54 votes
Accepted

Are wings any more efficient at creating lift, versus orienting the engine's thrust downwards?

Interesting question. Purely empirically, it is the lift-to-drag ratio you are looking for. If you take this value as given for any particular aircraft, you have a direct answer for how much more ...
user avatar
  • 2,379
29 votes

Are wings any more efficient at creating lift, versus orienting the engine's thrust downwards?

In a traditional aircraft the majority of the power from the engine is used to keep the aircraft moving forward at a certain speed. Very little of that power is actually needed to create lift. ...
user avatar
  • 4,806
29 votes

Are wings any more efficient at creating lift, versus orienting the engine's thrust downwards?

With regard to energy expenditure and power, for a given amount of force that is to be produced by accelerating an air mass, more power is required when you accelerate a small air mass in each period ...
user avatar
  • 1,286
19 votes

Why is Russian super-maneuverable thrust vectoring more prevalent than American?

This is a case of divergent design, and you can't know the answer without asking why current aircraft are designed they way they are. Following the work of Col. John Boyd in the 1960's in developing ...
user avatar
18 votes
Accepted

Why do propellers on aircraft have a slight offset angle?

The direction of rotation of the propeller introduces an asymmetry which designers try to mitigate by adding more asymmetries. Specifically, a right-turning tractor propeller (clockwise from the pilot'...
user avatar
16 votes
Accepted

Why is Russian super-maneuverable thrust vectoring more prevalent than American?

Part 1 - TVC Perception The US also ran several programs with TVC: F-15 STOL/MTD and ACTIVE. F-16 VISTA / MATV. AVEN: F-18 HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle)...
user avatar
16 votes

How much thrust is lost through a curved exhaust nozzle?

For the F135 engine in this photo, thrust in hover is only about one per cent less than maximum thrust, if Pratt & Whitney's data sheet is to be believed. Maximum Thrust Class 41,000 lbs ... ...
user avatar
15 votes

Why don't aircraft use gimbaled engines instead of flaps?

Historically, flaps and control surfaces were moved manually: The pilot would move a stick, a control column or pedals, and pulleys or pushrods would transfer this force to the control surfaces. To do ...
user avatar
13 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to tilt a propeller for attitude control, similarly to jet thrust vectoring?

Yes, on airships. The Zeppelin NT can rotate its two forward and one rear propellers to create lift instead of thrust, a capability of particular value when the airship descends in an atmosphere with ...
user avatar
13 votes
Accepted

Are fixed wing aircraft with gimbal thrust feasible?

Could you create an aircraft using an jet engine/propeller/ducted fan on a gimbal? Sure you 'could'; it is feasible by the laws of physics. But just because you can does not mean that you should. ...
user avatar
10 votes

How does the F-35 hover?

The F-35 has what is called the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem. This Contains one lift fan in the middle of the aircraft, and a rotating jet exhaust to provide vertical thrust, and two rotating nozzles to ...
user avatar
10 votes
Accepted

Can a F-35 shoot while hovering?

No, it cannot, at least there is no reason for it to do so... A) The stick while in "hover mode" does not control the pitch/roll of the aircraft, but the forward/lateral position of the aircraft. ...
user avatar
  • 35.2k
10 votes
Accepted

At what altitude does a wing become useless?

Maybe wings never mattered... Altitude: The answer depends a bit on the design of the craft in terms of control surfaces/wings. Atmospheric reentry begins at the Karman line at an altitude of 100 km ...
user avatar
  • 96.3k
10 votes
Accepted

What is the effect of thrust vectoring effect on the rate of turn?

The standard equation applies to any coordinated level turn (so that the G felt is "straight down" to an occupant of the aircraft, in an aircraft frame of reference). Matters not how it's ...
user avatar
  • 41.9k
8 votes

What is 2D and 3D thrust vectoring?

As previously seen in a comment section, there are two main schools of thought: The dimensionality indicates the actuation Degree of Freedom (1D has 1 DoF per exhaust vector, 2D has 2). The ...
user avatar
  • 31.6k
8 votes

What is the effect of thrust vectoring effect on the rate of turn?

With thrust vectoring you no longer turn (as in: the wing creates the force that accelerates you in the desired direction) but you do post-stall maneuvering. Next, you need to distinguish between ...
user avatar
7 votes

How does the Urbanaero flying car move forward?

It would fly forward the same way a quadcopter does: have the aft motor controller increase current, thereby increasing aft fan lift, creating a pitching moment downward and moving the fan arcs out ...
user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Does 3D Thrust vectoring (TVC) provide improved maneuverability over 2D TVC?

Thrust vectoring allows to control an aircraft when the airflow over its control surfaces has separated. Before thrust vectoring, the range of angles of attack in which an aircraft could be controlled ...
user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

How is thrust vectoring controlled by the pilot?

Thrust vectoring isn't controlled by the pilot directly, except being able to turn it on or off in various circumstances. If it is on, the aircraft computers control the vectoring based on external ...
user avatar
  • 968
6 votes

Are fixed wing aircraft with gimbal thrust feasible?

Sure you could, but why would you want to? There's no inherent benefit to be had in vectoring thrust as opposed to using control surfaces. It doesn't simplify things to any extent, it just makes ...
user avatar
  • 50.1k
6 votes

What does it mean "two plane thrust vectoring nozzle"?

This statement is using "plane" in the mathematical-geometric sense, which is of course very confusing when we talk about a part of a "plane" in the "flying machine" sense. So, a "one-plane" thrust ...
user avatar
6 votes

How much thrust is lost through a curved exhaust nozzle?

A 90 degree bend in a pipe where the radius of the bend is of order ~one pipe diameter creates the same pressure drop as a length of that same pipe of order ~ten to fifteen times the pipe diameter.
user avatar
5 votes

Is it possible to tilt a propeller for attitude control, similarly to jet thrust vectoring?

While in case most VTOL aircraft, the rotors are tilted, one unique case is the Curtis Wright X-19, which had what the company called tilt-propellers. Curtis Wright at that point was a propeller ...
user avatar
  • 98.7k
4 votes

Why is Russian super-maneuverable thrust vectoring more prevalent than American?

A very important reason is stagnation. US aircraft development has pretty much stopped cold in the mid-late 1980s, with just the F-22 and F-35 entering production since, and those decades overdue. ...
user avatar
  • 15k
4 votes

Are wings any more efficient at creating lift, versus orienting the engine's thrust downwards?

If we ignore the losses, maintaining the aircraft at a given altitude requires no power, since no work is done on it. It does, however, require a force, and you seem to confuse force and power. The ...
user avatar
4 votes

Are wings any more efficient at creating lift, versus orienting the engine's thrust downwards?

Engines (let's say piston engines) do not provide lift. Engines drive wings. Each blade of a propeller is a wing. Each wing (at same size, airfoil, angle of attack, relative speed, altitude) provides ...
user avatar
  • 4,143
3 votes

Why do propellers on aircraft have a slight offset angle?

Some planes have this designed into the engine mounts to offset the more pronounced left turning tendencies of larger engines. "Large" in this case is a 400/500 series Lycoming or Continental. ...
user avatar
  • 5,898
3 votes

Are fixed wing aircraft with gimbal thrust feasible?

Gimbaled thrust in 'rocket speak', is equivalent to vectored thrust in 'aviation speak'. Many modern military aircraft use thrust vectoring in order to improve performance, particularly in tight ...
user avatar
3 votes

What is 2D and 3D thrust vectoring?

An aircraft traditionally has three "degrees of freedom" in aerodynamic maneuverability; pitch, yaw and roll. The number of "dimensions" of thrust vectoring relates directly to how many degrees of ...
user avatar
  • 22.3k
3 votes

Can thrust vectoring be used to enable the use of flaps on tailless delta-winged aircraft?

No, for several reasons What you want is to compensate for the additional lift from downward deflected flaps at the back of a flying wing with vectored thrust. As @Sean points out this will not bring ...
user avatar

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible