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Regarding the article: You say that your understanding is that the article says that wings on an airplane basically create lift by "pushing" air down. This statement is incorrect to the extent that this implies that lift is created only by the bottom of the wing. (I am not 100% sure that is what the article is saying since it merely states that &...


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Yes it can be fixed by replacing the stabilizers and wings which just bolt on. Replacements are readily available in the used parts market for 152s. Generally with metal that's been subject to a single potential overload, if it's not permanently deformed, it's fine. So the only repairs required are to things that are damaged. You would certainly want to do ...


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Sometimes a thick airfoil trailing edge can even reduce drag - witness US Patent 4858852A by McDonnell Douglas Corp. However, this applies to a supercritical airfoil flying at much higher Reynolds and (most likely) Mach numbers than what you have in mind. A similar experience was already made 40 years earlier by Northrop when they could improve the flight ...


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They are rivet ends. The paint seems to have a hard time sticking to those, not an uncommon sight on older planes. Thanks to Darrel Hoffman's comment, I did some digging: The phenomenon is known as rivet rash. “Rivet rash” refers to selective loss of paint from aluminum rivet heads on in-service aircraft, as shown in Figures 1 and 2 and 3. Airlines are ...


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Induced drag is the drag created by anything that's creating lift, such as a wing. It's caused by the high pressure air underneath the wing flowing around the end of the wing into the low pressure zone above it. This creates a vortex that in turn creates drag on the wing. The formula for the coefficient of drag is $$C_{di} = \frac{C_l^2}{\pi A e}$$ where $...


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The best way is to assume the airfoil symmetric (since the location of the shear center in the chord is more important) for a preliminary phase; It will help a lot. Also, don't forget that idealization is a very rough estimate of the stress analysis of a wing structure or fuselage. It helps, however, with initial pre-sizing.


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