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72

We could start with the Tupolev ANT-20 with its rather daring forward-facing passenger gallery. [edit - the prime seat right at the front in the gallery was for the navigator and his equipment.] source Like the Tupolev, most examples are inter-war. Here is the moderately successful Latécoère 521 being assembled showing its gallery beneath the cockpit [edit ...


71

A pressurized fuselage needs rounded corners at all cut-outs to avoid the accumulation of stress in corners. If the corners were not rounded, the fuselage skin would need to be locally reinforced, or it would begin to crack there soon. This was learned the hard way by de Havilland, when their Comet jet airliner began to plunge out of the sky for unknown ...


56

Note that the windows are a safety feature: You need to see outside in case of emergency, e.g. to know which side of the plane is surrounded by flames, or how deep in the water you are. This is actually the reason why the inner lighting matches the outside conditions for take-off and landing and the window shades have to be open. Even worse, the potential ...


55

Because the pitch of the frames is not related to the pitch of the seats. The windows placement have to cut through as few frames as possible. You can see it in the following picture, noting that frames are "highlighted" by the vertical riveting Image source It is even more evident in the picture contained in this answer on UX.SE: Because the aircraft is ...


51

(flightglobal.com) You'll need to zoom above 100% to read the legend, but up there it's not empty. There's the crew rest area (5), where the pilots rest for example, and it is easily accessible from the cockpit (see below for how it interacts with the upper deck). There is also an electronics bay (29), and toilets (12). Note that the cockpit is not on the ...


46

Thin-film interference Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light. It's the same mechanism behind your oil example. The thin film in this case is the heating coating applied to the windshield, ...


45

Stress Distribution / Stress Concentration The sharper you make a corner, the higher the stress will be. This is undesirable since it will increase the stress on the material and can promote fatigue which can lead to structural failure down the road. You can avoid this problem by having a greater curve radius. This does not only apply to windows, but cabin/...


38

The Concorde had 2 discrete windshields for different stages of flight. During subsonic flight (mainly take off and landing) the nose was drooped and the inner windshield was exposed. For supersonic flight the Concorde would raise its drop nose which also contained an outer windshield that would cover the inner windows. This outer windshield was made of ...


38

If you use a grease pencil, it rubs off easily from glass So you can save paper, not have to look down or hunt for the info, it won't fall on the floor, and if it's written in the center of the windshield, both pilots can see it


37

Problem #1: What gets displayed on the screen? While I'm aware of Emirates' recent 'virtual windows,' there is a big problem with this idea in general: what should actually be displayed there depends on the location of the viewer relative to the window! This is not an easy problem to solve - and it's effectively impossible to solve for multiple viewers ...


37

Boeing 747 I'm a little surprised to not already see the Queen of the Skies here. If 'partially forward' counts, the first several windows on each side of the lower deck of the 747 are angled partially forward. The angle is enough that passengers seated in the first row or so can indeed see directly in front of the aircraft. KLM 747-400 Front View - Image ...


34

The opening cockpit windows do serve some purpose, like providing an additional means of evacuation during an emergency.* There have been instances where the crew had used the cockpit windows to escape during hijackings. There are other purposes like assisting in crew inspection, signaling ground crew, additional ventilation, smoke egress etc (It can also ...


34

Emirates Airlines have recently launched their new First Class with a similar concept. It is only available in First Class and I doubt it has much to do with the structural implications as of now, but that could change if the idea catches on. The virtual windows are a feature on the otherwise windowless cabin suites along the middle aisle, and project a ...


34

That would definitely be an appealing feature for passengers but the airframe of the A380 at its forehead is too curved to be able to fit a viewing area for passengers. Furthermore, the design and operational (aerodynamic) costs associated with structuring an aircraft to be able to fit a cockpit and a forward viewing area, along with the cost of another ...


32

Wikipedia answers this on the Boeing 737 page: Most 737 cockpits are equipped with "eyebrow windows" positioned above the main glareshield. Eyebrow windows were a feature of the original 707 and 727. They allowed for greater visibility in turns, and offered better sky views if navigating by stars. With modern avionics, they became redundant, and ...


30

You're right. The aft no. 3 fixed window has a reusable retainer with 2 rows of fasteners- one for holding the window glass and another for attaching to the fuselage, as can be seen in this PPG document- this is the two rows of fasteners in the image. A320 aft window, image from Cockpit Windows Technical Data from PPG Aerospace My guess is that there was ...


29

Was it anything to be concerned No Should I have brought it to the notice of the airline crew? Yes, but not because it is a safety issue. Tell them so they can deal with it to give the next passenger a nicer experience. What is happening is no different than a glass of ice water sitting on your kitchen counter. The warmer side of the glass (the outside)...


29

I'm not sure about other countries, but in the USA there is no FAA requirement mandating that the window shades be open for takeoff and landing. Individual airlines vary in their procedures, with some requiring them to be open while others do not. This is set by company policy, presumably set by management because they decided that there was/was not a ...


28

In the early years of the jet age, which followed closely on the introduction of pressurized hulls, there was much fear of stresses specifically in the area of the window openings due to the loss of two DeHavilland Comets. Subsequent Comet hulls had different shaped, rounded, smaller windows and that trend continued in other pressurized, typically jet-...


28

It is because of the carbon fibre. This is the same reason that the 787 has bigger passenger windows. Here you can find a link explaining the polarized windows on the 787. Because of its higher tensile strength, you can have bigger windows. Windows are considered weak points in the fuselage where there is no structural reinforcement. This means that the ...


28

To reduce damage in case of a bird strike. The restriction is not only for the 737-100 and -200 models, the 737 NG QRH says: WINDOW HEAT OFF In flight: WINDOWS HEAT switch (affected window) ..... OFF Limit airspeed to 250 knots maximum below 10,000 feet. Pull both WINDSHIELD AIR controls. This vents conditioned air to the inside of ...


27

Generally aircraft windows are made of what we colloquially call "plexiglass" of some kind (Lexan polycarbonate is common in light General Aviation aircraft, acrylic plastics are also used). This material is light, relatively strong (not shatter-proof, but it'll take a moderate beating) and has decent optical properties. Its major drawback is "crazing" -- ...


25

Aircraft windows are multiple layers thick. The side facing the passengers is just a plastic sheet, since they wouldn't want the passengers scratching up the actual expensive glass window. Beyond the inner pane there are two actual structural window panes. The outer one is normally the one bearing the load, while the inner one serves as a backup. However, ...


25

There are a few factors involved in this and you should check out this answer that touches on window size (same issue really). For what its worth the ceiling is prime real estate on an aircraft. Modern airliners have the over head baggage compartments there (which provide a remarkable amount of space) The area is also used to run cabling (electronics mostly ...


25

Hmmm, opening the window at 30.000ft, where the air temperature is about -40°C/-40°F, air speed is extreme, you can't survive without oxygen, and you want to put your arm outside??? Well, if you really do, you'll get a sunburn quite fast. I got a sun burn within an hour in an altitude of 3500m / 12000ft, though I was tanned due to two weeks at the beach. ...


25

The first trick to make windshields stronger is used also in aerodynamics: Sweep reduces the effects of speed. Giving the windshield an inclination both back- and sideways will reduce the impact energy of whatever hits it in flight direction. X-15 carried by a B-52 (picture source). Note the angled windows: They were oriented at 75° to the air stream, so an ...


24

It did! You can see a bit of it here or in the reflection here And here it is from the exterior


24

Short answer: These are the three temperature sensors to control the temperature of the heating film used for anti icing and defogging of the windscreen panels. Three sensors are already used on the A330 and A340. From A-350 Technical Training Manual: Windows Anti Icing/Defogging Function, Description and Interfaces The windows anti icing/defogging ...


23

Another two examples from the Farman Aviation Works, purveyors of the world's ugliest aircraft. Unlike the ANT-20 (the gallery primarily for the navigator), the Caproni (never operational) and the Junkers (where the wing pods are separate from the passenger compartment), the Farman F.120 and the F.60 "Goliath" were designed with the full gallery experience ...


22

Because airliners skimp on spacing and steal your leg room to squeeze in another row of seats. So why not design the plane with the eventual seat spacing in mind? Airliners can decide their own spacing so there would always be planes where they won't match up. Also there has to be a certain amount of hull to keep the strength needed for the fuselage to ...


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