77

I think it is quite unfair to paint the NTSB investigators as villains just for the dramatic effect when nothing of the sort happened in real life. It is the job of the NTSB to investigate all possible reasons for the accident. It includes pilot error among other things. They were doing precisely that in the actual investigation. Among other things, the ...


44

You can't, because it is in fact forbidden to release CVR audio under US law. From the NTSB: The CVR recordings are treated differently than the other factual information obtained in an accident investigation. Due to the highly sensitive nature of the verbal communications inside the cockpit, Congress has required that the Safety Board not release any ...


39

Disabling the protections can technically be achieved. I say technically because there is not one scenario that Airbus has envisioned that would require the pilots to deliberately go into direct-law. The imposed limit in the question is something called alpha-protection -- a protection against pulling back too much that the plane stalls. Stalling is bad. ...


37

No, they are not. The NTSB simply investigates accidents to determine the root causes of the accident and to make recommendations as to how to improve aviation safety. It has no bias nor does it play favorites. The NTSB investigation of US Airways flight 1549 was the most unrealistic element of the Sully movie. Director Clint Eastwood portrays The NTSB ...


33

The NTSB report is a great resource when looking for information about an incident like this. There is an Engine Dual Failure Checklist discussed starting in section 1.17.1.2 of the report. This includes steps to attempt restarting the engines, and further steps depending on whether or not the engines can be started, and finally steps to help prepare for a ...


27

Because they were told to evacuate there, if you take a look at the official audio transcript from the accident: place both arms through the straps and hug it to your chest. flight attendants are pointing out there are a total of eight exits on this aircraft, two door exits in front of the aircraft, four window exits over the wings, and two door ...


16

Per the accident report from the NTSB, only the four exit slides (two at the forward doors and two at the aft doors) could be used as rafts, as the aircraft was configured for extended overwater operations (EOW). Regulations required there to be enough capacity for all passengers if the largest raft was not usable. Each slide/raft was rated for 44 passengers,...


16

Computer limits can be overridden on an Airbus as a ‘last resort’, though I have serious doubts that would have helped with the landing on the Hudson incident. Granted, getting out of Normal Law is not SOP, or a normal procedure..but then again, why would it be? People complaining about the computer limits on flight controls, are similar to people ...


15

It's been several years since I worked at United's flight training center, but if my memory serves me, it is there in case the system is receiving input that the pilot wants to exclude. As was explained to me, an example of this would be the other pilot becoming incapacitated, with their body leaning against the sidestick. In this case, one would want to use ...


13

No. Federal law prohibits the NTSB from releasing any CVR recordings, and the NTSB notes that they are exempt from FOIA requests. The same law requires them to release a transcript, like the ones seen in accident reports, if the transcript is relevant to the accident or incident. See 49 U.S.C. § 1114(c): (1) The Board may not disclose publicly any part ...


10

You can't listen to it due to the regulation mentioned in Sanchises' answer, but you can find the transcripts. There is one here, for example.


9

You don't do full stall landings in airliners. You arrive over the threshold at reference speed (the full flaps approach speed), ease the thrust off (how soon depends on the airplane, but you need to be at idle before touchdown) and start to flare but only enough to reduce the sink rate to close to zero and then you tease the pitch to maintain a gentle sink ...


8

It's explained in the final report. Most definitely they asked him what he meant, as the transcript itself is: * * switch? "*" denoting unintelligible words by the transcribers. The first officer was referring to the cabin emergency notification switch, which provides a signal to the cabin crew members indicating that an emergency has occurred. To ...


8

There are hundreds of tests that need to be performed for certification of a turbine engine. The FAA requirements and tests are listed in CFR part 33 E and F. Amongst them are: Maximum static thrust tests Vibration tests Endurance tests Water ingestion test Hail ingestion test Ice cloud test Bird strike test A number of them can be seen in this video of ...


6

There are 2 philosophies in civil aircraft FBW systems... * Don't tell the pilot they're exceeding the limit, and don't let them exceed the limit. * Tell the pilot they're exceeding the limit, but then let them. As seems to be usual, Airbus and Boeing have differing points of view based upon their experience of working with pilots - guess which is which. ...


5

There are multiple various requirements, for instance: After "swallowing" a smallish goose (formally up to 3.65kg) the engine must still pull at least half of the thrust for at least 14 minutes, and must not become dangerous for the plane (no fire, no uncontained failure). After ingesting a flock of ducks (16 birds no more than 0.85kg each) the engine must ...


5

The priority button is not normally used when taking over controls from the other pilot. Even in Airbus the control hand over is done verbally. The pilot who wants the control says, 'I have controls' and the pilot who gives the control says, 'You have controls.' Or if the flying pilot wants to give the controls to the pilot monitoring, he/ she says, 'You ...


5

A prime reason for this is the fact that the Airbus sidesticks are not connected mechanically, unlike the center control columns of other aircraft. In the event of conflicting inputs from both pilots, such a condition would not be readily apparent. With mechanically connected columns, conflicting input is not possible, without both pilots being aware that ...


5

I'm not sure it exactly answers your question, but there is an excellent example of why this feature ought to always be used in an emergency situation. Air France Flight 447 was an Airbus A330, I'm not entirely certain if it had this feature (I assume so?) Anyway, it went into a stall somewhere near cruise altitude and the co-pilot, for some unknown reason,...


5

As far as I recall the priority button suppresses the other stick and autopilot. Since it is right under the thumb on the side-stick, that makes it quicker way to disconnect autopilot than navigating the other hand to the flight management panel. The overall idea is that when the pilot needs to make manual input quickly they simply push that button and it ...


5

Why there is no switch? Because having it could be dangerous. The purpose of the computerized system is to reduce pilot's workload. It's achieved by allowing him to pull the yoke all the way back and the computer would give him the highest safe AoA. Adding a switch would increase pilot workload, because he would have to make a very deliberate decision ...


4

Below 50ft radio altitude Airbus flight controls go to Flare mode. The key change there is that vertical control (stick front/back) changes from normal pitch rate close to conventional elevator movement. This means that while in normal flight, i.e. cruise, holding the stick back at a certain position you would see constant nose-up movement on a given rate. ...


4

The autopilot and autothrottle were both disengaged and, thanks to the quick thinking of the Pilot Flying to activate the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), the aircraft stayed in Normal Law. This assisted when ditching due to the transition at 50ft to Flare Mode that causes a pitch down attitude allowing the pilot to pull back with a constant pressure on his side ...


4

The control laws can be downgraded to alternate law, which removes the alpha protection. The QRH recommends this only in certain situations, and dual engine failure is not one of them. One place where this is recommended in the QRH is for an unreliable airspeed indication. Usually an unreliable airspeed will be recognized by the aircraft and it will ...


3

For the Airbus fly by wire system there are different so-called control laws which govern the behavior of the aircraft according to the input provided by the pilots. These control laws are determined automatically by the aircraft for different phases of the flight envelope. This is also the main difference in design philosophy between Boeing and Airbus. ...


1

The configuration of the A320 for ditching with no engines running is CONFIG 3. I don't know how familiar are you with the flap configurations on A320, so I will start from the beginning. The flap lever has five positions: 0,1,2,3 and FULL (two configurations correspond to position 1-> CONFIG 1 and CONFIG 1+F). In the CONFIG 3, which is the preferred method ...


1

The NTSB does so routinely find pilots at fault for virtually everything under the sun (with all other factors and actors only as "contributing") that when they don't, as in US1549, it's now a notable event. However, I don't think it's fair to call that hostility. Regulators and vendors have (at enormous cost) engineered virtually all safety problems out of ...


1

There is not much training for situations like that because they are very rare and the simulators cannot teach accurately what to expect when a plane touches down on water. The captain in this situation got almost everything right for a water landing, as he kept the nose up and wings level, he let the tail hit the water first slowing the plane down enough ...


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