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The FAA regulates logging time in FAR 61.51. There are plenty of questions about logging PIC time, as well as SIC time. Another type remains: what can be logged as total time? It's only mentioned once:

Total flight time or lesson time.

It is clear that any time logged as dual, PIC, or SIC can be logged as total time. Is total time merely the sum of those, minus any overlap, or is there a situation where total time can be logged but none of the others?

In particular, two situations arise:

  • I'm at the controls of an aircraft I'm not rated for (i.e. an ASEL pilot in the right seat of a multi-engine aircraft, where the other pilot is appropriately rated and not a CFI). I can't log PIC, SIC, or dual - but can I log total time?

  • In a plane I'm rated for, I pass the controls to a non-certificated passenger. I'm not a CFI. I cannot log PIC, SIC, or dual while my passenger is the sole manipulator of the controls, but I am acting as the PIC for this portion of the flight. Can I log this as total time?

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"Total time" isn't an officially defined term as far as I know. Most people seem to use it to mean "total flight time", i.e. the total of their PIC, SIC and flight training time (excluding simulator training).

In general, you can log and count whatever you want in your logbook provided that you log at least the items required in 61.51(a):

(a) Training time and aeronautical experience. Each person must document and record the following time in a manner acceptable to the Administrator:

(1) Training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a certificate, rating, or flight review of this part.

(2) The aeronautical experience required for meeting the recent flight experience requirements of this part.

So, the bottom line is that "total time" is whatever you want it to be, and if you want to log 'fun time' in aircraft that you aren't qualified to fly then go ahead; the time just won't count for anything as far as the FAA is concerned.

As for your two scenarios:

  1. You can't log any 'FAA time' because you're not certified to fly the aircraft as PIC or SIC, and you aren't receiving training. You might note it in your logbook for your own reasons but you can't count it towards anything for the FAA's purposes.
  2. You can't log 'FAA time' here either, for the reasons you mentioned. You're acting PIC for the entire flight, of course, but acting as PIC doesn't automatically let you log PIC unless other conditions are met. 61.51(e) lists all the ways you can log PIC time, e.g. sole manipulator, acting as PIC when more than one crewmember is required.
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  • $\begingroup$ Ad 2, being PIC and logging PIC are two different things. Logging PIC is really more logging PF. If I remember the other answers around this correctly, in this case you are PIC, but can't log it. $\endgroup$ – Jan Hudec Feb 14 '17 at 8:00
  • $\begingroup$ I downvoted this answer because it strongly implies that logging PIC time is related to acting as PIC. It is not. $\endgroup$ – Terran Swett Oct 28 '18 at 19:09
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    $\begingroup$ I have now upvoted this answer; thanks for editing it to clarify :) $\endgroup$ – Terran Swett Nov 5 '18 at 3:57
  • $\begingroup$ @TannerSwett No problem, thanks for helping me to improve it! $\endgroup$ – Pondlife Nov 5 '18 at 4:25
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There is a difference between total flight time and total time. The FARs do not define total time but they do define a term called pilot time.

61.1: Pilot time means that time in which a person— (i) Serves as a required pilot flight crewmember; (ii) Receives training from an authorized instructor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight training device; or (iii) Gives training as an authorized instructor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight training device.

Total flight time is defined as

1.1: Flight time means: (1) Pilot time that commences when an aircraft moves under its own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest after landing; or (2) For a glider without self-launch capability, pilot time that commences when the glider is towed for the purpose of flight and ends when the glider comes to rest after landing.

61.51 deals with logging time. In your first example, the airplane is type certificated for a single pilot, you are not performing any operation requiring more than one pilot (i.e. safety pilot) so you cannot log PIC, SIC. I might log pilot time but not total flight time.

In your second example, while the non rated friend is flying you cannot log PIC or total flight time but may be able to log pilot time.

You only need to worry about total time when applying for an ATP certificate as that certificate calls for total time not total flight time.

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BEST ANSWER - "Total-time" as in a "total" of your subsets of flight-time.
Padding the total without a subset creates a false/fraudulent representation of your experience. (A false entry becomes fraud after you deceive someone with it).

Once found out you could be sued for wages and training costs. You would definitely be a scapegoat in the event of an accident.

By definition this is not "pilot-time" "flight-time" nor "aeronautical-experience"(14 CFR 61.1).

The FAA previously ruled that since false entries were "capable of influencing" decisions pilot logbooks need to be free of "knowing misrepresentations of fact". (Cassis v. Helms)

Finally, I would caution you not to forget that in 61.51(a) the FAA placed the catch all phrase "in a manner acceptable to the Administrator". Just like the term "careless and reckless" it is subjective enough to warrant restraint.

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In "wbeard52"'s answer he seems to state you can log "Pilot Time" when you are not PIC or SIC..I am confused by his response. But to be clear you should note that one is either PIC, SIC, Student or a passenger. A passenger by definition cannot log pilot time, flight time or aeronautical experience). "Pilot Time" as defined by 61.1 will not allow you to log time unless you are part of a required flight crew...I am not talking about the insurance company or the CEO's requirement for two pilots. Their desire is not a requirement per the FAA. Per regs, Other than in a training environment, the ONLY time you can log "pilot time" in an aircraft is if you are crew as defined by the type certificate or applicable FAA regs.

I wouldn’t be so quick to designate between FAA time vs some BS unsubstantiated total-time. Logically if it is wrong to put forth a false record to the FAA then it is equally wrong to put forth a false record of experience to an employer or the public.

CFR 61.59(2) Any fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any logbook, record, or report that is required to be kept, made, or used to show compliance with any requirement for the issuance or exercise of the privileges of any certificate, rating, or authorization under this part;

Simplified: ANY fraudulent or intentionally false entry in ANY report used to show compliance with ANY requirement for the exercise of the privileges..

“any report” does not exclude non-FAA reports such as a resume, or an insurance form.

“any requirement” does not exclude non-FAA requirements such as insurance or employer requirements.

CFR 61.133 and 61.113 both define the “privilege” of the respective certificates as acting as pilot

In a nut shell, if you assert an unsubstantiated level of aeronautical experience in order to fly, then you are likely in violation of the FARs.

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  • $\begingroup$ The the extent that a logbook used to show compliance is a federal document... 18 U.S. Code § 1001 concerning false statements and entries might be applied.. "falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact" $250,000 fine / 5 years. Fortunately the FAA rarely steps out of their internal regs though I believe they could. $\endgroup$ – Juan Falso Sep 4 '20 at 14:38
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The interpretation of "Total Time" I've always seen is the sum of all the other categories. That is, your "total time" should be the sum of your PIC/SIC/Instruction (not as PIC/SIC) time. That said, it's your logbook, you can log whatever you want as "total time" (e.g. if your airline co-pilot has the fish & you get called up to sit right seat you can log that as "total time" if you wish - just not as one of the categories that "counts" under the regs: PIC/SIC/Instruction Received etc.)


Note that your second example is a different situation:

In a plane I'm rated for, I pass the controls to a non-certificated passenger. I'm not a CFI. I cannot log PIC, SIC, or dual while my passenger is the sole manipulator of the controls, but I am acting as the PIC for this portion of the flight. Can I log this as total time?

You are acting as PIC in this situation. Who is manipulating the controls is irrelevant: As your passenger is not rated to act as PIC of airplane carrying passengers you must be filling that role. You would therefore log PIC time in this case (you cannot however log it as "dual given", nor can your passenger log it as "dual received", because you are not a CFI).
This is also true if your passenger holds a student pilot certificate, or a certificate for a different category/class of aircraft (e.g. if they have a rotorcraft certificate they still can't be PIC of an airplane - they are not rated for that category of aircraft).

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    $\begingroup$ Your second part is incorrect. In this case, he is indeed the PIC, but you can only log time as sole manipulator of the flight controls in an aircraft in which you are rated. Since the controls were handed off to someone else, even though they are the PIC, the time may not be logged as such. $\endgroup$ – Lnafziger Aug 31 '15 at 4:16
  • $\begingroup$ Lnafziger is correct with his comment. $\endgroup$ – wbeard52 Feb 14 '17 at 0:18
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, you are acting as pilot in command in that situation... but you can't log it as pilot in command. $61.51(e)(1)(i). $\endgroup$ – Ryan Mortensen Apr 18 '19 at 0:45
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    $\begingroup$ So you can log PIC acting as a safety pilot, (with a rated pilot flying) but not acting as PIC with non pilot flying? That seems backwards. And illogical... if the non pilot can NOT log PIC time as sole manipulator, (assuming you are not a CFI) then the airplane is technically flying with NO PILOT IN COMMAND! $\endgroup$ – Michael Hall Nov 14 '20 at 1:21

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