Questions tagged [weight-and-balance]

Weight-and-balance is determining that an aircraft is loaded within the limits of it's weight carrying capability and that the center of gravity is within the operational envelopes of the aircraft.

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What is the difference b/w Normal & Restricted Category for a CG/FS Envelope?

These are the FS (Fuselage Station) Limits Envelope (As opposed to a CG limits envelope), supposedly for a Cessna Citation 560 XL. I would like to know the difference between Normal and Restricted ...
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What is Full Fuel load and how does it differ from Fuel Capacity?

I've noticed that the fuel capacity is much higher than the full fuel load. For example in a Cessna citation 560XL The Fuel Capacity is 6740 lbs The Payload W/Full Fuel load is 960 lbs Why is there ...
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What does “restricted category” mean on the load sheet for a Cessna Citation 560XL?

I would like some feedback from regarding this Loadsheet. Does anyone know what 'Restricted Category' means? This is a Loadsheet meant for a Cessna Citation 560XL, the calculated moment values are ...
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If the stick pusher fails on a Bombardier Q400, what happens to the c.g. limitation?

If the stick pusher fails on a DHC/Bombardier Dash-8 Q400, what happens to the center of gravity limitation?
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How do handling characteristics depend on flying with a full vs. an empty tank?

Modern aircraft are capable of carrying a lot of fuel to achieve extra-long range; we're at a point where nearly every pair of destinations can be reached non-stop. Carrying so much fuel imposes ...
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What is the general trend of payload fraction for an RC propeller plane?

What is the general trend of payload vs total weight for a radio controlled propeller aircraft? I am simply using this formula: $$Wo = \frac{Wpayload}{(1-((We/Wo)+(Wp/Wo)))}$$ I could get We/Wo (...
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124 views

How is the Max Zero Fuel Weight used in calculating weight and balance?

In some weight and balance apps there is an option to "Use Max Zero Fuel Weight". Having never seen this in any of the aircraft I have experience flying, I am curious how this value is typically used ...
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115 views

Are there regulations about carrying cargo on passenger seats?

We see that passenger aircraft have recently made cargo flights so that the supply chain does not decrease due to the Covid-19 crisis. It is seen that the cargo boxes are loaded on the passenger ...
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133 views

Adjustment for non-balanced passenger loads?

It is well established (How Centre of Gravity (CG) is adjusted? and elsewhere) that adjustments can and need to be made to insure that airplane loading maintains a suitable center-of-gravity for the ...
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172 views

Should the weight of the lifting surfaces be deducted from the weight used to calculate the C of G of the aircraft?

If the aerofoils are creating lift they are doing the work to lift the helicopter. When the helicopter is hovering, the blades are carrying the weight of the entire ship. The forces on the aerofoils ...
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259 views

How to adjust the center of gravity of an aircraft if not level when being weighed?

how do you adjust the center of gravity when weighing an aircraft in not-leveled position using platform scales under the nose and the main gears, and dropping a plumb bob to mark the gears locations.
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Why is there a maximum landing weight limit?

I was told that if the aircraft's weight exceeds the maximum landing weight, it could cause a structural damage during landing, but why? My understanding is that with a heavier aircraft, I need fly ...
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Do negligible weights affect the control of a commercial aircraft? [duplicate]

I was watching a video and it said that switching seats on a commercial airplane would be fatal. "Switching of seats from the rear of the airplane to the front seats would result in probable accident"....
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Can i create a home built aircraft with this engine?

http://www.chiefaircraft.com/da-100.html Would this engine work for a homebuilt ultralight aircraft? I am still in the research phase, so i don't know what the weight of the aircraft will be, but I ...
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Why would a plane perform 360° turns to balance fuel on the ground?

Why would a plane need to do a couple of 360’ turns on the taxi way/run-up area. The crew were given clearance to taxi and hold. They told the tower they needed to turn the plane 360’ and were cleared....
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254 views

When does a Maximum Taxi Weight Restriction happen on a 737-800?

This is the first time I experienced restriction in taxi weight on B737-800. Have you experienced that before? All I know that restrictions will be from MZFW/MTOW/MLW. When does it happen?
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Do airline dispatchers pre-block seats for weight and balance on large wide body aircraft?

I was reading a Oman Air flight review and one of the bits intrigued me: I had earlier used ExpertFlyer to monitor both how busy the flight would be and the seat map. I selected a window seat ...
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259 views

Is moving payload masses during flight to restore mass centering, or to avoid having to trim, a useful approach?

Note: Title was previously "Movable big missiles/bombs/tanks under fighter jets: conceivable?" Example: lateral weight distribution in fighters Fighter-bombers jets are small and lightweight in ...
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Is there a method for calculating change in V-speeds with a change in weight for a Cessna 172?

For example, what would the rotation speed (Vr) and stall speed (Vs) be at maximum takeoff weight versus flying with a single occupant? (2297 lb vs 1807 lb)
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How is a misdeclared weight of a mail bag handled? [closed]

What is the proper process when a postal administration tenders a mail bag with under declared weight? Is the bag returned to the postal administration or is the bag weight altered to match the ...
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1answer
89 views

What is aerodynamic imbalance?

What is aerodynamic imbalance on a propeller? The most amount of hint I got was the shape of the airfoil. All I know is that it is the different thrust each prop blade produces due to different angles ...
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What are the financial implications for Lufthansa (and other airlines) of keeping the back row of their A320neo free of passengers?

After the recent EASA airworthiness directive concerning the potential for weight and balance problems with the A320neo, Lufthansa announced it would no longer sell seats on the back row of those ...
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261 views

What if all passengers move from one side to the other?

Given the question What happens when all passengers jump at once?, I wonder what would happen if they all moved from side to side. If all the passengers moved from the front to the tail, or the other ...
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237 views

Under which condition is a forward CG most critical?

This question is from CFI written exam. (6824) “Under which condition is a forward CG most critical?” The answer is “Forward CG is most critical during landing. If it is too far forward, the ...
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How is unusable fuel taken into account in weight and balance calculations?

Unusable fuel is considered part of the empty weight for aircraft so when the aircraft is weighed the undrainable fuel is already included. Is there any time unusable fuel would be required to be ...
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294 views

How is the load & trimsheet form sent to ACARS?

After the last passengers and baggage are loaded onto the aircraft, the pilot in command is given a form called load & trimsheet which shows the passenger/baggage distributions, total weights and ...
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886 views

What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?

In the Aircraft Flight Manual of the Bombardier CRJ700, the Minimum Flight Weight is listed as 42,000lbs. What is the meaning of Minimum Flight Weight?
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755 views

CG calculation for a swept wing aircraft

With a swept wing aircraft (specifically a MiG-25 I am modelling) where is the root chord taken from to calculate the location of CG? Is it the root chord of the wing (where it attaches to the ...
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432 views

“The pilot must know the center of gravity and gross weight to fly” — True or false?

I've been trained to know the calculated gross weight and center of gravity for takeoff and landing for every flight for which I have acted as pilot in command. I've had other instructors dispute ...
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Aircraft with load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG [duplicate]

In another question on SE aviation I read that certain aircraft have load sensors in their undercarriage to calculate CG. Which are these types? The technology to build load sensors into the ...
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1answer
158 views

Would knowing the exact weight that has been loaded on a commercial plane and it's distribution be useful? [duplicate]

There's been a bit in the media about weighing passengers in order to get more accurate take off weights for commercial planes. I'm guessing the delta between a heavy set of passengers and a light ...
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How are forward and aft CG limits calculated?

I have been tasked to create a POH for my aero engineering coursework and part of this task is to create the CG envelope for the theoretical 65 passenger aircraft. I have figured out weight, moment ...
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290 views

If all control surfaces were disabled, could a passenger plane be controlled by distribution of the passengers?

Let's assume that a large military plane has its control surfaces disabled in combat. The engine(s) can still be controlled. There is a substantial number of ground forces being transported. In ...
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Do all aircraft carry depleted uranium as counterweights?

I was told that most aircraft had depleted uranium on board as counterweights. I have not seen one myself. Do all current modern aircraft have depleted uranium on board?
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Why does an aircraft's nose tend to pitch downward at higher bank angles?

In the usual aircraft configuration, the center of lift is located behind the CG producing negative pitch moment (the horizontal stabilizer counteracts it by producing downforce - positive pitching ...
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125 views

Flight Control Weight limitations

Does anybody know any limitations of flight control weights? For instance elevators must have same weight? What is the acceptabld difference/limits and what would be the reason of overweighting? (...
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573 views

How does retracting the gear affect weight and balance?

In many of the POHs, in the W&B section it is indicated that there is a moment change due to gear retraction. For example : Moment change due to gear retraction +780 in-lbs. Two questions : If I ...
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255 views

How do airlines handle their non-standard passengers for the load control process? [duplicate]

How are non-standard passenger weights maintained in the systems? How they do they handle these passenger weights between check in and load control system and etc..
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How is the change of moment handled in a Weight and Balance calculation with a swept wing aircraft?

I'm writing a weight and balance calculator for a charter operation. Every aircraft I've ever flight planned for has all the tanks on the same moment arm, so I don't know how you calculate the W&...
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Can the CG move out of bounds as fuel is used?

I've never bothered to check the weight and balance when the tanks are empty. I always assume that if the Center of Gravity is within range when the tanks are full, then it will remain within range as ...
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Why don't airports have weigh stations to prevent overweight takeoffs?

Currently, ensuring that an airplane isn't overweight when it takes off relies on the cargo handlers loading the aircraft properly and accurately documenting (on the weight-and-balance sheet) what ...
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1answer
1k views

If all passengers moved to the back, front or one side, would they crash the plane? [duplicate]

all-time classic: Would the load shift of all passengers herding at the back, front or one side make the plane hard or even impossible to keep in the air ? Are there any passenger aircraft where ...
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1answer
218 views

What was the airline attendants looking at in LED display before light off in A320 [closed]

I was journeying on Indigo Pune-COK back and forth. At both the times, I noticed airline attedants looking at some LED display which seemed to be some sort of balance scale. At first, I thought they ...
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What is APS (Aircraft Prepared for Service) Weight? What does it include?

I am looking for a complete explanation of what APS weight includes and how is it different from Dry Operating Weight and Basic Weight.
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1answer
296 views

How do I calculate this question? find the position of the centre of gravity in % [closed]

Find the position of the centre of gravity in % of the MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) if the distance from the datum to the LEMC (leading edge of mean chord) is 13 meters, the distance to the TEMC (...
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739 views

How do I calculate the landing weight in this situation?

Empty weight 538kg Pilot and passengers are 150kg with full fuel tanks If we use 2 US gallons for taxi and 10 US gallons for the trip, what will be our landing weight? Fuel Capacity Total Fuel ...
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211 views

How do I calculate this question? mass and balance

If we start with $Total\ Weight = 2,850\ lbs$ and $CG = 101.67\ in$, then add $400\ lbs\ @\ 97.8 in$, then how much would the Center of Gravity move? How can you calculate this?
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Is it okay to take off with weight more than the POH max gross weight?

I wonder if I could take off with weight more than the gross weight stated in the POH of my aircraft as long as I take off with a higher speed? I think I have done it once by mistake.
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649 views

Do airlines use a software to calculate center of gravity? [duplicate]

How do airlines calculate center of gravity? I have read in several airlines websites that they optimize the center of gravity position, to improve aerodynamic performance and reduce fuel consumption. ...
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894 views

What is the maximum number of cabin crew members on an A320 load sheet?

What is the maximum allowable number of cabin crew members to be mentioned on the load sheet for A320, with respect to weight and balance? And does the number of deadheading crew members add to this ...