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Questions tagged [weight-and-balance]

Weight-and-balance is determining that an aircraft is loaded within the limits of it's weight carrying capability and that the center of gravity is within the operational envelopes of the aircraft.

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How are the weights of sumo wrestlers shown on the load&trimsheet form? [duplicate]

Under normal circumstances most airlines use standard weights to calculate passenger weights. Sometimes, passenger groups with different weight than the normal passenger profile can also travel. How ...
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1answer
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How is the load & trimsheet form sent to ACARS?

After the last passengers and baggage are loaded onto the aircraft, the pilot in command is given a form called load & trimsheet which shows the passenger/baggage distributions, total weights and ...
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Why are the lines on some centre of gravity moment envelope graphs not straight?

Why are the lines on some centre of gravity moment envelope graphs not straight? For example the Cessna 152 and 172, the graphs look like this: I can't find a good quality C152 graph but the left ...
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What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?

In the Aircraft Flight Manual of the Bombardier CRJ700, the Minimum Flight Weight is listed as 42,000lbs. What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?
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CG calculation for a swept wing aircraft

With a swept wing aircraft (specifically a MiG-25 I am modelling) where is the root chord taken from to calculate the location of CG? Is it the root chord of the wing (where it attaches to the ...
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1answer
307 views

“The pilot must know the center of gravity and gross weight to fly” — True or false?

I've been trained to know the calculated gross weight and center of gravity for takeoff and landing for every flight for which I have acted as pilot in command. I've had other instructors dispute ...
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Aircraft with load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG [duplicate]

In another question on SE aviation I read that certain aircraft have load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG. Which are these types? The technology to build load sensors into the ...
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1answer
150 views

Would knowing the exact weight that has been loaded on a commercial plane and it's distribution be useful? [duplicate]

There's been a bit in the media about weighing passengers in order to get more accurate take off weights for commercial planes. I'm guessing the delta between a heavy set of passengers and a light ...
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How are forward and aft CG limits calculated?

I have been tasked to create a POH for my aero engineering coursework and part of this task is to create the CG envelope for the theoretical 65 passenger aircraft. I have figured out weight, moment ...
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If all control surfaces were disabled, could a passenger plane be controlled by distribution of the passengers?

Let's assume that a large military plane has its control surfaces disabled in combat. The engine(s) can still be controlled. There is a substantial number of ground forces being transported. In ...
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3answers
9k views

Do all aircraft carry depleted uranium as counterweights?

I was told that most aircraft had depleted uranium on board as counterweights. I have not seen one myself. Do all current modern aircraft have depleted uranium on board?
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Why does an aircraft's nose tend to pitch downward at higher bank angles?

In the usual aircraft configuration, the center of lift is located behind the CG producing negative pitch moment (the horizontal stabilizer counteracts it by producing downforce - positive pitching ...
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1answer
103 views

Flight Control Weight limitations

Does anybody know any limitations of flight control weights? For instance elevators must have same weight? What is the acceptabld difference/limits and what would be the reason of overweighting? (...
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1answer
197 views

How does retracting the gear affect weight and balance?

In many of the POHs, in the W&B section it is indicated that there is a moment change due to gear retraction. For example : Moment change due to gear retraction +780 in-lbs. Two questions : If I ...
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1answer
196 views

How do airlines handle their non-standard passengers for the load control process? [duplicate]

How are non-standard passenger weights maintained in the systems? How they do they handle these passenger weights between check in and load control system and etc..
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3answers
345 views

How is the change of moment handled in a Weight and Balance calculation with a swept wing aircraft?

I'm writing a weight and balance calculator for a charter operation. Every aircraft I've ever flight planned for has all the tanks on the same moment arm, so I don't know how you calculate the W&...
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Can the CG move out of bounds as fuel is used?

I've never bothered to check the weight and balance when the tanks are empty. I always assume that if the Center of Gravity is within range when the tanks are full, then it will remain within range as ...
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380 views

Why don't airports have weigh stations to prevent overweight takeoffs?

Currently, ensuring that an airplane isn't overweight when it takes off relies on the cargo handlers loading the aircraft properly and accurately documenting (on the weight-and-balance sheet) what ...
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1answer
374 views

If all passengers moved to the back, front or one side, would they crash the plane? [duplicate]

all-time classic: Would the load shift of all passengers herding at the back, front or one side make the plane hard or even impossible to keep in the air ? Are there any passenger aircraft where ...
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1answer
175 views

What was the airline attendants looking at in LED display before light off in A320 [closed]

I was journeying on Indigo Pune-COK back and forth. At both the times, I noticed airline attedants looking at some LED display which seemed to be some sort of balance scale. At first, I thought they ...
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244 views

What is APS (Aircraft Prepared for Service) Weight? What does it include?

I am looking for a complete explanation of what APS weight includes and how is it different from Dry Operating Weight and Basic Weight.
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1answer
121 views

How do I calculate this question? find the position of the centre of gravity in % [closed]

Find the position of the centre of gravity in % of the MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) if the distance from the datum to the LEMC (leading edge of mean chord) is 13 meters, the distance to the TEMC (...
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151 views

How do I calculate the landing weight in this situation?

Empty weight 538kg Pilot and passengers are 150kg with full fuel tanks If we use 2 US gallons for taxi and 10 US gallons for the trip, what will be our landing weight? Fuel Capacity Total Fuel ...
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1answer
103 views

How do I calculate this question? mass and balance

If we start with $Total\ Weight = 2,850\ lbs$ and $CG = 101.67\ in$, then add $400\ lbs\ @\ 97.8 in$, then how much would the Center of Gravity move? How can you calculate this?
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Is it okay to take off with weight more than the POH max gross weight?

I wonder if I could take off with weight more than the gross weight stated in the POH of my aircraft as long as I take off with a higher speed? I think I have done it once by mistake.
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2answers
490 views

Do airlines use a software to calculate center of gravity? [duplicate]

How do airlines calculate center of gravity? I have read in several airlines websites that they optimize the center of gravity position, to improve aerodynamic performance and reduce fuel consumption. ...
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1answer
465 views

What is the maximum number of cabin crew members on an A320 load sheet?

What is the maximum allowable number of cabin crew members to be mentioned on the load sheet for A320, with respect to weight and balance? And does the number of deadheading crew members add to this ...
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273 views

Why is a weight and balance graph lozenge-shaped?

(fireair.co.uk) Why is a weight and balance graph lozenge-shaped? I have tried to find the answer but it seems to be really hard to find. Why is it not a square?
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Is it possible to install a bike rack on a Cessna 172?

I stumbled upon a nice photo manipulation on aviationhumor.net. Source My question is short and concise: Is it practically possible to do that? Is it okay in terms of aerodynamics, weight, CG? ...
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How do engineers make sure UAV don't land on their front propeller?

Take, for instance, the following UAV: and suppose you have a payload with a very big volume that fits exactly in the fuselage (and there is no more space), but is extremely light. Thus, the heaviest ...
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1answer
11k views

What is RTOW and how is it different from MTOW?

Please explain what is RTOW, and what is the difference between RTOW and MTOW. Is there a link between the RTOW and the Weight and Balance Manual?
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3answers
530 views

Does cargo balance affect fuel efficiency in commercial aviation?

Positioning cargo such that the center of gravity of the plane is within a certain range is essential, but is there any advantage to having the center of gravity closer to some ideal point within the ...
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1answer
302 views

Do modern aircraft have sensors to determine weight of the aircraft? [duplicate]

Do ALL modern aircraft, particulary airliners and private jets, have weight sensors on all landing gear to determine take off and landing weight in real time so as to determine take off speed and ...
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107 views

Is more cargo loaded if there is less passengers than expected?

When pre-flight weigh in is done, if the plane weighs less than expected because people don't turn up, is more cargo added? Conversely - if the plane is over the estimated weight - does cargo get ...
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What calculations are needed for counter-weight balancing on a propeller?

I am designing a small-scale propeller and i have managed to design on optimized geometry for the blade. However the blade pitch angle adjusts according to different flow speeds so i need to mount ...
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2answers
596 views

What is the largest aircraft (by max takeoff weight) in which all engines are in the tail?

The largest one I'm aware of is the Il-62, with a whopping 4 turbofans at its tail. Max takeoff weight is 165 tons. I actually don't care how many engines there are, as long as all are at the tail. I ...
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4answers
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What performance issues/symptoms can a pilot expect while taking off above MTOW?

Lately I've been flying a Cessna 162 Skycatcher, primary as a cheap way to build time towards the Instrument Cross Country requirement and my glider club's hours requirement to tow gliders. One issue ...
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Can an airline reject a passenger for being overweight?

I have a Cessna 172S and despite having 4 seats in the cabin, I cannot take 3 more passengers besides myself as the pilot with a full tank of fuel due to safety in weight balance issues. As the pilot,...
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3answers
483 views

Do the pilots have to recalculate the balance when 6 passengers show up last minute in a 737? [duplicate]

Few years ago me and my mates forgot the checkin time and were late for flight. We were late for check-in counter closure (30 minutes before flight if i'm not wrong) but the staff allowed us to go on. ...
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2answers
452 views

Can the center of gravity ever fall outside the mean aerodynamic chord?

Can the aircraft center of gravity be outside the mean aerodynamic chord (i.e. %MAC being negative or more than 100%), at least theoretically? I'm not an expert in aviation. All I've heard is the ...
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1answer
189 views

Is it permitted to load a full cargo container onto an aircraft without a roller track loading/locking system?

Aircraft with roller track cargo loading systems transport containers/pallets in the cargo compartments. When an aircraft doesn't consist of a certain system but just a flat floor (so for example a ...
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3answers
2k views

Do you have to update weight and balance charts after installing new avionics?

The POH always has weight and balance charts. Let's say you install some new avionics, hence changing the weight of the aircraft. Do you need to update the POH binder with new weight & balance ...
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2answers
564 views

What is the correct answer to this Mass and Balance calculation?

I was practising some mass and balance questions and I found that my answer is a little bit too far from the listed answers. Can anyone help me to see if I did something wrong? The question was: ...
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2answers
760 views

In a fighter jet, what is the average weight of the ejection system?

In the old days, pilots had only a parachute pack. (In the really old days they might not even have that.) They had to open the canopy manually and jump out. Today, fighter jets have zero-zero ...
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1answer
2k views

How is fuel removed from a light aircraft if required for weight and balance?

With small, light aircraft, weight is always a consideration. Say you had a four-place single engine aircraft that you wanted to take yourself and three of your (non-FAA-standard weight) friends, but ...
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3answers
417 views

What is a good spin aircraft for someone that is heavy?

I've been trying to get a spin endorsement for my CFI, but I've been having a problem trying to find an airplane that I can do it in. I'm 280 built like a linebacker. I'm not that "fat" just heavy....
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1answer
161 views

How many axes are used in weight and balance calculations?

When doing weight and balance calculations on fixed wing aircraft is the transverse axis (wingtip to wingtip direction) used? Or is only longitudinal axis considered?
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6k views

Where is the best center of gravity?

I'm designing a plane, and I have a question. What is the best place for the center of gravity, relative to the center of lift? I've heard that it's best put just behind the center of lift, but I ...
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2k views

Do you need to put your wings at the center of gravity when building an airplane?

I have been wondering about this for quite a while and can't find an answer.
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1answer
333 views

How do I modify the aircraft weight and balance after a battery replacement?

I am looking to replace my Gill battery with a Concord. The regulations appear to allow me to do this as an owner. However, the Concord battery weighs 2 lbs more. I cant find it in the regs if I ...