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From what I've learned, the reading comes from

  1. an angle of attack sensor and a slip angle sensor. Let's call the readings $\hat\alpha$ and $\hat\beta$ respectively. These are of either the weathervane type or the differential pressure type.
  2. airspeed sensor, i.e. a pitot tube. This probe measures the total and static pressure $\hat p_\text{total}$ and $\hat p_\text{static}$, and the airspeed $\hat u$ is obtained from them.

Here's the catch: in real flight, the measured angles $\hat\alpha$ and $\hat\beta$ may depend on not only the true values $\alpha$ and $\beta$ but also other factors which include true airspeed $u$, and the measured airspeed $\hat u$ may depend on $\alpha$ and $\beta$ too. How is this problem solved? How are these sensors calibrated? Are they tested in a wind tunnel where every possible combination of $(\alpha,\beta,u)$ is given to produce $(\hat\alpha,\hat\beta,\hat u)$ and form a lookup table?

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When the manufacturer builds a plane, they make a table with correction of readings according to altitude and position of the sensor

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They use test flights.

They attach more instruments to the plane and move them outside the influence of the planes own turbulence.

From the known good values of these test instruments they can calibrate the actual instruments.

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    $\begingroup$ The final calibration is done through test flights, and before the first flight the calibration is based on CFD, and possibly wind tunnel tests (depending on the complexity and the budget of the aircraft under development). You may want to expand the answer. $\endgroup$ – Gürkan Çetin Feb 1 at 17:54

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