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2

Sole means it is the only system, primary implies there is a secondary or even tertiary system, and supplemental means it supplements another system.


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In reference to the OP’s original question about VOR and NDB procedures: Yes for a Missed Approach Segment or Hold. & NO for a Final Approach Segment WITH LATERAL GUIDANCE. The answer as it pertains to the final approach segment is NO if the Navaid is providing lateral guidance. And, you do not have to monitor the underlying Navaid EXCEPT for ...


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My understanding was that a VOR was not a series of different signals being sent out in narrow cone shapes. I understood VORs to be just a few signals being sent out to include the station identifier, an optional voice signal, a reference signal, and a variable phase signal, as well as some other discrete signals. The navigation part is done by sending out ...


3

Think of an NDB as dropping a small pebble in an otherwise still/static mass of water like a lake. It generates ripples that expand radially from the point in which you dropped the pebble, in the shape of a circle. If you see the ripples, by judging in which direction they move, you can determine where they come from and all you know is that if you follow ...


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To add to @quiet flyer's answer, the practical result is: With Non Directional you only know the radio aid's bearing from the aircraft's longitudinal axis and not the aid's geographic orientation to the aircraft's position (until you mentally work it out). With Omnidirectional, you only know the aircraft's geographic orientation to the radio aid's ...


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"Omnidirectional" may not be the most descriptive word for the actual radio signal emitted by a VOR, as contrasted with the signal from a NDB. We could note that a VOR and a NDB actually both share the characteristic of broadcasting in all directions, as opposed to the narrow beam emitted by a landing approach aid, or the characteristic pattern emitted by ...


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