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Commercial jets are special because they change airfoil shape over span quite dramatically to reduce the effects of sweep on local lift. Also, the lift force on a backward swept wing causes it to twist, so washout in flight is several degrees higher than on the ground. In order to compensate for the much higher zero-lift angle of attack of the modified root ...


For an A310 we start from the attack of the engines with an angle of attack of the profile of 3 degrees, and we arrive at the wing tip to -3 degrees. In general along the wing the twist angle is around 2-3 degrees, it is near the tip that changes and arrive until a negative value.

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