Neither term is in the P/CG and the AIM 4-2-1 says: Good phraseology enhances safety and is the mark of a professional pilot. Jargon, chatter, and “CB” slang have no place in ATC communications. The Pilot/Controller Glossary is the same glossary used in FAA Order JO ...


13

The tricky part is that a de facto rule is unlike a de jure rule, it's hard to pinpoint its origin as it is not based in law. The more I dig, the more it seems it is indeed a de facto rule that found its way to Annex 11. It would take a team of aviation historians hunting through countless meeting points to get to the bottom of it. However, I gathered some ...


12

45 degrees. 8.9.3.6 Aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or a series of headings calculated to close with the final approach track. The final vector shall enable the aircraft to be established in level flight on the final approach track prior to intercepting the specified or nominal glide path if an MLS, ILS or radar approach is to ...


12

Multi-part NOTAMs seem to be part of ICAO standard, as far as googling reveals. I can’t seem to find a definitive reference though. An example - and from experience a relatively reliable one - for a multi-part NOTAM is the infamous Sydney crane list, at time of writing in NOTAM H6002/18, which at the moment comes in three parts and has the part listing in ...


12

Per the Runway Safety HANDBOOK, First Edition 2014: 2.4 Taxiway Naming Convention A simple and logical method for designating the taxiways should be developed. The following general guidelines should be followed: Naming of the taxiways begins on one side of the aerodrome and carries on to the other extremity (e.g. from east to west or from north to south); ...


11

The correct term is to vacate a runway. The term is used several times in the ICAO Manual of Radiotelephony (Doc 9432), including the following example (among many): 4.9 After landing Unless absolutely necessary, controllers should not give taxi instructions to pilots until the landing roll is completed. Unless otherwise advised, pilots should remain on ...


10

This is common in many international airlines. Lufthansa Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) dictates that all flight procedural communication (checklists, standard callouts, etc.) are done in English. The only "German" I've seen on Lufthansa's checklists is "handy .... off" in the pre-startup checklist (German English for "mobile phone .... off").


9

ICAO publishes and maintains 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. They pertain to all matters in aviation and provide the framework for national legislation in each of the member countries in the form of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP). In addition to the 19 Annexes, ICAO also produces more detailed guidance in the form of Procedures for Air ...


9

An airport in class G airspace can have an operating control tower. This is a case of a towered airport in uncontrolled airspace. The airspace is uncontrolled but tower communication must be established within a certain distance and for use of the airports runways. There are applicable regulations that address this situation. 14 CFR §91.126 (d) requires ...


9

Sure you can. This is from ICAO Doc 4444: 4.4.2.2.1 A flight plan to be submitted during flight should normally be transmitted to the ATS unit in charge of the FIR, control area, advisory area or advisory route in or on which the aircraft is flying, or in or through which the aircraft wishes to fly or to the aeronautical telecommunication station serving ...


8

A crew that consists of the basic required cockpit crew for the aircraft plus relief crew for long flights is called an "augmented flight crew." As far as I know, this designation is used by ICAO, the FAA, and the EASA (and likely others.) This ICAO document defines augmented flight crew as: Augmented flight crew. A flight crew that comprises more than ...


8

The "DESCEND VIA" clearance is described in FAA order 7110.65U (pdf) Section 4-5-7 paragraph h, which defines: h. Instructions to vertically navigate on a STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP with published >restrictions. PHRASEOLOGY- DESCEND VIA (STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number) TERMINAL: DESCEND VIA (STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP name and number and runway number). ...


8

The standard procedure for a pilot: 1. Who do I want to talk to? 2. Who am I? 3. Where am I? (not necessarily needed after initial contact) 4. What do I want? After initial contact, some of the requirements may be ignored when back and forth communication is happening, without other airplanes talking to that ATC. For read back, it is needed that the ...


8

ICAO Annex 10 Volume 1 has the answer: 3.1.2.7 At those locations where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway, an interlock shall ensure that only the localizer serving the approach direction in use shall radiate, except where the localizer in operational use is Facility Performance Category I — ILS and no operationally ...


7

Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Senegal, and Ukraine According to a 2006 ICAO report (mentioned also in this presentation) (emphasis mine), Nine States (Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Senegal, and Ukraine) have no upper age limit, whereas fifty-five have an ...


7

In the US, this in in 14 CFR 91.205, Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. There's a lot of detail so you can check the whole thing, but looking only at communication and navigation items, the required equipment is: VFR (including night VFR) Magentic direction indicator ...


7

NO. Not an acceptable term. As stated earlier by others - the term has no official recognition and would only serve to confuse. Only a tiny (and rapidly diminishing) number across the globe appreciate its original 1930's context. Some commonsense and logical analysis: "Land Ho" means "land in sight!" "Tally" is another word for a score - or for a count of ...


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