Federico
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It's the same thing, it changes only the point of view, see Newton's third law: for each action there is an equal and opposite reaction, i.e. to create thrust, the engine has to push air backwards. ...

The optimal speed of the aircraft is set by the manufacturer. isn't the cost directly proportional to speed? No, any speed above or below the optimal one will lead to sub-optimal performance of ...

As far as I know, there is no directive on which language to use. You have guidelines on how to test and certify software, but as far as these guidelines are concerned, no language is preferred, it is ...

From second-hand experience (I can say I am really close with a Tornado pilot), the Tornado has a compressor stage airbleed that directs some cold air directly in the cockpit. He would describe it as ...

For the landing is quite easy. Airliners usually approach an airport descending along $3^\circ$ slopes. This means that they will be 300m AGL approximately 5.7km before the runway threshold, and they ...

The first "circle" is a holding pattern. We discussed those here. In particular, it seems that you were on hold at VINIL or VEPLI, according to the approach charts (page 5 of the PDF). The second one ...

That is not simply an E4, but a "B" variant. The hump houses a SHF antenna. (Source) December 1979 a fourth aircraft (75-0125) was added. This aircraft was fitted with the distinctive “Hump” on the ...

It is an historical name. The first polars were drawn by Otto Lilienthal in polar coordinates. Here (sorry, German link) we find an example:

I don't have an answer for the timings (I personally don't think that's publicly available information), but I can answer this is the delay noticeable by pilots? as I have some direct experience, ...

The problem of the picture you are looking at is that both the actual and the apparent forces are shown. The real force is the centripetal one (that in turn is only the horizontal component of the ...

Drag has little to nothing to do with it. The primary reason why the fuselage is circular (or elliptical) shaped is that the cabin is pressurised. This means that, mostly during cruise, the interior ...

You cannot "switch off" a stage of a turbine engine. As seen elsewhere jet engines are a single block mechanically locked together: all the stages (compressor AND turbine) connected to the same shaft....

From top to bottom: main gear : whether there is weight-on-wheel not [scale on the left, in blue: "air/gnd"] (thanks to DeltaLima for pointing this out) VHF1 : probably if there was ...

I have found only the description of this pattern with experimental graphs. That's because that is the best way to have detailed and precise data: you either simulate (e.g., with Nastran-Patran or ...

Why do people have to worry about CG? Because the manufacturer has designed the aircraft following certain criteria, and one of those is where the CG will be during flight. If the CG is outside that ...

It is a Tu-128. In particular it seems to be the "UT" (training) variant: Image source Full-scale production of the aircraft began in 1966, with 188 Tu-128s built to 1970, that total apparently ...

Any aircraft can land without those devices. I would say that the Gimli Glider is a nice example, with no power it could not extend its flaps/slats. They are used, as @ratchetfreak notes in the ...

Assuming we are speaking of axial compressors/turbines Compressor blades are generally thin and straight, and resemble a tiny rectangular wing with low camber thickness. Image source Turbine blades ...

There it says "optimum rotational speed". Is that the speed of the compressor? The speed of the fan? Both. Each has its own optimal speed (that is not the same) and the gear allows them to work at ...

The key piece of information here is the "Angular Resolution" of the naked eye. Is called in this way because the key parameter is the perceived angle between two points when looking at them. Let's ...

For simulators you have Part 60 of CFR 14 For airborne software the FAA has published AC 20-115, but the main document that refers to is the FAA/EASA RTCA DO-178/ED-12 currently at the "C" version: ...

The answer to Is it possible to hack an airplane while it's moving? is "theoretically yes, movement has no effect on a plane hackability". How can someone "touch" a moving airplane, have the ...

I don't understand how it computed range/position to the target and then calculated how much lead is needed. Reading the Wikipedia article you linked, it didn't, but both assertions are unsourced. ...

What is relevant is not the melting point, but the temperature at which the material loses its mechanical properties (such as stiffness or elasticity). The epoxy (the material keeping together the ...

How does a flat wing generate any lift if both sides have the same air pressure? The two sides do not have the same pressure. A flat plane can still produce lift (think of putting a plate out of the ...

Multi-aisle commercial aircraft adopt a multi-door boarding strategy rather than a single-huge door (see the A380 or the B747, both use two doors). This helps under the structural viewpoint: the ...

No, you need the True AirSpeed (TAS). The Indicated AirSpeed is not a realiable measure of it, since it is not even calibrated against the instrument mounting position and is not intended to measure ...

Please meet the ceiling altitude. Above this altitude the aircraft cannot fly fast enough to generate enough lift to stay aloft. This is affected by: weight (more weight needs more lift) engine ...