Questions tagged [weight-and-balance]

Weight-and-balance is determining that an aircraft is loaded within the limits of it's weight carrying capability and that the center of gravity is within the operational envelopes of the aircraft.

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4answers
167 views

Can i create a home built aircraft with this engine?

http://www.chiefaircraft.com/da-100.html Would this engine work for a homebuilt ultralight aircraft? I am still in the research phase, so i don't know what the weight of the aircraft will be, but I ...
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Why would a plane perform 360° turns to balance fuel on the ground?

Why would a plane need to do a couple of 360’ turns on the taxi way/run-up area. The crew were given clearance to taxi and hold. They told the tower they needed to turn the plane 360’ and were cleared....
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1answer
122 views

When does a Maximum Taxi Weight Restriction happen on a 737-800?

This is the first time I experienced restriction in taxi weight on B737-800. Have you experienced that before? All I know that restrictions will be from MZFW/MTOW/MLW. When does it happen?
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1answer
146 views

Do airline dispatchers pre-block seats for weight and balance on large wide body aircraft?

I was reading a Oman Air flight review and one of the bits intrigued me: I had earlier used ExpertFlyer to monitor both how busy the flight would be and the seat map. I selected a window seat ...
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255 views

Is moving payload masses during flight to restore mass centering, or to avoid having to trim, a useful approach?

Note: Title was previously "Movable big missiles/bombs/tanks under fighter jets: conceivable?" Example: lateral weight distribution in fighters Fighter-bombers jets are small and lightweight in ...
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Is there a method for calculating change in V-speeds with a change in weight for a Cessna 172?

For example, what would the rotation speed (Vr) and stall speed (Vs) be at maximum takeoff weight versus flying with a single occupant? (2297 lb vs 1807 lb)
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How is a misdeclared weight of a mail bag handled? [closed]

What is the proper process when a postal administration tenders a mail bag with under declared weight? Is the bag returned to the postal administration or is the bag weight altered to match the ...
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1answer
84 views

What is aerodynamic imbalance?

What is aerodynamic imbalance on a propeller? The most amount of hint I got was the shape of the airfoil. All I know is that it is the different thrust each prop blade produces due to different angles ...
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1answer
177 views

What are the financial implications for Lufthansa (and other airlines) of keeping the back row of their A320neo free of passengers?

After the recent EASA airworthiness directive concerning the potential for weight and balance problems with the A320neo, Lufthansa announced it would no longer sell seats on the back row of those ...
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1answer
254 views

What if all passengers move from one side to the other?

Given the question What happens when all passengers jump at once?, I wonder what would happen if they all moved from side to side. If all the passengers moved from the front to the tail, or the other ...
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3answers
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Under which condition is a forward CG most critical?

This question is from CFI written exam. (6824) “Under which condition is a forward CG most critical?” The answer is “Forward CG is most critical during landing. If it is too far forward, the ...
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2answers
189 views

How is unusable fuel taken into account in weight and balance calculations?

Unusable fuel is considered part of the empty weight for aircraft so when the aircraft is weighed the undrainable fuel is already included. Is there any time unusable fuel would be required to be ...
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How are the weights of sumo wrestlers shown on the load&trimsheet form? [duplicate]

Under normal circumstances most airlines use standard weights to calculate passenger weights. Sometimes, passenger groups with different weight than the normal passenger profile can also travel. How ...
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1answer
129 views

How is the load & trimsheet form sent to ACARS?

After the last passengers and baggage are loaded onto the aircraft, the pilot in command is given a form called load & trimsheet which shows the passenger/baggage distributions, total weights and ...
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166 views

Why are the lines on some centre of gravity moment envelope graphs not straight?

Why are the lines on some centre of gravity moment envelope graphs not straight? For example the Cessna 152 and 172, the graphs look like this: I can't find a good quality C152 graph but the left ...
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1answer
355 views

What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?

In the Aircraft Flight Manual of the Bombardier CRJ700, the Minimum Flight Weight is listed as 42,000lbs. What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?
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2answers
352 views

CG calculation for a swept wing aircraft

With a swept wing aircraft (specifically a MiG-25 I am modelling) where is the root chord taken from to calculate the location of CG? Is it the root chord of the wing (where it attaches to the ...
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1answer
375 views

“The pilot must know the center of gravity and gross weight to fly” — True or false?

I've been trained to know the calculated gross weight and center of gravity for takeoff and landing for every flight for which I have acted as pilot in command. I've had other instructors dispute ...
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Aircraft with load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG [duplicate]

In another question on SE aviation I read that certain aircraft have load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG. Which are these types? The technology to build load sensors into the ...
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1answer
155 views

Would knowing the exact weight that has been loaded on a commercial plane and it's distribution be useful? [duplicate]

There's been a bit in the media about weighing passengers in order to get more accurate take off weights for commercial planes. I'm guessing the delta between a heavy set of passengers and a light ...
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627 views

How are forward and aft CG limits calculated?

I have been tasked to create a POH for my aero engineering coursework and part of this task is to create the CG envelope for the theoretical 65 passenger aircraft. I have figured out weight, moment ...
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3answers
282 views

If all control surfaces were disabled, could a passenger plane be controlled by distribution of the passengers?

Let's assume that a large military plane has its control surfaces disabled in combat. The engine(s) can still be controlled. There is a substantial number of ground forces being transported. In ...
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Do all aircraft carry depleted uranium as counterweights?

I was told that most aircraft had depleted uranium on board as counterweights. I have not seen one myself. Do all current modern aircraft have depleted uranium on board?
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488 views

Why does an aircraft's nose tend to pitch downward at higher bank angles?

In the usual aircraft configuration, the center of lift is located behind the CG producing negative pitch moment (the horizontal stabilizer counteracts it by producing downforce - positive pitching ...
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1answer
117 views

Flight Control Weight limitations

Does anybody know any limitations of flight control weights? For instance elevators must have same weight? What is the acceptabld difference/limits and what would be the reason of overweighting? (...
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1answer
377 views

How does retracting the gear affect weight and balance?

In many of the POHs, in the W&B section it is indicated that there is a moment change due to gear retraction. For example : Moment change due to gear retraction +780 in-lbs. Two questions : If I ...
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1answer
231 views

How do airlines handle their non-standard passengers for the load control process? [duplicate]

How are non-standard passenger weights maintained in the systems? How they do they handle these passenger weights between check in and load control system and etc..
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367 views

How is the change of moment handled in a Weight and Balance calculation with a swept wing aircraft?

I'm writing a weight and balance calculator for a charter operation. Every aircraft I've ever flight planned for has all the tanks on the same moment arm, so I don't know how you calculate the W&...
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3answers
568 views

Can the CG move out of bounds as fuel is used?

I've never bothered to check the weight and balance when the tanks are empty. I always assume that if the Center of Gravity is within range when the tanks are full, then it will remain within range as ...
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4answers
579 views

Why don't airports have weigh stations to prevent overweight takeoffs?

Currently, ensuring that an airplane isn't overweight when it takes off relies on the cargo handlers loading the aircraft properly and accurately documenting (on the weight-and-balance sheet) what ...
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1answer
717 views

If all passengers moved to the back, front or one side, would they crash the plane? [duplicate]

all-time classic: Would the load shift of all passengers herding at the back, front or one side make the plane hard or even impossible to keep in the air ? Are there any passenger aircraft where ...
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1answer
196 views

What was the airline attendants looking at in LED display before light off in A320 [closed]

I was journeying on Indigo Pune-COK back and forth. At both the times, I noticed airline attedants looking at some LED display which seemed to be some sort of balance scale. At first, I thought they ...
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364 views

What is APS (Aircraft Prepared for Service) Weight? What does it include?

I am looking for a complete explanation of what APS weight includes and how is it different from Dry Operating Weight and Basic Weight.
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1answer
207 views

How do I calculate this question? find the position of the centre of gravity in % [closed]

Find the position of the centre of gravity in % of the MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) if the distance from the datum to the LEMC (leading edge of mean chord) is 13 meters, the distance to the TEMC (...
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1answer
343 views

How do I calculate the landing weight in this situation?

Empty weight 538kg Pilot and passengers are 150kg with full fuel tanks If we use 2 US gallons for taxi and 10 US gallons for the trip, what will be our landing weight? Fuel Capacity Total Fuel ...
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1answer
148 views

How do I calculate this question? mass and balance

If we start with $Total\ Weight = 2,850\ lbs$ and $CG = 101.67\ in$, then add $400\ lbs\ @\ 97.8 in$, then how much would the Center of Gravity move? How can you calculate this?
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6answers
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Is it okay to take off with weight more than the POH max gross weight?

I wonder if I could take off with weight more than the gross weight stated in the POH of my aircraft as long as I take off with a higher speed? I think I have done it once by mistake.
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2answers
590 views

Do airlines use a software to calculate center of gravity? [duplicate]

How do airlines calculate center of gravity? I have read in several airlines websites that they optimize the center of gravity position, to improve aerodynamic performance and reduce fuel consumption. ...
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1answer
669 views

What is the maximum number of cabin crew members on an A320 load sheet?

What is the maximum allowable number of cabin crew members to be mentioned on the load sheet for A320, with respect to weight and balance? And does the number of deadheading crew members add to this ...
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1answer
319 views

Why is a weight and balance graph lozenge-shaped?

(fireair.co.uk) Why is a weight and balance graph lozenge-shaped? I have tried to find the answer but it seems to be really hard to find. Why is it not a square?
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Is it possible to install a bike rack on a Cessna 172?

I stumbled upon a nice photo manipulation on aviationhumor.net. Source My question is short and concise: Is it practically possible to do that? Is it okay in terms of aerodynamics, weight, CG? ...
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How do engineers make sure UAV don't land on their front propeller?

Take, for instance, the following UAV: and suppose you have a payload with a very big volume that fits exactly in the fuselage (and there is no more space), but is extremely light. Thus, the heaviest ...
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1answer
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What is RTOW and how is it different from MTOW?

Please explain what is RTOW, and what is the difference between RTOW and MTOW. Is there a link between the RTOW and the Weight and Balance Manual?
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3answers
608 views

Does cargo balance affect fuel efficiency in commercial aviation?

Positioning cargo such that the center of gravity of the plane is within a certain range is essential, but is there any advantage to having the center of gravity closer to some ideal point within the ...
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1answer
401 views

Do modern aircraft have sensors to determine weight of the aircraft? [duplicate]

Do ALL modern aircraft, particulary airliners and private jets, have weight sensors on all landing gear to determine take off and landing weight in real time so as to determine take off speed and ...
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1answer
109 views

Is more cargo loaded if there is less passengers than expected?

When pre-flight weigh in is done, if the plane weighs less than expected because people don't turn up, is more cargo added? Conversely - if the plane is over the estimated weight - does cargo get ...
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0answers
276 views

What calculations are needed for counter-weight balancing on a propeller?

I am designing a small-scale propeller and i have managed to design on optimized geometry for the blade. However the blade pitch angle adjusts according to different flow speeds so i need to mount ...
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2answers
652 views

What is the largest aircraft (by max takeoff weight) in which all engines are in the tail?

The largest one I'm aware of is the Il-62, with a whopping 4 turbofans at its tail. Max takeoff weight is 165 tons. I actually don't care how many engines there are, as long as all are at the tail. I ...
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What performance issues/symptoms can a pilot expect while taking off above MTOW?

Lately I've been flying a Cessna 162 Skycatcher, primary as a cheap way to build time towards the Instrument Cross Country requirement and my glider club's hours requirement to tow gliders. One issue ...
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7answers
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Can an airline reject a passenger for being overweight?

I have a Cessna 172S and despite having 4 seats in the cabin, I cannot take 3 more passengers besides myself as the pilot with a full tank of fuel due to safety in weight balance issues. As the pilot,...