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Why are the three flights (see image below) not using either Nepali or Bangladeshi airspace? The five "freedoms of the air" should have allowed them to follow a more straighter path, instead of burning so much fuel, at altitudes of more than 30 thousand feet.

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ The "freedoms of the air" are conceptual framework rather than reflection of reality (fifth freedom flights, for example, are very often restricted), and even where a country grants air rights, they're still subject to national restrictions such as requirements to obtain overflight permits, pay navigation fees, use designated airways (sometimes more limited for foreign carriers) and avoid restricted airspace. Commercial aviation's desire to save fuel and time often must yield to political and logistical concerns. $\endgroup$ Jan 10, 2023 at 10:41

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Some countries have more strict rules regarding their airspaces - Nepal and Bangladesh are among them, requiring special permissions even to fly through it.

https://permit2fly.com/region/asia/nepal-overflight-permits.html

https://permit2fly.com/region/asia/bangladesh-overflight-permits.html

Though possible, it might not be worth the hassle and the costs - this small detour would only require very little fuel.

For Bangladesh this is even more strict, as there seems to be an active ADIZ:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_defense_identification_zone#Bangladesh

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