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42 votes

Can someone explain the damage distribution on this aircraft that flew through a hailstorm?

Although the exterior of a jet airliner may just look like uniform aluminum with windows, the construction is actually much different than the outward appearance suggests. The front of modern jet ...
End Antisemitic Hate's user avatar
27 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

Horrible example of journalism aside, any risk would come from clear air turbulence at the edges of the jet stream and the slower moving air. In other words, it isn't the top speed of the air relative ...
Michael Hall's user avatar
  • 26.9k
18 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

Yes there are hazards, and you do want a captain who understands them and takes precautions. However anybody with an Airline Transport Licence would be expected to know about them, and the airline ...
John K's user avatar
  • 132k
17 votes

What is the least turbulent altitude under 10,000 feet ASL that planes usually fly?

There are 3 main sources of turbulence: Mechanical, from air flowing over the surface, like river rapids. Convective from solar heating of the surface (discounting other surface heat sources which ...
John K's user avatar
  • 132k
16 votes

Can someone explain the damage distribution on this aircraft that flew through a hailstorm?

The windscreen. As you can see from the photo, hailstones struck the forward windows almost perpendicularly, and the side windows almost parallel. The window material is layers of glass and plastic, ...
A. I. Breveleri's user avatar
14 votes
Accepted

How to find altimeter settings for higher altitudes?

There's no such thing as an "altimeter setting for a given altitude." You use the same altimeter setting all the way up to the transition altitude (18000 feet in the US, but it depends where ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 16k
12 votes

Can someone explain the damage distribution on this aircraft that flew through a hailstorm?

Just to add something to the other answers: What it might have happened to the radome is that it has been damaged enough to loose its structural integrity and the missing piece(s) has just flown away. ...
sophit's user avatar
  • 13.8k
8 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

One common way to measure accident rates is in Hours Flown per Incident. Typical accident rates in General Aviation are about 4.5 incidents per 100,000 flight hours. I cannot find a reliable source ...
abelenky's user avatar
  • 30.7k
7 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

If you can manage to consistently fly with a strong tail wind, then you can fit more flights in your schedule. This increases the number of takeoffs, landings, and ground movements. Most of the (...
Anonymous Physicist's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Is there a relationship between ocean tide and turbulence?

No. In places such as the English Channel where tides cause strong tidal currents, these can increase wind by as much as 1.5 m/s, or 3.5 mph (Fig. 4 of Renault & Marchesiello, "Ocean tides ...
Camille Goudeseune's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Is ISA deviation always zero at the stratosphere?

ISA Model In the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model, the temperature at sea level is set at 15°C and decreases at a lapse rate of 2°C per 1,000 feet. This lapse rate is maintained up to ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

What is the least turbulent altitude under 10,000 feet ASL that planes usually fly?

Upon further research I found a useful article which references an NCAR study and answers this question. "Considering both in-cloud and out-of-cloud turbulence, flights between 8,000 and 12,000 ...
Gabe's user avatar
  • 3,337
6 votes
Accepted

How can I determine the level of clouds of operational significance in METAR?

Codes used: NSC: Nil significant cloud CAVOK: Ceiling and visibility ok BRK: Broken (5 to 7 ...
mins's user avatar
  • 74.8k
5 votes

What is the least turbulent altitude under 10,000 feet ASL that planes usually fly?

Since turbulence is many times caused by terrain, one might say 9999 feet. However, turbulence can also be caused by passing fronts. This is why METARs list wind speed and direction at various ...
Robert DiGiovanni's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

What exactly is the difference between RA, SHRA and TSRA in METAR and TAF reports?

Short answer: RA: Moderate rain TSRA: Thunderstorm with rain SHRA: Shower(s) of rain How ...
mins's user avatar
  • 74.8k
5 votes

How to find altimeter settings for higher altitudes?

Use the current altimeter setting at a surface airport within 100 NM of your location and that will be accurate enough for cruise calculations. Here is the reasoning behind this. The airplane is ...
wbeard52's user avatar
  • 12.7k
4 votes

How do IFR flights in IMC in Class G airspace not collide?

Ideally, all aircraft will be giving position reports on CTAF (which does exist for en route in some places) and will self-deconflict. Where CTAF does not exist, or if pilots choose not to use it, ...
StephenS's user avatar
  • 27.7k
4 votes

What weather conditions have been tested with a wind tunnel?

Yes, icing tunnels can run at very cold temperatures and can introduce water vapor in quantities sufficient to represent humidity, clouds, and precipitation. Wind tunnels often control pressure and ...
Rob McDonald's user avatar
  • 13.2k
3 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

Small consequence would be arriving with more fuel on board than expected, leading to a slightly higher landing weight. This would increase the consequences of any poor landing, by having more ...
Criggie's user avatar
  • 1,131
3 votes

What is the least turbulent altitude under 10,000 feet ASL that planes usually fly?

In the daytime, most turbulence in flattish terrain comes from atmospheric convection in the atmospheric boundary layer. The convective boundary layer can be cloud-free or cloud-topped (cumulus or ...
Vladimir F Героям слава's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

What’s the math on finding your Freezing level?

Here's how you can figure out the formula. You know that the temperature drops $2^\circ$ per thousand feet. You can represent this mathematically as: $$ \text{Temperature} = \text{Surface Temperature} ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 16k
2 votes

How can I get prior days weather information?

You can get past weather for particular weather reporting stations from the National Weather Service. The help page has several different options, including how to obtain certified weather (used in ...
RetiredATC's user avatar
  • 1,954
2 votes

What exactly is the difference between RA, SHRA and TSRA in METAR and TAF reports?

TS stands for thunderstorms, so TSRA means rain associated with thunderstorms. RA means steady and continuous rain. SHRA means rain showers. Showers stop and start abruptly and can vary in intensity.
Chris's user avatar
  • 16k
2 votes

Are solar / geomagnetic storms real risks for commercial aviation?

Minor, typical solar flares do not pose a significant risk to aviation. Flight planning services, such as LIDO, do not typically include specific information on solar flares or solar activity. ...
tedioustortoise's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

What relationships exist between pressure systems and fronts?

So, the number one key to understanding weather is that it is just stupidly, immensely complicated. Looking at a surface analysis tells me nothing about upper air goings-on, and vice versa. So most of ...
jog875's user avatar
  • 36
2 votes

What relationships exist between pressure systems and fronts?

The front is what gives birth to the frontal depressions in the first place. These depressions contain their own portions of the front; that portion then moves along with the circulation in the ...
Aditya Sharma's user avatar
2 votes

Are flights in fast jet streams more dangerous?

TL/DR It is more dangerous because of the area of high turbulence around the jet stream, but as long as the passengers/crew are properly strapped in when entering/exiting the jet stream the risks are ...
Questor's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
Accepted

What is a squall line and how it is created?

Thunderstorms can be associated with frontal weather movements, or can just form randomly away from frontal action by local convective activity. A squall line is an array of thunderstorms triggered by ...
John K's user avatar
  • 132k
1 vote

What is a squall line and how it is created?

Squall lines are just as you say, bands of thunderstorms moving in the same general direction. They are formed by convective activity, that is the sun heating the earth, which heats moist air which ...
GdD's user avatar
  • 54k
1 vote

What’s the math on finding your Freezing level?

According to the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), temperature drops of 0.002°C per ft (0.0065°C per m) till a height of 36'000 ft (11'000 m). Knowing the temperature at SFC, the relevant math ...
sophit's user avatar
  • 13.8k

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