This AC describes a fair bit of what/where a traffic pattern is. ultimately it comes down to definition but the answer seems to be what ever the defined traffic pattern says
The airport traffic patterns described in part 93 relate primarily to
those airports where there is a need for unique traffic pattern
procedures not provided for in part 91. Part 97 addresses instrument
approach procedures (IAP). At airports without operating control
towers, part 91 requires only that pilots of airplanes approaching to
land make all turns to the left, unless light signals or visual
markings indicate that turns should be made to the right
It seems they are somewhat careful to not explicitly define anything and instead allow some definitions to define it for explicit cases and others to be left to interpretations. The FAA advises that calls be made as far as 10 miles out.
The FAA technically allows airports to define their traffic pattern themselves:
Traffic Pattern Design. Airport owners and operators, in coordination
with the FAA, are responsible for establishing traffic patterns. The
FAA encourages airport owners and operators to establish traffic
patterns as recommended in this AC. Further, left traffic patterns
should be established, except where obstacles, terrain, and
noise-sensitive areas dictate otherwise
They do provide some guidance on how to do so in regards to altitude they even allow the pilot to decide
Traffic Pattern Altitudes. It is recommended that airplanes observe a
1,000 foot above ground level (AGL) traffic pattern altitude. Large
and turbine-powered airplanes should enter the traffic pattern at an
altitude of 1,500 feet AGL or 500 feet above the established pattern
altitude. Ultralight aircraft should operate no higher than 500 feet
below the powered aircraft pattern altitude. A pilot may vary the size
of the traffic pattern depending on the aircraft’s performance
Going straight to regulations taken from here
§91.127 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.
(b) Departures. Each pilot of an aircraft must comply with
any traffic patterns established for that airport in part 93 of this
and for class D
§91.129 Operations in Class D airspace.
(1) Unless required by the applicable distance-from-cloud criteria, each pilot operating a
large or turbine-powered airplane must enter the traffic pattern at an
altitude of at least 1,500 feet above the elevation of the airport and
maintain at least 1,500 feet until further descent is required for a
and Class C
§91.130 Operations in Class C airspace.
(b) Traffic patterns. No person may take off or land an aircraft at a satellite airport within
a Class C airspace area except in compliance with FAA arrival and
departure traffic patterns.
If the tower is in operation they can vector you as they see fit (at least here under the FAA) as such they may use pattern terms and organization but I cant tell if the FAA considers it a pattern or not if there is a tower.