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101

Historically, Gatwick had only one runway (08R/26L) with a taxiway to the north, but this obviously would cause problems if that runway was out of use for any reason - emergency, scheduled maintenance, etc. In 1979, the taxiway was upgraded so that it could be used as a runway when the main runway was out of use. Since this used existing infrastructure, the ...


87

V1. There are other valid reasons, as have been listed - cost, bidirectional runway use, etc. These would still not completely disqualify ramps, just limit them to very special circumstances. But the one disqualifying factor is that a ski jump takeoff removes the necessary element of safety airliners depend on during takeoff. Up to a certain airspeed, ...


86

(wikimedia.org) High pressure water removal. Runway rubber removal [requires] high pressure water, abrasives, chemicals and/or other mechanical means. ICAO Annex 14 notes: The surface of a paved runway shall be maintained in a condition so as to provide good friction characteristics and low rolling resistance. Snow, slush, ice, standing water, mud, ...


69

The typical World War II "A" runway shape solves this issue, without covering a huge amount of area with concrete, etc. Even so, that configuration has fallen out of use in modern airports. Ultimately, this is a solution to a problem that doesn't really exist and a problem which has a more efficient solution that was already widely used. With respect to ...


66

There are a few possible reasons Bournemouth (EGHH) can support a Boeing 787 but Kherson (UKOH) can't. Runway length is definitely not the issue. The runway at EGHH is 2271 metres long, the one at UKOH is 2500 metres long. The runway at UKOH is slightly narrower, though: 42 metres compared to 46 metres at EGHH. Whether this has operational significance, I ...


60

There are perhaps 101 non aviation-related reasons why the UK does not have larger airports, such as space consideration (we're only a small island!), politics (NIMBY!), civil engineering (Airports are commonly near urban centres and are often surrounded). However, the most aviation-related related reason I can think is that we just simply rarely need cross ...


59

Runways are usually numbered according to their direction, more precisely called runway magnetic bearing or QFU (see Q codes). Consider a plane flying toward the runway on final approach in a day without any wind. Divide its magnetic heading by 10, round it to the nearest whole number and you'll usually get the runway number. For example, if the magnetic ...


59

Here's how the PAPI lights work: Depending on the angle of the viewer, a different color is seen: Then each light is calibrated to an angle: The good thing about this is that it's dead simple technology where very few things can go wrong: The lights have to be on and calibrated for the correct angle. The downside is that its usefulness decreases with ...


59

Anyone who has ever flown at Zar (EPZR) in Poland knows how much a runway slope can reduce the needed field length. For aircraft which need a 2 miles long level runway, a 1 mile long one with a 15% slope at its end will do just fine. Make the slope shallow at the bottom and increase it the further up the runway goes, just like the hillside runway at Zar. If ...


59

An interesting feature of your question is the apparent double-exposure of runway number in your image. And I suspect it will also account for/explain why you see a kink in an image. Occasionally, runways change number. The reason for this is basically that runways only have 36 possible designations (1-36) however a runway designated 18 may be orientated ...


50

Because then you can only land in one direction. What do you do if the wind blows exactly along the runway so that departing and landing planes have only tailwind then? You would waste a precious runway by having such a big obstacle on it. Moreover, an upward ramp might not be what is needed. Look for example at Lukla (or, as ManuH mentions in the ...


47

Not only is it possible but it happens. This is formally called a "runway incursion" and it does happen like 2005 Logan Airport runway incursion or the B733 / vehicle, Amsterdam Netherlands, 2010. Skybrary has a full list you can find here which is quite lengthy and includes a full section for Vehicle Incursion.


45

They use a lens system that projects the light in a narrow beam so each plane sees something different and makes the glide slope indicators a passive system. you can see this nicely on a foggy morning:


45

(Source: wikimedia.org) Guiding is called progressive taxi and can be requested. A follow-me car can also be used to guide the plane. In some airports the follow-me car is mandatory, along with its fees. In most cases the pilots use charts. Either paper or electronic. Some electronic charts offer a moving map feature, whereby the crew can see their ...


44

The issue has always been human perception. Pilots are tasked with trying to make great landings. One way they do that is with peripheral vision. If the runway is too wide, they lose that extra clue on when to roundout and flare. They may flare too early and stall the aircraft too high above the runway. This perceptual clue is more important for ...


43

Military transports are designed to be operated from unpaved runways- by extension, any of these converted to civilian use can operate from unpaved runways. For example, the Antonov Airlines operates a number of Antonov An-124 'Ruslan', which can and do operate from unpaved runways regularly. The Volga-Dnepr group specifically states: Multi-leg landing ...


43

For runways with other than hard surfaces it is common to list the runways with a letter G for grass or in the case of a seaplane base, with W for water. An example of this is runway 8G at Boulder (KBDU) and runway 35W at David Wayne Hooks (KDWH). You can see this information in the Chart Supplement pages and diagrams for each airport.


43

No They do not continue this practice anymore. This is likely because landing gear are more reliable now than they were in the 70's. There is also the practice of Air Traffic Control prompting military pilots to check their gear is down, by verbally adding "Check Gear Down" to their landing clearance. Source: Checked in with some of the Air Force / Air ...


42

The H-4 Hercules (Spruce Goose) should easily win this contest. That plane was ridiculously huge and, in fact, couldn't use a runway, rather it was a "flying boat" that took off from the the water. So I'd say it's the one... Granted, if you mean a grass or gravel strip aeroalias is probably correct. The only other major planes that I know were designed ...


42

In some cases the prevailing winds change and certain runways fall out of use. Since airports tend to be land limited they may wish to use the land for hangars or other facilities so the runways are eventually decommissioned. In other cases it could a noise abatement issue, many airports predate the property development that often surrounds them. It may be ...


38

Let us consider the operations other than takeoff on runway 18. Takeoff Runway 36 There are buildings not far off the departure end and directly after the end of the runway is a movement area and ramp. To safely takeoff they would have to clear that area and probably replace all the concrete with crushable concrete (more on this later). The buildings ...


37

Because most runways already are as narrow as safely feasible. Let us look at your question piece by piece: Save money by making the rest of the runway narrower You seem to be assuming we are currently deliberately wasting asphalt on making runways wider than needed, and could build them narrower. As they say on Wikipedia: [citation needed]. Larger ...


37

The two original short runways (shown above) were actually abandoned c. 1955 in favor of a brand new longer runway built into the bay (completed 1958) to accommodate the new jetliner (the 13/31 you know). The year also saw the start of work on a $110,000,000 project to revolutionize Kai Tak Airport by the construction of a 7,200-ft runway on an artificial ...


37

It exists for some aircraft carriers and it's called a ski-jump. It wouldn't work well for land runways because they're typically used from either end depending on the wind. Moreover, land planes don't use the whole runway, failures notwithstanding, they takeoff before the end and by regulations must clear a certain height before the end (depends on the ...


36

It is an aircraft fire simulator. They use it for training emergency response personnel and vehicles. You can see them training on one in this YouTube video Source: Leipzig Halle Airport


35

Frankfurt Airport; a mosaic of concrete and asphalt The runways at Frankfurt Airport are asphalt (old satellite imagery shows that they were concrete before), and the airport handles plenty of Superjumbos, the Airbus A380, so it's not a matter of handling heavy planes. All runways in big airports, even those covered in asphalt, have reinforced concrete ...


35

During daytime and good visibility, it should be pretty obvious that runway markings are white and taxiway markings are yellow. Runways have the runway designator in big white numbers at the end and a dashed centerline, while taxiways have a narrow continuous yellow centerline. During nighttime, you will notice that runway lights are white or yellowish ...


34

I do not know the exact numbers for oleo stroke and so on, but this is how you would calculate this. A 747-400 weighs 400 tons on take-off and 296 tons on landing, maximum. See here for the source of those figures. Next is the landing speed, this is approx. 160 knots = 82 m/s. Now let's assume the pilot has misjudged the height and does not flare, but slams ...


34

No one can "book" runways. Traffic on a runway is managed by air traffic control, whose job it is to ensure a safe and expeditious flow of air traffic. Generally speaking, a place on the runway is assigned on a first-come first-served basis. You may want to explore the air traffic control tag to learn more.


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