In the EMB-145 we could use the wipers below 170 KIAS. Wipers are really only useful on or near the ground, so this was not a limitation that really mattered. Our windscreen wasn't the best at deflecting rain, so in heavy precip we would use them inside the FAF when looking for lights/the runway and during taxi to the gate. On departure we would use them in heavy precip to taxi and takeoff, turning them off in the after takeoff flow.
Other airplanes, as Lnafziger points out have better flow characteristics over the windscreen or blown air and are not equipped with wipers.
In any airplane, the wipers are only potentially useful for ground ops, takeoffs and landings and serve no purpose at altitude.
In addition to the wipers, we were also equipped with an electric defroster to keep the windscreen free of fog and ice, and this was used during the descent from cruise to landing.