79

The direct route you show is actually only a straight line on your map projection. The surface of the Earth is curved and the straight line between London Heathrow and New York JFK looks like this (courtesy of greatcirclemapper.net): That still does not quite get you over Scotland, but the actual flight path over the Atlantic typically uses a North Atlantic ...


77

NTSB investigators handle General Aviation incidents that you never hear about, as well as the Commercial incidents that make the nightly news. There are new incidents every single day. Try reading AVHerald for a sense of what happens, or searching the NTSB Aviation Database. They have plenty of work.


76

I think it is quite unfair to paint the NTSB investigators as villains just for the dramatic effect when nothing of the sort happened in real life. It is the job of the NTSB to investigate all possible reasons for the accident. It includes pilot error among other things. They were doing precisely that in the actual investigation. Among other things, the ...


61

If the plane crashes with high vertical speed, the decelerations involved are so insanely huge that there is absolutely no way to make it survivable. That is well explained in Even after years of research, why are planes unable to keep passengers alive in case of a fiery crash?. However in many cases the aircraft is still, at least partially, controllable, ...


60

You can find the full incident report here and this topic is touched upon briefly, but in short they had little to no time to entertain any other options but a full speed landing. It was not until the aircraft [was] on the final descent for landing that the Commander realised they could not reduce the thrust on the number 1 engine. The speed was not ...


58

Engine #2 wasn't doing its job either Had the situation just been engine #1 stuck at high thrust, with engine 2 normally controllable, than what you describe would be a reasonable response to the situation. However, that was not the case with CX780 -- during approach, Engine #2 was stuck at 17% N1 (or rather below idle) and thus delivering effectively nil ...


58

They are definitely not jet engines. They look more like electric motors or generators or blower units or something.


50

It's not like you are going to call in an accident investigation team for a hard landing or a broken light bulb. For a hard landing you certainly would. They'd just send one or two investigators, but they'd still want to see the report generated by the system, interview the pilots, possibly download the FDR and CVR data. And then they'll analyse the ...


49

It's too big and too intact. In a turbofan engine, you see the fan upfront. The casing (nacelle) surrounding the engine would not survive. And the remaining core that runs the engine is much smaller compared to the fan and engine, in diameter and length, respectively. For comparison, this is the remaining core from the 737 Max crash in Ethiopia (lower-...


47

To add to Daniele's answer, from the final report: The forensic report concluded that the aircraft occupants had heart function during the impact. The report noted that this did not necessarily imply that they were alert. The report further estimated that they were in deep non-reversible coma due to their ...


46

These are very large electric motors, used in HVAC plants or water distribution, probably. Or possibly main generators out of a diesel gen-set. They are very dense and tough by design, though certainly beat to snot; they may have been inside a building that collapsed. They are on the trailer together because they are going a scrapper who specializes in ...


39

This is actually a fairly standard thing to do with electronics that have been submerged: They are placed in water (ideally fresh, clean water) to both delay the onset of corrosion and dilute any salts or other chemicals that they came in contact with while submerged. When you remove electronics from water and let them dry out they begin to form corrosion ...


39

Disabling the protections can technically be achieved. I say technically because there is not one scenario that Airbus has envisioned that would require the pilots to deliberately go into direct-law. The imposed limit in the question is something called alpha-protection -- a protection against pulling back too much that the plane stalls. Stalling is bad. ...


39

First I have to admit that I have no idea what FAA regulations said about passengers taking part in controlling an airplane in 1989, but I guess it was at least frowned upon, even if the passenger happened to be a pilot. The United Airlines flight 232 made a stunningly successful "landing" at Sioux City airport, much due to the fact that they took an extra ...


37

No, they are not. The NTSB simply investigates accidents to determine the root causes of the accident and to make recommendations as to how to improve aviation safety. It has no bias nor does it play favorites. The NTSB investigation of US Airways flight 1549 was the most unrealistic element of the Sully movie. Director Clint Eastwood portrays The NTSB ...


37

Consciousness requires quite a bit more oxygen than merely being alive. Human beings can last remarkably long with very little oxygen, but not remain conscious. And lack of oxygen will soon enough cause permanent damage. The passengers may have been alive, even if they were not conscious, but they could have been anything from temporarily incapacitated to ...


35

When it comes down to it, accident investigations involve lots of coordination between many different groups, companies, and agencies, often around the world. These groups may range from helpful and responsive to completely uncooperative. Visiting the Site - First there will be a team that heads to the incident site to collect information. If the site is ...


34

Those are Elevator shaft motors, they're wound for high starting torque, not like most pump motors. Here is one of the motors from 2 other angles. It's on exhibit at the 9/11 World Trade Center Memorial & Museum. Photo 1 (Source "More Than Route 66" blog): Next to the radio tower was an elevator shaft motor also recovered from the rubble. The ...


32

The rules say to do whatever necessary to ensure safety of flight. 91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. (a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft. (b) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate ...


29

Because they wanted to analyse survivability, making the crash non survivable would have defeated the point.


29

Lighter materials such as plastic will naturally float. Composites can have large sections of honeycomb core with trapped air. Even if these parts are broken, the honeycomb is sealed against both sides of the panel, still trapping air. Large sections, whether made from composite or metal, will generally be hollow to save weight, and sealed to prevent ...


28

It depends on a lot of things like the kind of accident, the wreckage state, accessibility etc. First thing to consider is that in most cases, the wreckage is evidence- so the investigating authority will take control of it and release it only when the investigations are complete or has reached a stage where the wreckage is not needed anymore. As far as air ...


27

The short answer is that when a plane crashes on land we (generally) have a pretty good idea where to look for the black boxes - there will usually be a relatively clearly defined debris field to search. When a plane goes down in the water there's a lot more ocean to search, and currents can deposit parts of the airframe over a much wider area, so the ...


27

As pointed out above pilots may deviate from any regulation in the event of an emergency per §91.3(b). One of the more common events is a civilian aircraft making an emergency diversion and landing at a nearby military airbase, such as this 777 flight which diverted to Erickson AB, Shemaya, AK. The OP brings up the case of Cactus 1549. But what Sully and ...


26

A plane should be able to be identified by the serial numbers of the various parts recovered at the crash scene. The history of any part on a plane is documented extensively by the serial number. The NTSB should be able to track down when the part was produced and who the part was delivered to. As Tanner mentioned the NTSB should be contacted immediately ...


24

In 2017 an MD-83 aborted takeoff above V1. The pilot was widely criticized for that, which was against a lot of rules and conventional wisdom. The NTSB report determined that aborting above V1 was the most correct thing to do in this case. https://www.planeandpilotmag.com/article/ntsb-report-how-this-pilot-saved-116-lives/#.XkzGlopOmhA


22

From the incident report section 1.1.4: a. At 0519 hrs during the descent to a cleared level of FL230, ECAM messages “ENG 1 CTL SYS FAULT” and “ENG 2 STALL” were annunciated within a short period of time. According to the Commander, a light “pop” sound was heard and some “ozone” and “burning” smell was detected shortly before the ECAM message “ENG ...


22

The "autopilot" is a fairly basic control system. Usually it is composed of just a few components (logically speaking) like a wing-leveler, heading mode, and altitude mode. The autopilot can control the aircraft usually through servo's connected to the control cables or through the hydraulics. External systems can feed into this to do things like follow a ...


22

The FAA action, while supposedly not directly related Lion Air but more to Xtra's problems with working on parts they were not authorized to work on because they hadn't demonstrated that had everything in place, is obviously politically related to the event because the crash put the spotlight on Xtra and the FAA had to do something once having lifted that ...


20

You probably wouldn't believe the effort needed to certify anything that flies on an aircraft. This is a multi-year process, especially if it is so much security-related as the CVR and FDR. And it needs to be done with all national authorities of your intended customers. This is a case of good-enough. The advantage from combining both is real, but so small, ...


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