For every action in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction.
That sentence alone is incomplete and misleading, because this short version fails to mention the two-body system it was meant for.
The action and reaction can actually be swapped in position. The difference between a gas generator and a jet engine is the mere (over simplification) addition of the nozzle to accelerate the air out the exhaust.
So, you can confidently reverse the common sentence and write it as: the thrust on the engine (action) causes the mass air flow (reaction). And you won't be wrong.
The answer to your question; all the parts experience a normal force (thrust). Some are forward, some are rearward.
Shameless copy from Wikipedia:
Origin of engine thrust
The familiar explanation for jet thrust only looks at what goes in to the engine, air and fuel, and what comes out, exhaust gas and an unbalanced force. This force, called thrust, is the sum of the momentum difference between entry and exit and any unbalanced pressure force between entry and exit; looking inside shows that the thrust results from all the unbalanced momentum and pressure forces created within the engine itself. These forces, some forwards and some rearwards, are across all the internal parts, both stationary and rotating, such as ducts, compressors, etc., which are in the primary gas flow which flows through the engine from front to rear.
Transferring thrust to the aircraft
The engine thrust acts along the engine centerline. The aircraft "holds" the engine on the outer casing of the engine at some distance from the engine centerline (at the engine mounts). This arrangement causes the engine casing to bend (known as backbone bending) and the round rotor casings to distort (ovalization). Distortion of the engine structure has to be controlled with suitable mount locations to maintain acceptable rotor and seal clearances and prevent rubbing. A well-publicized example of excessive structural deformation occurred with the original Pratt & Whitney JT9D engine installation in the Boeing 747 aircraft. The engine mounting arrangement had to be revised with the addition of an extra thrust frame to reduce the casing deflections to an acceptable amount.
We see in this 3,000 lbf jet engine (image from Flight), each combustor has a net forward force of 50 lbf (difference between flame tube and outer casing). Having 16 combustors yields 800 lbf forward thrust along the centerline.
Other parts are treated the same way. Although I have to admit some are more straight forward than the other.