Assuming a direct headwind with zero crosswind component, what are the effects of landing into say a 10kt vs 30kt vs 50kt headwind? Are there any specific advantages or drawbacks to a stronger headwind when landing? Are there any specific procedures that kick in when the headwind exceeds a certain number for a certain aircraft?
I don't know if aircraft type matters much in answering this question, though I realize that small aircraft could potentially encounter a headwind that is faster than the recommended landing speed, thus making it difficult to reach the runway in the first place. Let's leave that situation out of the answers - assume that the wind is slower than the recommended landing speed.
I understand that landing into a headwind is the preferred option, and that tailwind landings are possible up to certain limits.
I understand that crosswind makes the landing more challenging and that there are limits to the crosswind component. Assume a direct headwind for this question.
I understand that a headwind makes ground speed slower for a given quantity of lift, but that's irrelevant to anyone but the passenger anxious to make his connection.
Assume a fairly steady wind with minimal gusting - at a level most pilots wouldn't be concerned with. (Unless, of course, gusts make a more or less significant difference based on steady-stream speed.)
This seems to be a fairly difficult question. I get the fact that, in practice, the above conditions are likely never going to be met, this is more of a theoretical question - assuming a direct headwind, assuming near zero gusting, assuming "significant" differences in headwind (in relation to the aircraft's landing speed - a C152 with one on board will land slower than a fully loaded A380). These are combinations that will probably never happen outside a wind tunnel, but I'm sure someone, somewhere has thought about them.