Study of countless aerodynamic questions and answers on this site has reshaped my understanding of both lift and and induced drag.
Questions like this: How does an aircraft form wake turbulence? have gone a long way to redirecting understanding about how induced drag works as well as what the wingtip vortices are, and most importantly, are not.
Study of the Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators text shows the various lift distribution and therefore stalling profiles of each wing planform.
Further reading will show the second attached image.
The ANA's explanation for why a rectangular wing stalls at the root first can be summed up as such: The rectangular wing planform has a strong wingtip vortex, this vortex causes strong downwash locally at the wing tip, and this downwash causes a relatively large induced angle of attack that culminates in the wing tip sections flying at a lower angle of attack than the rest of the wing, even without any washout.
My confusion stems from how extra downwash can be created at the wingtip. Assuming the wing has no washout / twist, the coefficient of lift near the wingtip is lower than near the root, as is shown by the first image. If the lift coefficient is lower at the wingtip, how can the wing tip create more downwash than at the root?
Further contributing to this confusion is This question relating to elliptical wings. Peter's answer begins by stating that circulation (analogous to lift), can be interpreted as local lift coefficient times local chord.
How do these seemingly interfering explanations relate? Is there truly more downwash near the wingtip of a rectangular wing? Why does a rectangular wing have a lower lift coefficient at the tip than near the root? What about the shape of an "elliptical" wing allows a continuous lift coefficient to develop across the entire span?