57

Is it practically possible to do that? Is it okay in terms of weight, CG? Bikes (depending on make and model) are not all that heavy and in this picture they are more or less center mass and would most likely fall in the CG range. aerodynamics Again this depends on the bikes and the placement but with proper care you could be ok. Admittedly a bit ...


45

To answer the questions as asked, We won't depart over the maximum takeoff weight. We'll do something to bring the takeoff weight down to not exceed the limit. Generally, people fly as scheduled if at all possible, and as much as possible their bags go on the same plane that they do, and other cargo is a lower priority. There are exceptions; passengers ...


44

Short answer Determination of mass and balance (or weight and balance) is a critical task for the crew, an error in this operation may have tragic consequences. Weighing passengers and carry-on items is mandatory per regulation. Either standard predetermined weights, or actual weights can be used in this operation. Airlines usually use predetermined ...


44

From my research, it looks like about 0.1% of all aircraft carry depleted uranium counterweights. The Systematic Radiological Assessment of Exemptions for Source and Byproduct Materials (NUREG-1717), on page 3–260, gives a table showing that 430 domestic United States aircraft were delivered with depleted uranium counterweights, and says that "A reasonable ...


35

Yes. If carriage of said person on a particular flight would cause the aircraft to be overloaded or outside of its CG envelope, the airline has full right to refuse them passage for safety reasons. It would be illegal under Part 121 and Part 135 to do otherwise. Practically speaking though, most large commercial aircraft have such great payloads that this ...


34

By regulation, a "weight & balance" must be computed before departure to ensure that the weight is within the weight limits for a number of different conditions and that the weight is distributed such that the c.g. (center of gravity) of the airplane is also within the longitudinal c.g. limits for those conditions. That c.g. is typically computed ...


34

Just eyeballing your image, the CG looks OK, and it's possible to put that much weight into the interior of the plane just fine, so the weight is OK. The aerodynamics on the other hand - yeah, no. Imagine the bikes are not strapped down and you have to hold them in place - in a 120 MPH wind. That's a LOT of drag and the turbulence from it could easily ...


32

On the EMB-145 the passenger cabin was split into 5 zones and we were given passenger totals in each zone from the flight attendant prior to leaving the gate. If balance is off (this happened quite rarely for us) you would tell the flight attendant "I need 2 passengers from zone 5 moved to zone 1" or "I need a passenger from zone 3 moved to zone 2" or some ...


29

Yes, such system exists, for example the Honeywell WBS.* It was developed during the sixties and installed as an option on the Boeing 707-300 freight aircraft. Other aircraft that had a similar (optional) system include the L1011 and Boeing 747. It is mostly found on freight aircraft because they have a less predictable load distribution (centre of ...


29

I used to teach sport parachuting, and we occasionally pranked the pilots by shifting the weight around. A Cessna 206 set up for parachuting will have all but the pilot's seat removed, the jumpers sit on the floor. Everyone moves forward for takeoff and then sits back for the ride up. The instructor (me) sits on the floor where the co-pilot would normally ...


27

Because when taking off you go from 0 vertical speed to a positive rate of climb all by way of the wings (the force on the gear will decrease over time to 0 when airborne). But while landing you will go from negative rate of climb to 0 vertical speed. Most of that will be absorbed by the gear (the force on the gear will spike and then settle to only the ...


27

At the instant of touchdown, any vertical kinetic energy the plane possesses must be absorbed by the landing gear, which thereafter must bear the entire weight of the plane. That kinetic energy depends on the sink rate and the plane's weight. The sink rate ideally will be zero at wheels down in a perfect world, but the gear is designed to accomodate a ...


24

The crew gave you the correct reason, but it would had taken a co-ordinated effort from the majority of the passengers to upset the aircraft's balance. But in smaller aircraft even a single person moving around can shift the center of gravity outside its safe limits. The de Havilland company once produced such an aircraft, the DH86 Express. Wikipedia ...


23

The value will obviously vary for different aircraft models (and also with the loading, c.g. location etc), but the usual range can be found in the airport planning document for the particular airliner, where the values for ground clearance for the aircraft at the OEW (max. value) and MTW (min. value) would be given. The difference should give you the ...


22

The different terms represent different weights or masses1. For each flight, the weights are taken into account for several reasons. A brief description about these is below: Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) Also called Manufacturer's Weight Empty (MWE) or Licensed Empty Weight It is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the ...


22

The situation you described actually happened recently in flights to India from the Middle East. Many bags were simply left behind and carriers were making arrangements to transport them at the earliest. Reasons ranged from avoiding overweight and also the inability to reduce fuel being carried due to monsoons (implying more hover times) in Southern India. ...


22

Can you take off over gross weight? Yes, it's possible on any airplane, dependent on how far over the weight limit you are, the density altitude, how much runway you have, what obstacles are in the area and other factors. It's very easy to go above gross in a Cessna 152 with full fuel and 2 passengers, and probably happens more often than people realize or ...


21

While I do not have a specific source to cite, which is always important to reference in regard to any aircraft work, I'm basing this answer on my training as an FAA certified aircraft mechanic. (There are many more experienced mechanics than myself out there, but alas, none who have done this particular process have arrived yet.) In general, if you have ...


21

In steady flight, the lift $L$ generated by the wings equals the loaded weight so that there is no vertical acceleration. Thus, the lift just before the bomb is dropped is $$ L = m_1g = 245\,250 \;\textrm{N} $$ where $m_1=25\,000$ kg is the loaded mass and $g=9.81$ m/s$^2$ is the acceleration due to gravity. In the time interval just after the $10\,000$ ...


20

It is possible to arrive at the runway with too much weight to takeoff, but this result is generally a mismanagement of fuel. The most likely scenario this happens is when you are going to be at MGTOW for takeoff but need fuel to get to the runway (putting you over MGTOW at the gate) and are anticipating a long taxi or long lines at a de-ice pad. If the ...


20

The A7E Corsair had an empty weight of around 19,000 pounds. Its fuel load was 10,500 pounds, and with six armed 2,000 pound MK84 general purpose bombs hung under the wing it had a total weight of around 42,000 pounds. This was maximum takeoff weight, and coming off the cat shot the aircraft response felt lazy and sloppy as you did your clearing turn. By ...


19

Theoretically? Yes. Practically? No. Passengers moving around in an aircraft will have some effect on the balance (center of gravity) of that aircraft, but the proportion of weight for a few flight attendants or passengers moving around on a modern airliner is likely so small as to be negligible. It's not enough of a change to exceed the control authority ...


18

Under some conditions, FAR §91.323 allows for a 15% increase (up to 12,500 lbs) in max gross weight in Alaska: (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the Federal Aviation Regulations, the Administrator will approve, as provided in this section, an increase in the maximum certificated weight of an airplane type certificated under Aeronautics Bulletin ...


18

Because it says "drag", my guess is that implies an external antenna. For example (which I found using a Google search), Commercial and Large VIP Aircraft Broadband Internet Solutions HR6400 Antenna System The HR6400 antenna system for commercial and large VIP aircraft provides passengers and crew true wireless broadband Internet access. No ...


17

An airline crew has two primary goals: safety and legality. Even for large airplanes, one person's change of position can put the takeoff CG outside legal limits and/or safe limits. Either situation is unacceptable. In order to calculate the CG, the passengers have to stay in a particular spot so the cabin crew can report the passengers' locations to the ...


17

They probably had a fuel imbalance that was marginally outside the limit for takeoff, and perhaps the powered fuel transfer system was unserviceable and was deferred. Typically there is a gravity transfer capability by just opening a transfer valve and letting fuel run across on its own with the imbalance present, or by skidding slightly. If they were say ...


17

Maximum landing weight (MLW) limit exists primarily to cater for approach climb performance requirements (i.e. go-around requirement). As per 14CFR 25.1001: if the aircraft does not have a fuel dumping system, it must meet the all-engine-operating and one-engine-inoperative climb in the approach climb configuration at maximum takeoff weight. Otherwise, ...


16

The empty weight of airplanes can only be given to single-pound precision for one specific airplane. Minute differences in metal sheet thickness, equipment and paint will make sure that there is a difference of many pounds between airplanes of the same type and furnishing. Add to this the difference in seating, galleys and instrumentation between airplanes ...


16

747s in everyday operation typically use fuel for ballast when needed. Ballast fuel is considered to be part of the zero fuel weight and you are not allowed to burn it, although obviously if you were about to run out of fuel, it's available. Ballast fuel is carried in either the center tank or distributed evenly in the four main wing tanks. Individual ...


16

Airlines have rejected passengers for their size, perhaps more than their weight, specifically for being unable to fit into a passenger seat. There appears to be some debate as to whether this practice is legal. "Customer of Size" is a politically correct industry term. For example, the written policy at United Airlines requires a passenger to purchase an ...


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