Hot answers tagged

33

The modern control yoke is directly derived from the "joystick" control that became standard on aircraft in the days when Glenn Curtiss personally ran the company that was the main competitor to the Wright brothers. After inventing aileron control (the Wrights were still using wing warping at the time -- this was before 1910), Curtiss needed a way to ...


22

It's just a bad idea Sean. Believe me if you've done any flying you would NOT like a control column that you have to shove sideways, or a twisty yoke, for rudder as well as roll and pitch. Your feet are sitting there doing nothing anyway. And you need to be able to control it one handed so you can work the thrust levers or power levers or throttles with ...


21

It works in a half-assed way but the key word is half-assed. You'll always be skidding around the sky since sideslip is required to obtain and maintain any rolling moment. Control response can be somewhat laggy, since you have to induce a skid and wait for the roll, depending on how much dihedral you have. So to have something approaching snappy control ...


18

The key thing missing in your interpretation is that the order is important. Applying the same roll, pitch and yaw angles in a different order will result in a different orientation (mathematically this is because rotation matrices do not commute). The correct order is: Yaw (for an airplane this is typically called the heading) Pitch Roll For any given ...


15

It is a combination of several effects: Aeroelasticity: With the higher forces at high speed, the structure deforms such that the effective flow angle at the tail surface is reduced. The supersonic lift curve slope of the tail surface decreases with Mach while that of the fuselage stays roughly constant, so with higher Mach the tail contribution to ...


12

Sideslip angle is commonly notated as β (see e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slip_(aerodynamics)).


10

Such designs do not work well when the rudder is required other than during turns. A typical situation would be the use of rudder to counter the p-factor (asymmetric turning tendency) on propeller aircraft. After take-off, one might need to apply a significant amount of rudder during climb at high-power and high-AOA. It would be very inconvenient to have ...


9

What are the exact meanings of roll, pitch and yaw? It depends somewhat on whether you are speaking from a pilot's point of view or from an engineer's point of view. Your reference to yaw, pitch, and roll ANGLES is indicates you are looking at the situation from an engineering point of view. A pilot would tend to think more in terms of yaw, pitch, and ...


8

(Source) Here's a representative image of the variation in lift coefficient with respect to angle of attack. The same airfoil is considered in a "clean" configuration, with a deflected flap, and then with both flap and slat (you can ignore the last, which is the uppermost example). You can see that, with deflected flap (or, shall we say, rudder) the lift ...


8

Roll, pitch, and yaw have two different meanings. They can refer to either Euler angles, which describe the attitude (orientation) of an aircraft, or ways that an aircraft can rotate. Euler angles The attitude of an aircraft can be described by three angles: heading, pitch, and bank angle (sometimes called roll angle). The heading $\psi$ (psi, sometimes ...


8

When you turn by yawing you are skidding the airplane to point the nose to the side, to offset the trust vector to move the plane sideways as it's going forward. The rate of turn you can achieve this way is very low and there is a massive drag of being in a skid as you slither around like a car on ice with the fuselage side presented to the airstream. To ...


7

There is only one other such angle. It is indeed the sideslip one, and its standard greek letter is $\beta$ (beta)


7

Rudder only limits banking as described very well by John K, and might be a distorted view of increased safety by helping the pilot to not become disorientated. It may also be an attempt to not over stress the structure or prevent a stall in a high G turn. After considering John K's comment it appears to me this is more a marketing or cost savings stunt, ...


6

Increasing thrust on the right engine only will make the aircraft yaw and then roll to the left. The thrust does generate a yawing moment to the left, but the secondary effect of yaw is roll. In simplistic terms, a yaw to the left means that the right wing not only momentarily moves through the air faster than the left, but more of the wing is exposed to ...


6

The attitude angles are explained in this wikipedia page, but it seems your confusion stems from the fact that they can present a singularity. Each set of unique Euler angles, outside of the gimbal lock state, represent a unique attitude. In the singularity state, however: The angles α, β and γ are uniquely determined except for the singular case that ...


5

Both of your designs would be impossible to use with one hand, which would make them impractical to use, since you need a free hand with which to manipulate other cockpit controls. The first design (move the entire yoke left and right in order to yaw) is less bad, in that it's still possible to use one-handed as long as the yoke is nearly horizontal (...


5

Roll, pitch and yaw are referred to in one word as the attitude.


5

A constant turn requires a constant centripetal force, i.e. perpendicular to the direction of motion. This force has to be generated aerodynamically (unless rocket engines are used). An aerodynamically generated force is always accompanied by induced drag - even if the force is generated by the fuselage (due to sideslip) instead of a traditional airfoil. ...


5

Yes. For deliberate cross control situations, adverse yaw helps. This means during side slip or forward slip maneuvers, where adverse yaw means less rudder is required to keep the nose pointed in the opposite direction to the lowered wing. If you are in a glider or an old classic aircraft with lots of natural adverse yaw, if you lower a wing without any ...


4

There are a few ways that yaw control is achieved. The easiest and the first to be successfully used would be to have cables from rudder pedals on each side of the rudder to deflect the control surface and control yaw. Airplane Flying Handbook pg 2-1 The first application to control yaw unsuccessfully was the development of gears and linkages that will ...


4

I have some tens of hours flight experience with radio control aircraft that fly this way -- throttle, elevator, and rudder. How well it works depends very much on how much rudder authority you have, and how much dihedral. I have seen and flown aerobatics with these no-aileron aircraft, including prolonged, controlled inverted flight (tricky, because yaw-...


4

There are a bunch of setups for disabled pilots where everything is on the yoke, including pitch, roll, yaw, and throttle. The Sky Arrow LSA has a hands only configuration as a purchase option (functions split between hands). The main thing for a non-disabled pilot is it seems a shame to waste the feet by not having them ...


4

Rate of turn is easy to define: it is the rate at which the direction of aircraft motion changes with respect to the ground (rate of change of track). If the aircraft is not slipping and there is no change in wind, then it is equivalent to the rate of change of heading. Yaw rate, on the other hand, is slightly messier. Technically, yaw rate of the rate of ...


4

Because: Here you see a fuselage viewed from above. The horizontal line at the right end of the ellipse is the tailfin. On top is a subsonic plane, and at the bottom is a supersonic one. The thin lines are pressure, the thick ones are forces, and the arrows show flow direction and magnitude. As you can see, at subsonic speeds suction is more dominant, ...


3

You are correct. On all Airbus FBW aircraft, the rudder pedals normally control the sideslip angle, beta. See this presentation for a source, slides 3, 5-6. As a note, on pre-A345/A346 models, the rudder pedals are mechanically connected to the rudder. However, the FBW system adds in an additional input, via the yaw damper servos, to drive the rudder to the ...


3

In case of F-35, the yaw control during hover (and transition to forward flight) is provided by the Three-bearing swivel module (3BSM), which forma a part of the Rolls Royce Lift System. As Lokheed Martin notes: Two roll ducts supplied by engine fan air provide roll control. Yaw control is through swivel nozzle yaw. Pitch control is effected via Lift Fan/...


3

Will the aircraft compensate for constant pilot rudder input? No. It seems you're asking if a pilot can deliberately sideslip an A320 while in normal law (Gimli Glider style). The answer is yes. The normal law won't fight back. The question has been asked years ago on pprune.org, where one person replied: Great question....one that is misunderstood by many.....


3

Those flying wings even before fly-by-wire (FBW) came along are controlled in the yaw axis by asymmetrically deploying the wing-tip mounted split brakes.* (Source) With the engines closer to the centerline the effect of one engine inoperative (OEI) is not as pronounced as on jet-liners with the engines far out on the wings. Even with the lack of a vertical ...


3

Pitch, roll and yaw are rotation angles relative to the earth gravitational field. In order to fully describe the state of an unrestrained rigid body in space, there are six Degrees of Freedom required. This site states it as follows: 4.1.2 Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body in Space An unrestrained rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom: three ...


3

The figure of 35% might be ideal for a rudder on GA aircraft with decent effectiveness and high enough control forces so a good control feel is achieved. Generally, a rudder on a vertical tail is like a flap on a wing. It changes both camber and incidence of the vertical when deflected, thus helping the pilot to adjust the lateral lift force acting on the ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible