35

If the static port gets blocked in an aircraft with no alternate static port, you can break the glass of the VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) to allow air from inside the cockpit in the static system. By doing this you will sacrifice the VSI in favour of the altimeter and airspeed indicator Due to venturi effects, air inside the cockpit has usually a slightly ...


30

Stays where it is. The mechanism is a leadscrew and like most leadscrews it's "self-locking", which means that it's held in position by frictional forces whenever the motor isn't turning and it can't be back-driven even by substantial loads. The 20 degree (etc) "stops" are just reference positions for which aircraft performance and load limit data have been ...


22

Yes to some degree. It depends on the idle rpm, prop pitch, engine compression and your gliding speed, but if the engine is off but windmilling, there is substantial drag from the energy needed to windmill the prop without any help from the engine and it will knock some measurable amount off the glide ratio. When it's idling, it might still be ...


15

The standard procedure is whatever is in the POH for your aircraft. This is from a C182RG POH: LANDING WITH A DEFECTIVE NOSE GEAR (Or Flat Nose Tire) Movable Load -- TRANSFER to baggage area. Passenger -- MOVE to rear seat. Before Landing Checklist -- COMPLETE. Runway -- HARD SURFACE or SMOOTH SOD Wing Flaps -- 40° Cabin Doors -- UNLATCH ...


15

From a safety perspective RAIM is more critical than SBAS. If you are flying using GPS, you always rely on RAIM to keep you safe, sometimes you need SBAS too. Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitor is a function within an aviation grade GPS receiver that monitors the integrity of the GPS system. Without RAIM, a malfunction in the GPS system can cause large ...


9

The answer is a qualified yes: It's theoretically possible, but wholly impractical to provide a pressure source to your gyros from within the cockpit, at least the way you're describing. Air-Driven gyros require a relatively constant pressure differential somewhere between 4 and 6 inches of mercury to operate correctly (this can be "suction" or "pressure", ...


9

The RAIM (Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring) is what allows you to fly using a GPS. If you lose RAIM, by regulations you cannot use the GPS to navigate. So, it should not be a surprise for you to have regulators speak more of RAIM than SBAS. The RAIM basically monitors the accuracy of the navigation. It requires at least five satellites for operation. ...


8

RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a function within an avaition GPS receiver. It uses redundant measurements for a consistency check to determine the intergrity of the position measurement. Since RAIM requires redundant measurements, it is only available when there are sufficient measurement sources available. In practice, this mainly ...


8

The answer to this is a definite "maybe". YouTube personality Trent Palmer tested this very question. He was actually able to glide further with the engine off than he was with it at idle. It was a very small gain, though, on the order of a few seconds extra flying time per 1,000 feet descent. The people he was with reported different results: One guy said ...


8

Engine failure is not that common. For a gas turbine engine, a press release by GE gives some data as a reference point. In 1995 they quoted various engines as having a dispatch rate of between 99.99% and 99.89%. That is only 0.01 to 0.11 % of flights could not depart due to an engine issue. However, that doesn't identify in flight failures, best captured by ...


8

The FAA Instrument Pilot Handbook (11-8) mentions this as an alternate source if you lose your static source (not vacuum). That said, I don't think every VSI is identical. I have seen arguments that some are not vented the same way and may not provide a valid static source.


7

If the pitot tube gets blocked in flight, such as by icing, the airspeed indication is maintained at first. Note that the indication is still subject to changes in static pressure as long as the static port is not blocked as well, effectively turning the airspeed indicator into an altimeter. If only the static port is blocked, the airspeed indicator shows ...


7

Depends on how much blockage. If fully blocked, as in air tight, the pitot side becomes like the sealed aneroid side of an altimeter and it only reacts to changes in static pressure, indicating the difference between ambient static and the pressure trapped in the pitot side. If the blockage is not air tight, like you usually get with bugs, somewhere ...


7

It depends on how it fails, there are lots of possibilities on what caused it to stop spinning and they can all lead to different outcomes. In this instance it just kind of bobbed around as if it were free floating. But if something is jamming the mechanics it may simply stop moving altogether so it really just depends on how it fails.


6

When talking about that sort of thing, you're really looking for single-point-of-failure weak links that are difficult to detect during a walkaround or inspection. Hinges don't normally just let go with no warning. They get loose and sloppy first. Same with bellcrank bearings, rod ends, and pulley bearings. Things in general on airplanes can get really ...


5

While technically not one of the choices you asked about, you may not be aware of a quasi-third option you should consider. Make a pass down the runway and "bang it on the mains" a couple of times to see if you can jolt the nose gear to go down and locked. If it works, go around WITHOUT RAISING THE GEAR and land normally (well, more like gingerly). Even if ...


5

The following applies to the Boeing 737 NG series, but probably there are no large differences for the MAX series. The FCOMv2 (4.20.2 Automatic Flight - System Description) mentions only the following systems in the Autopilot Engagement Criteria and the Autopilot Disengagement sections: The A/P automatically disengages when any of the following occurs: ...


5

Can't speak for the Lear, which I believe has manual controls anyway, but the CRJs DO NOT have manual reversion. The RJs are designed to a technical level similar to the Boeing 767. The control surfaces are purely hydraulically operated. For elevator and rudder, which have 3 PCUs each, you'd have to lose all 3 hydraulic systems to lose the surfaces. For ...


5

Turn coordinators have a number of failure modes because they are normally electrically powered and depend on very precise gyro RPM, so the gyro motor runs on fixed frequency 115v ac and there is a teeny tiny static inverter in the unit to convert the airplane's 12 or 24 vdc power to fixed frequency a/c for the motor. If the motor's not running so the gyro ...


4

TLDR: Yes, the 737 can still fly, the gear can be lowered and one can brake after landing. A complete failure of every single electrical system is extremely unlikely. The QRH (Quick Reference Handbook) does not even mention this case. Usually, at least the battery remains and can power all emergency systems for at least 30 minutes (60 min, if 2 batteries ...


4

Typically in that situation, you would land with the gear down and lower the nose as gently to the ground as possible after touchdown. Nose gear failures are the easiest of all gear up landings to deal with.


3

It depends. There are some failures that inhibit both autopilots, and others that may affect only one. Also, policy may be more restrictive -- the QRH may direct not engaging the affected-side autopilot, or it may direct to not engage either autopilot, even though the system wouldn't inhibit it per se. Please note that "instruments" on the Max (and NG) ...


3

If the Pitot is ice over or plugged by a bug in flight, the ASI will indicate the speed at the time it was block as long as the pressure remains constant in the bourdon tube. The ASI will change with any altitude change, acting as a altimeter. If the is a climb the ASI will show an increase in speed, if descending there will be a decrees in airspeed. If the ...


3

None, as far as I have ever heard of. There may be an instance out there of failure of both/all of the INS’s or displays, but in the airline world at least, it would have to be absurdly uncommon. It is nice to have the standby ADI as a tie-breaker between the two primary displays in case they should happen to disagree (which was more likely with mechanical ...


3

A mechanical blockage inside the airspeed gauge could prevent the needle from dropping all the way back to zero -- assuming the aircraft had exceeded 200 KIAS in the first place. Whether this or the pitot-related failures in the @CamilleGoudeseune answer, the pitot-static unit, airspeed indicator, and altimeter (also connected to the static port) should be ...


2

A number of R22 accident reports indicate that the rotor RPM drops and the engine will tend to overspeed in case of 'V' belt failure. From the Australian Transport Safety Bureau report Reliability of the Robinson R22 helicopter belt drive system: NTSB occurrence report: LAX92LA034 ... pilot reported that the engine RPM indicator suddenly pegged at the top ...


2

The statistics above are very misleading as to failure rates of turbine engines. Keep in mind ETOPS engine fail rates are based on shutdowns. Most of the time, the engine does not fail but is shut down as a precaution because the aircraft has sensed some deviation from normal engine parameters. Often this turns out to be a fault in the monitoring system as ...


2

This isn't exactly your scenario but at my last instrument checkride the DPE asked me how I would descend from VFR-on-top through a solid cloud layer following complete electrical and vacuum failure (in a C172 or something similar). No avionics meant no help from ATC (vectors, or even a PAR approach) and we also assumed that I had no tablet, phone or other ...


2

In the cockpit of every plane I am aware of, there is a compass somewhere. It is the simplest form of a magnetic compass, similar to the "compass in water" you described. Due to physics, a compass will lead or lag when an aircraft turns, therefore it is very difficult to achieve a precise heading. But you can use it to point the aircraft in the general ...


2

Flutter due to excess airspeed is one of the more common failure modes for ailerons that operate via a mechanical linkage. In some cases even adding an extra coat of paint or gel coat to the ailerons without careful rebalancing can promote flutter at lower-than-expected airspeeds. (See service bulletin or Airworthiness Directive on Libelle sailplanes.) ...


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